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Slump test

conclusion
• There are several other types of admixtures used for various other purposes. And one type of these admixtures is never a perfect solution for all the problems we
can face in a design mixing procedure.
• in general, the compressive strength of concrete is reduced by use of air entrained admixture. The amount of reduction in strength depends on many factors such
as mix proportions, type and grading of concrete, cement and actual air-entraining agent.
• Normal reduction in strength of concrete by use of air-entrained admixtures varies from 3 to 7%. This variation of strength shall be considered in the mix design of
concrete. Suitably, trial mix designs should be done to find exact variation of strength with the use of this admixture and suitable corrections should be done in mix
design to ensure desired strength.
• The purpose of adding air entrainment in concrete is to protect it from cracks due to freezing & thawing cycles.Compressive strength of concrete is inversely
proportional to the workability of concrete. When workability of concrete increases, its compressive strength decreases.
• So, to maintain both, the desired compressive strength and workability of concrete is considered while doing mix design so that the desired compressive strength is
achieved with required amount of air entraining agent together with workability.
• In general, the compressive strength of concrete is reduced by air entrained admixture. The amount of reduction in strength depends on many factors like mix
proportions, cement content, water cement ratio, type & grading of concrete as well as the amount of air entrainer.
• Normal reduction in strength of concrete with the addition of air entrainment varies from3 to7 percent. This variation of strength shall be considered in the mix
design of concrete. It is recommended that trial mix designs should be done to find the exact variation of strength with the use of air entrainment and based on
findings, suitable corrections should be done in mix design to ensure desired strength.
• Addition of superplasticizer not able to increase the compressive strength of concrete, on the other hand, it reduces the strenght significantly, and become worse
when the dosages increase. The superplasticizer (SP), increase in dosage will increase the compressive strength. Since addition of SP will provide more water for
concrete mixing, not only the hydration process will not be disturbed, but, it is accelerated by the additional water from deflocculation of cement particles. Hence,
increase in dosage will increase the entrapped water and promote hydration of cement. Though increment in dosage of admixture will enhance the compressive
strength, there is still an optimum limit for the usage of admixture. When the dosages go beyond this limit, increase in dosage will only reduce the compressive
strength. This phenomenon occur since over dosage of SP will cause bleeding and segregation, which will affect the cohessiveness and uniformity of the concrete.
As a result, compressive strength will reduce if the used dosage is beyond the optimum dosage
references
• Chemical Admixtures for Concrete, ACI Committee 212.3R-91 Report.
• Chemical and Air Entraining Admixtures for Concrete, ACI Education Bulletin No.
E4-95.
• Dodson, Vance, Concrete Admixtures, VNR, 1990.
• Gani, M.J., Cement and Concrete, Chapman & Hall, 1997.
• Komatska, S. H. and Panarese, W. C., Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures,
PCA, 1988.
• Ramachandran, V. S., Concrete Admixtures Handbook, Properties, Sciences, and
Technology, 2nd edition, 1995.
• Aitcin, P., Jolicoeur, C., and MacGregor, J., Superplasticizers: How They Work and
Why They Occasionally Don’t, Concrete international, May 1994.
• Information compiled by Titin Handojo