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POVERTY AS A CHALLENGE

WHAT IS POVERTY ?
Poverty is about not having enough money to meet basic
needs including food, clothing and shelter. However,
poverty is more, much more than just not having enough
money.
The world bank describes poverty as:
“Poverty is hunger. Poverty is lack of shelter. Poverty is
being sick and not being able to see a doctor. Poverty is not
having access to school and not knowing how to read.
Poverty is not having a job, is fear for the future, living one
day at a time.”
TWO WAYS OF POVERTY
RELATIVE POVERTY ABSOLUTE POVERTY

 Under Relative poverty the  Absolute poverty refers to the


economic conditions of different measure of poverty , keeping in
regions or countries is compared. view the per capita intake of
The capita income and the calories and minimum level of
national income are the two consumption .
indicators of relative poverty.  Per capita income :
According to the UNO those
National income
countries are treated poor whose
per capita income is less than Population
US $725 per annum.
MEASUREMENT OF POVERTY
EXPENDIURE METHOD INCOME METHOD

 Under this the minimum food  This method is used by the


requirements for survival is government while distributing
estimated. food through PDS at the local
 The food value is converted into level.
calories.
 Under this a poverty line is
 The caloric value of food is then
fixed by the government.
converted into the money value
i.e. in rupees.  All the families whose total
 The total equivalent amount is income is less than the poverty
considered as the poverty line. line fixed by the government are
considered as BPL.
WHAT IS POVERTY LINE?
 Poverty line is the line which indicates the level of purchasing power
required to satisfy the minimum needs of a person. It represents the capacity
to satisfy the minimum level of human needs. The line divides the people
into 2 groups :
1. Above poverty line 2.Below poverty line
VULNERABLE GROUP
Poverty and occupation both are co-related. Most of the poor people
include agricultural and casual laborers, the SCs , STs and the
physically challenged.

Poverty in India 2000 : Most vulnerable Group


60
51 50
50 47
43
40
30 26
20
10
0
Sheduled Tribes Urban Casual Rural Agricultural Sheduled Castes Average Indian
Labourers Labourers Poverty Ratio
CAUSES OF POVERTY
 BRITISH RULE
 RURAL ECONOMY
 HEAVY PRESSURE OF POPULATION
 CHRONIC UNEMPLOYMENT AND UNDEREMPLOYMENT
 LACK OF PROPER INDUSTRIALISATION
 SOCIAL FACTORS
 INDIA’S ECONOMIC POLICY
 NEO-LIBERAL POLICIES AND THEIR EFFECTS
POVERTY IN INDIAN STATES
STATES No. Of People BPL % of People BPL
BIHAR 425.64 42.60
MADHYA PRADESH 298.54 37.43
MAHARASHTRA 227.99 25.03
ORISSA 169.09 47.15
TAMIL NADU 130.48 21.12
UTTAR PRADESH 529.89 31.15
WEST BENGAL 213.49 27.02
GOA 0.70 4.40
GUJARAT 67.89 14.07
HARYANA 17.34 8.74
HIMACHAL PRADESH 5.12 7.63
JAMMU & KASHMIR 3.46 3.48
KERALA 41.04 12.72
PUNJAB 14.49 6.16
POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMMES

 Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana


(SGSY)
 Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana (SGRY)
 Prime Minister’s Rozgar Yojana (PMRY)
 Swarnajayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SSRY)
 Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY)
 National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
(NREGA)
POVERTY IN THE WORLD
THANK YOU

THE END