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# SOURCES OF

MAGNETIC FIELD
28.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge
Consider a charge q moving with a constant velocity v.

## The location of the charge at any given instant is called

the source point.

## The point P where the magnetic field due to the charge is

being evaluated is called the field point.

y
r is the displacement vector from
P source point to field point.

r
 is the angle between r and v.
 v
+ x
q
28.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge
The direction of the magnetic field at point P is
perpendicular to both r and v and can be determined using
the right hand rule.

y
P B

 v
+ x
q

If v // B , then F  0
28.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge

## Experimental results about the magnitude of B.

B q
1
B 2
r
B v
B  sin 
If v // B , then F  0
28.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge
The magnetic field B due to a moving charge q is

o q v sin 
B
4 r 2

where:

 o  4 10 7 T A.m *
o
 1107 TmA
4
*permeability of free space is the
If v // B , then F  0
measure of the amount of resistance
encountered when forming a
magnetic field in a vacuum.
28.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge
The magnetic field B due to a moving charge q is

o q v sin 
B
4 r 2

## Vector Magnetic Field

o q v  rˆ
B
4 r 2

where: If v // B , then F  0
r
rˆ 
r
28.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge
NOTES:
• B = 0 at all points along
the line through the charge
parallel to the direction of
velocity. sin  = 0

## • at any distance r from

the charge, B is maximum
at all points lying in the
plane perpendicular to the
direction of velocity.
sin  = 1
• if the charge is negative,
the direction of B is If v // B , then F  0
opposite that for a positive
charge.
Example 1. Two protons move parallel to the x-axis in opposite
directions at the same speed of 1.00 x 105 m/s. At the instant
shown in the figure, where r = 10 cm, find the electric and
magnetic forces (magnitude and direction) on the upper proton.

qq
FE  k
r2
(1.6 1019 C ) 2
FE  (9 10 9 Nm 2
C2
)
(0.10m) 2

## F E  2.30 1026 N , upward

Example 1. Two protons move parallel to the x-axis in opposite
directions at the same speed of 1.00 x 105 m/s. At the instant
shown in the figure, where r = 10 cm, find the electric and
magnetic forces (magnitude and direction) on the upper proton.

o qv sin 
B
4 r 2
7 Tm (1.6 1019 C )(1105 m / s)
B  (110 A )
(0.10m) 2
B  1.6 1019 T

FM  qvB
FM  (1.6 1019 C )(1105 m / s)(1.6 1019 T )
F M  2.56 1033 N , upward
28.2 Magnetic Field of a Current Element

## Consider a segment dl of a current carrying conductor.

o dQ v sin 
dB 
4 r2

dl
o dQ dt sin 
dB 
4 r2
dQ
o dt dl sin 
dB 
4 r2
28.2 Magnetic Field of a Current Element

## The magnetic field due to a current element is

 o I dl sin 
dB 
4 r 2

o I d l  r
dB 
4 r 2
Law of Biot-Savart
The magnetic field of a current-carrying conductor is

o I dl sin 
B
4  r2

o I d l  r
B
4  r 2
Example 2. A copper wire carries a steady current of 125 A. Find
the magnetic field caused by a 1.00-cm segment of this wire at a
point 1.2 m from it if the point is (a) point P1 straight to the side of
the segment, and (b) point P2 on a line at 30o to the segment

o I dl sin 
(a) B 
4 r2
7 Tm (125 A)( 0.01m) sin 90
B  (110 A )
(1.2m) 2
B  8.7 108 T
7 Tm (125 A)(0.01m) sin 30
(b) B  (110 A )
(1.2m) 2
B  4.3 108 T
28.3 Magnetic Field of a Straight Current-
Carrying Conductor
Consider a conductor of length 2a carrying a current I.
Find the magnetic field B at point P at a distance x from the
conductor on its perpendicular bisector.

Let dl  dy

r  x2  y2
x
sin(    ) 
x2  y2

o I dl
B
4  r 2 sin 
28.3 Magnetic Field of a Straight Current-
Carrying Conductor
o I dl o I a dy x
B
4  r 2 sin  B
4 a x 2  y 2 x2  y2

o I a xdy
B
4  x
a 2
y 2

3
2

o I 2a
B
4 x x 2  a 2
28.3 Magnetic Field of a Straight Current-
Carrying Conductor

o I 2a o I
B B
4 x x 2  a 2 2 r

## • If the length 2a>>x, the

conductor can be considered to
be infinitely long.

 o I 2a
• If a>>x, B
4 xa
o I
B
2x
Example 3. The figure shows an end-on view of two long
parallel straight wires perpendicular to the xy-plane, each
carrying a current of 10 A but in opposite directions. Find
the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field at points
P1 , P2 , and P3.

I2 = 10A
I1 = 10A
o I y
For P1: B B2
2 r P1 P2 P3
x
10 A

-30 cm
 7 Tm
B1  (2 x10

20 cm
)

10 cm
-10 cm
A
0.20m 0

B1
B1  1x10 T ˆj
5

B2  (2 x10  7 Tm
)
10 A Bnet  1x105 T ˆj  5x106 T ˆj
A
0.40m
B2  5x10 T ˆj
6 Bnet  5x106 T ˆj
Example 3. The figure shows an end-on view of two long
parallel straight wires perpendicular to the xy-plane, each
carrying a current of 10 A but in opposite directions. Find
the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field at points
P1 , P2 , and P3.

I2 = 10A
I1 = 10A
o I y
For P2: B B2
2 r P1 P2 P3
x
10 A

-30 cm
 7 Tm
B1  (2 x10

20 cm
)

10 cm
-10 cm
A
0.10m 0
B1
B1  2x105 T ˆj

B2  (2 x10  7 Tm
)
10 A B net  2 x105 T ˆj  2 x105 T ˆj
A
0.10m
B2  2 x10 T ˆj
5 B net  4 x105 T ˆj
Example 3. The figure shows an end-on view of two long
parallel straight wires perpendicular to the xy-plane, each
carrying a current of 10 A but in opposite directions. Find
the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field at points
P1 , P2 , and P3.

I2 = 10A
I1 = 10A
o I y
For P3: B B1
2 r P1 P2 P3
x
10 A

-30 cm
 7 Tm
B1  (2 x10

20 cm
)

10 cm
-10 cm
A
0.30m 0
B2
B1  6.67 x10 T ˆj 6

B2  (2 x10  7 Tm
)
10 A Bnet  6.67 x106 T ˆj  2x105 T ˆj
A
0.10m
B2  2 x10 T ˆj
5 B net  1.33x105 T ˆj
28.4 Magnetic Force Between Parallel Conductors
Consider two long and straight parallel current-carrying
wires. Determine the magnitude and direction of the magnetic
force they exert on each other.
28.4 Magnetic Force Between Parallel Conductors
Force per unit length exerted
by wire 1 on wire 2 (F12)
F12  I 2 L2 B1
B1
  o I1 
F12  I 2 L2  
 2r  I1 F21 I2
F12 7 Tm  I1 I 2  r
 (2 x10 A )  F12
L  r 
Force per unit length exerted B2
by wire 2 on wire 1 (F21)
F21  I1 L1 B2
 o I 2  F21 7 Tm  I1 I 2 
F21  I1 L1    (2 x10 A ) 
 2r  L  r 
28.4 Magnetic Force Between Parallel Conductors
If the currents in the conductors are in opposite directions:

B2 B1

I1 I2
F21 x F12
r

## • Two parallel wires with currents in the same direction attract

each other.
• Two parallel wires with currents in opposite directions repel
each other.
Example 4. Find the magnitude and direction of the Fnet per unit
length on wire 3 due to wires 1 and 2.

F23
F13 (10 A)( 20 A)
 (2 10 7 TmA )
L 0.10m Fnet
y
 4 10  4 Nm I3 = 20 A
F13
6 cm
F23 (5 A)( 20 A)
 (2 10 7 TmA )
L 0.06m x
 3.33 10  4 Nm I1 = 10 A 8 cm I2 = 5 A
Example 4. Find the magnitude and direction of the Fnet per unit
length on wire 3 due to wires 1 and 2.

F23
Fx
 (4 10  4 Nm )(0.8)  0
L Fnet
y
 3.2 10  4 Nm I3 = 20 A
F13
Fy
 (4 10  4 Nm )(0.6)  3.33 10  4 N
m
6 cm
L
 9.3 10 5 N x
m
I1 = 10 A 8 cm I2 = 5 A

Fnet 0.000093
 (3.2 10  4 Nm ) 2  (9.3 10 5 Nm ) 2   tan 1
L 0.00032
 3.33 10  4 Nm  16.2o above  x
28.5 Magnetic Field of a Circular Current Loop
Consider a circular current loop of radius a. Use the Law
of Biot and Savart to find the magnetic field at point P on the
axis of the loop.
o I dl
dB 
4 r2
o I dl
dBx  cos 
4 r 2

o I dl a

4 (x2  a2 ) x2  a2

 o I dl
dB y  sin 
4 r 2

I dl x
 o
4 ( x 2  a 2 ) x 2  a 2
MAGNETIC FIELD OF A CIRCULAR CURRENT LOOP

By  0

B  Bx
o Ia 2a
Bx 
4 ( x  a )
2 2 3
2

0
dl

o Ia
Bx  (2a)
4 ( x  a )
3
2 2 2

 o INa 2
B 3
2( x  a )
2 2 2

## Where N is the number of turns

MAGNETIC FIELD AT THE CENTER OF A CIRCULAR
CURRENT LOOP

 o Ia 2
B 3
2( x  a )
2 2 2

## If x = 0, or at the center of the loop

o I
B
2a
Example 5.

(a)
Example 5.

(b)
MAGNETIC FIELD OF OTHER CONDUCTORS
(a)
 o I dl sin 
dB 
4 r2
dB  1x10 A 
7 Tm (10 A)( 0.0011m) sin 90

(0.05m) 2
 7
dB  4.40 x10 T
(b)
r 0.05m  0.14m
2 2
 0.149m   tan 1 145   19.7 o

dB  1x10 7 Tm
A  (10 A)(0.0011m) sin 19.7
(0.149m) 2
 8
dB  1.67 x10 T (c) dB  0 because   0
For the 12-A wire:
 (12 A)(0.0015m) 28.5cmcm 

dB  1x10 7 Tm
A  (0.08m) 2
 8. 79 x10 8
T

## For the 24-A wire:

 (24 A)(0.0015m) 28.5cmcm 

dB  1x10 7 Tm
A  (0.08m) 2
 1. 76 x10 7
T x

dBnet  8.79 x10 8 T x
o I  7 Tm 800 A
B  (2 x10 A )  2.91x10 5 T , east
2r 5.50m
(a)
I1=25A

I2=75A
B1 B1  B2
 o I1  o I 2

40cm 2 r1 2 r2
B2

25 A 75 A 40cm  x
 3 x  10cm
x 40cm  x x

## Bnet = 0 at a point 10cm from I1 and 30 cm from I2 .

(b)
I1=25A

I2=75A
B1 B1  B2
 o I1  o I 2
x 
x 40cm 2 r1 2 r2
B2

25 A 75 A 40cm  x
 3 x  20cm
x 40cm  x x

## Bnet = 0 at a point 20cm from I1 and 60 cm from I2 .

I

v
o I 2.50 A
B  7 Tm
 (2 x10 A )  1.11x10 5 T -
2r 0.045m

## F  qvB  (1.6 x1019 C )(6 x104 m / s)(1.11x105 T )

F  1.07 x10 19 N same direction as the current
(a)
B1  B2 I1
I 2  r2
 o I1  o I 2 r1

2 r1 2 r2 I2 
6A
(0.50m)  2 A
1.5m
(b)  o I1 6A
B1Q   (2 x10 7 TmA )  2.4 x10 6 T upward
2 r1 0.5m
o I 2 2A
B2Q   (2 x10 7 Tm )  2.67 x10 7
T downward
2 r2 A
1.5m

## BnetQ  2.13 x10 6 T upward

(c)

B2 B1

6A 2A
B1S  (2 x10 7 Tm
A )  2 x10 6 T B2 S  (2 x10 7 Tm
A )  5 x10 7 T
0.6m 0.8m

2 2
FBD:

T T

6o 6o

F x F
I r I

mg mg

## r  2(0.04m sin 6)  8.36 x103 m

FBD: T sin 6  F T cos 6  mg

T T
tan 6 
F
 

 
IlB Il 2o rI
mg mg mg
6o 6o
(tan 6) gr  m 
I  
F
I
x
I
F  
o
2 l 

mg mg
I  23.2 A
Due to segment a: o I
Ba 
4a
Due to segment b: o I
Bb  x
4b

o I o I  o I  1 1 
Bnet   Bnet    
4a 4b 4 a b
o I dl
Due to vertical segment: B1 
4  r 2 sin 0  0
o I dl
Due to horizontal segment: B2 
4  r 2 sin 180  0
o I
Due to quarter-circle: B3 
8R
 o I
Bnet 
8R
Three long and straight parallel wires are at the corners of
a triangle as shown in the figure below. (a) Find the net
magnetic force per unit length on wire 1 due to wires 2
and 3. (b) Find the net magnetic field at point P due to
the three wires.
y I2 = 15 A

10 cm 10 cm

x
5 cm P 5 cm
I1 = 10 A I3 = 20 A