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LTE Retainability Optimization

LTE Retainability Optimization


Objective
• After this chapter the participants will be able to:
• Measure LTE Retainability performance
• Describe the E-RAB release procedure and associated counters
• Use eNodeB counters to create E-RAB Retainability KPIs
• Explain the eNodeB parameters that influence Retainability
3.0 EUTRAN Retainability KPI
• Retainability is defined as the ability of a user to retain the E-RAB
once connected, for the desired duration. The Abnormal E-RAB
Release Rate can be calculated in drops per second.
3.0.1 EUTRAN Retainability KPI Counters

Counter Name Managed Description Counter


Object Type
pmSessionTimeUe EutranCellFDD This counters shows the accumulated ACC
active session time in a cell for the
measurement period.
Number of session seconds aggregated for
Ues in a cell. A UE is said to be ‘in session’
if any data on a DRB (UL or DL) has been
transferred during the last 100 ms.
Unit: s
3.0.1 EUTRAN Retainability KPI
• A UE is said to be ‘in session’ if any data on a DRB (UL or DL) has been
transferred during the last 100 ms as illustrated in Figure below.
3.1.1 E-RAB Release – MME Initiated
• The E-RAB release procedure may be initiated by the MME by
sending an ‘ERAB RELEASE COMMAND’ message containing a list
of E-RABs to be released to the RBS as illustrated in Figure below.
3.1.2 E-RAB Release – EnodeB Initiated
• When the E-RAB release procedure has been initiated by the RBS the
‘pmErabRelNormalEnb’ counter is incremented for all ‘normal’ release
causes and ‘pmErabRelAbnormalEnb’ for all ‘abnormal’ release causes
as illustrated in Figure below.
3.2.1 UE Context Release – MME
Initiated
• The UE context release procedure can be initiated by the MME or RBS for various
reasons, for example completion of a transaction between the UE and the EPC or
completion of successful handover.
• The MME can initiate the UE context release procedure sending the UE CONTEXT
RELEASE COMMAND message to the RBS. On reception of this message the RBS
will release all resources for the UE context (DRB and S1 Bearer) and increment the
‘pmErabRelMme’ and ‘pmUeCtxtRelMme’ counters as illustrated in Figure below.
3.2.2 UE Context Release – EnodeB Initiated
• The RBS can also initiate the UE context release procedure by sending a UE CONTEXT
RELEASE REQUEST message towards the affected MME.
• This message indicates the appropriate cause value for example "User Inactivity", "Radio
Connection With UE Lost" etc. On reception of this message the MME will send a UE
CONTEXT RELEASE COMMAND message to the RBS.
• The RBS will increment ‘pmErabRelNormalEnb’ and ‘pmUeCtxtRelNormalEnb’ counters for
all normal releases or the ‘pmErabRelAbnormalEnb’ and ‘pmUeCtxtRelAbnormalEnb’
counter for all abnormal releases as illustrated in Figure below.
3.3 MME Initiated Release Counters
Counter Name Managed Description Counter
Object Type
pmErabRelMme EutranCellFDD The total number of E-RAB Releases PEG
initiated by the MME. This counter is
stepped at reception of S1 message E-RAB
RELEASE COMMAND or
UE CONTEXT RELEASE COMMAND and
the release is MME initiated.
pmErabRelMmeAct EutranCellFDD The total number of E-RAB Releases PEG
initiated by the MME and that there was
data in either the UL or DL buffer (i.e.
active).
This counter is stepped at reception of
Stepped at reception of S1 message E-RAB
RELEASE COMMAND or UE CONTEXT
RELEASE COMMAND and the release is
MME initiated.
3.3 MME Initiated Release Counters
Counter Name Managed Description Counter
Object Type
pmUeCtxtRelMme EutranCellFDD The total number of UE Context Releases PEG
initiated by the MME.
This counter is stepped at reception of S1
message UE CONTEXT RELEASE
COMMAND and the release is MME
initiated.
pmUeCtxtRelMmeAct EutranCellFDD The total number of UE Context Releases PEG
initiated by the MME and that there was
data in either the UL or DL buffer (i.e.
active).
The counter is stepped at reception of S1
message UE CONTEXT RELEASE
COMMAND and the release is MME
initiated.
3.4 RBS Initiated Release Counters
Counter Name Managed Description Counter
Object Type
pmErabRelNormalEnb EutranCellFDD The total number of normal E-RAB PEG
Releases per cell initiated by
the RBS. This counter is stepped at
reception of the S1 message E-RAB
RELEASE COMMAND or UE CONTEXT
RELEASE COMMAND where the cause
value indicates normal release and
the release is RBS initiated.
pmErabRelAbnormalEnb EutranCellFDD The total number of abnormal E-RAB PEG
Releases per cell initiated by the RBS. The
counter is stepped at reception of the S1
message E-RAB RELEASE COMMAND or UE
CONTEXT RELEASE COMMAND where the
cause value indicates system (abnormal)
release and the release is RBS initiated.
3.4 RBS Initiated Release Counters
Counter Name Managed Description Counter
Object Type
pmErabRelAbnormalEnbA EutranCellFDD The total number of abnormal E-RAB PEG
ct Releases per cell initiated by the RBS and
that there was data in either the UL or DL
buffer (i.e. active).
The counter is stepped at reception of the
S1 message E-RAB RELEASE COMMAND or
UE CONTEXT RELEASE
COMMAND where the cause value
indicates system (abnormal) release and
the release is RBS initiated.
pmUeCtxtRelNormalEnb EutranCellFDD The total number of normal UE Context PEG
Releases initiated by the RBS. This counter
is stepped at reception of the S1 message
UE CONTEXT RELEASE COMMAND where
the cause value indicates normal release
and the release is RBS initiated.
3.4 RBS Initiated Release Counters
Counter Name Managed Description Counter
Object Type
pmUeCtxtRelAbnormalEn EutranCellFDD The total number of abnormal UE Context PEG
b Releases initiated by the RBS.
This counter is stepped at reception of
Stepped at reception of the S1 message UE
Context Release Command where the
cause value indicates system (abnormal)
release and the release was RBS initiated.
pmUeCtxtRelAbnormalEn EutranCellFDD The total number of abnormal UE Context PEG
bAct Releases initiated by the RBS and that
there was data in either the UL or DL
buffer (i.e. active).
This counter is stepped at reception of the
S1 message UE CONTEXT RELEASE
COMMAND where the cause value
indicates system (abnormal) release and
the release was RBS initiated.
3.5 Retainability Investigation
• The ‘Flowcharts for Counters’ document

contains a flow chart for UE Context and RAB release showing the
various
counters that are incremented in each case.
3.6 UE Context release Flow Charts
• A section of the RBS Initiated UE Context Release flow chart showing the
various counters incremented for an abnormal UE Context release, when
there is data in the UL or DL buffer is illustrated in Figure below.
3.6.1 UE Context release Counters
Counter Name Managed Description Counter
Object Type
pmUeCtxtRelAbnormalEn EutranCellFDD The total number of abnormal UE Context PEG
bActTnFail releases initiated by the eNB
due to S1 interface down and that there
was data in either the UL or DL buffer (i.e.
active).
This counter is stepped for each UE that is
lost due to that the S1 interface is lost.

pmUeCtxtRelAbnormalEn EutranCellFDD The total number of abnormal UE Context PEG


bActHo Releases initiated by the eNB
due to handover execution failure and
that there was data in either the UL or
DL buffer (i.e. active).
This counter is stepped when an
executed handover fails and the UE is
considered dropped.
3.6.1 UE Context release Counters
Counter Name Managed Description Counter
Object Type
pmUeCtxtRelAbnormalEn EutranCellFDD The total number of abnormal UE PEG
bActUeLost context releases by the eNB due that the
contact with the UE is lost and that there
was data in either the UL or DL buffer (i.e.
active).
This counter is stepped for each UE that is
lost when UEs are unreachable by the eNB.
pmUeCtxtRelAbnormalEn EutranCellFDD The total number of abnormal UE context PEG
bActCdt releases by the eNB due cell
down time (manual intervention) and
that there was data in either the UL or
DL buffer (i.e. active).
This counter is stepped for each UE that is
lost due to cell down time (manual
intervention).
3.7 E-RAB Release Flow Chart
• A section of the RBS Initiated E-RAB Release flow chart showing the
various counters incremented for an abnormal UE Context release,
when there is data in the UL or DL buffer is illustrated in Figure below.
3.7.1 E-RAB
Counter Name
Release
Managed
Counters
Description Counter
Object Type
pmErabRelAbnormalEnbA EutranCellFDD The total number of abnormal ERAB PEG
ctTnFail releases initiated by the eNB due to S1
interface down and that there was data in
either the UL or DL buffer
(i.e. active).
This counter is stepped for each ERAB that
is lost due to that the S1 interface is lost.
pmErabRelAbnormalEnbA EutranCellFDD The total number of abnormal ERAB PEG
ctHo releases by the eNB due to handover
execution failure and that there was data
in either the UL or DL buffer (i.e. active).
This counter is stepped when an executed
handover fails and the UE is considered
dropped.
3.7.1 E-RAB Release Counters
Counter Name Managed Description Counter
Object Type
pmErabRelAbnormalEnbA EutranCellFDD The total number of abnormal ERAB PEG
ctHpr releases by the eNB due to handover
preparation and that there was data in
either the UL or DL buffer (i.e. active).
This counter is stepped when an executed
handover excludes an ERAB.

pmErabRelAbnormalEnbA EutranCellFDD The total number of abnormal ERAB PEG


ctUeLost releases by the eNB due that the contact
with the UE is lost and that there was data
in either the UL or DL
buffer (i.e. active).
This counter is stepped for each ERAB that
is lost when UEs are unreachable by the
eNB.
3.7.1 E-RAB Release Counters
Counter Name Managed Description Counter
Object Type
pmErabRelAbnormalEnbA EutranCellFDD The total number of abnormal ERAB PEG
ctCdt releases by the RBS due to cell down time
(manual intervention) when data was in
either the UL or DL buffer (i.e. active).
This counter is stepped for each ERAB that
is lost due to cell down time (manual
intervention) when data was in either the
UL or DL buffer.
3.8 Radio Connection Supervision
• The principles of the Radio Connection Supervision algorithm
are illustrated in Figure below.
RRC Re-Establishment Procedure,
Successful

UE EUTRAN

RRCConnectionReestablishmentRequest

RRCConnectionReestablishment

RRCConnectionReestablishmentComplete
Example: RRC Connection
Reestablishment Request
RRC SIGNALING MESSAGE

Time: 9:38:13.165

RRCConnectionReestablishmentRequest (3GPP TS 36.331 ver 8.7.0 Rel 8)

UL-CCCH-Message
message
c1
rrcConnectionReestablishmentRequest
criticalExtensions
rrcConnectionReestablishmentRequest-r8
ue-Identity This is the PCI of the cell
c-RNTI where UE was last succesfully
Bin : 4C F0 (= 19696) connected to. In HO case it’s
physCellId : 30 the source cell.
shortMAC-I
Bin : AB 7D (= 43901)
reestablishmentCause : otherFailure
spare
Bin : 0 (2 bits)

Data (hex):
09 9E 01 EA B7 D8
RRC Re-Establishment Procedure, Successful

• RRC Re-Establishment message sets up SRB1 again


RRC SIGNALING MESSAGE
Time: 16:49:06.085
RRCConnectionReestablishment (3GPP TS 36.331 ver 8.7.0 Rel 8)

DL-CCCH-Message
message
c1
rrcConnectionReestablishment
rrc-TransactionIdentifier :2 SRB1 re-establishment
criticalExtensions in RRC Conn Re-
c1 establishment
rrcConnectionReestablishment-r8 message.
radioResourceConfigDedicated
srb-ToAddModList
srb-ToAddModList value 1
srb-Identity :1
mac-MainConfig
explicitValue
ul-SCH-Config
maxHARQ-Tx : n5
periodicBSR-Timer : infinity
retxBSR-Timer : sf2560
ttiBundling : false
drx-Config : release
-----------------KLIP-----------------------
RRC Re-Establishment Procedure,
Unsuccessful
• If re-establishment is not possible eNB responds with reject  UE performs
cell reselection + TAU
UE EUTRAN

RRC Re-Est triggered. UE makes cell reselection and sends Re-Est.

RRCConnectionReestablishmentRequest

RRCConnectionReestablishmentReject
Cell reselection + TAU Req

RRC Conn Setup Complete


(NAS: Tracking Area Update Request)
RRC Re-Establishment Procedure, Unsuccessful
•log of reject case
EventId Time Subchannel Direction Message
RRCSM 09:38:13.165 CCCH Uplink RRCConnectionReestablishmentRequest
RRCSM 09:38:13.244 CCCH Downlink RRCConnectionReestablishmentReject
RRCSM 09:38:13.969 BCCH-BCH Downlink MasterInformationBlock
RRCSM 09:38:14.014 BCCH-SCH Downlink SystemInformationBlockType1
L3SM 09:38:14.014 Uplink TRACKING_AREA_UPDATE_REQUEST

RRC SIGNALING MESSAGE


Time: 9:38:13.165
RRCConnectionReestablishmentRequest (3GPP TS 36.331 ver 8.7.0 Rel 8)
UL-CCCH-Message
message

•RRC Conn Re-est Request


c1
rrcConnectionReestablishmentRequest Re-establishment cause can be:
criticalExtensions
• Other Failure (UE radio link failure)
rrcConnectionReestablishmentRequest-r8
ue-Identity • Handover Failure (T304 HO timer expiry)
c-RNTI
• Reconfiguration Failure
Bin : 4C F0 (= 19696)
physCellId : 30
shortMAC-I
Bin : AB 7D (= 43901)
reestablishmentCause: otherFailure
spare
Bin : 0 (2 bits)
RRC Connection Re-Establishment
Trigger Causes
• When UE is in RRC_CONNECTED and RRC security is active, it can trigger RRC
Connection Re-establishment
1. upon T310 expiry
2. upon reaching the maximum number of UL RLC retransmissions
3. upon handover failure (T304 expiry)
4. upon non-HO related random access problem

• If successful, RRC Conn Re-Establishment


• reconfigures SRB1 to resume data transfer of RRC msgs
• re-activates RRC security without changing algorithms
• NOTE: DRB should be re-configured after SRB1
• NOTE: if UE is in RRC_CONNECTED while RRC security is not active, UE goes to RRC_IDLE,
performs cell reselection and TAU
1. RLF due to T310 Expiry at UE
First Phase Second Phase

radio
normal operation problem no recovery during T310 no recovery during T311 goes back to idle
detection

RRC_CONNECTED RRC_IDLE

radio link failure Cell reselection


and Tracking Area
n310 RRC connection Update if RRC
consecutive n311 consecutive re-establishment Re-Establishment
out-of-sync in-sync indications attempted during fails
indications during t310 t311

• For UE “normal operation” in the figure above means :


• UE not waiting for RRC Connection Setup/Reject (T300 not running)
• UE not waiting for RRC Re-establishment Establishment/Reject (T301 not running)
• handover not ongoing (T304 not running)
• No RLF recovery ongoing (T311 not running)
• NOTE: the terms in-sync and out-of-sync refer to L1 problems, not to timing alignment
2. RLF due to Maximum UL RLC Re-Tx Reached

First Phase Second Phase

normal operation RLC retransmissions until max value no recovery during T311 goes back to idle

RRC_CONNECTED RRC_IDLE

radio link failure Cell reselection


and Tracking Area
RLC RRC connection Update if RRC
retransmissions until re-establishment Re-Establishment
max RLC retx attempted during fails
threshold is reached t311

from RRC Connection Reconfiguration:


drb-ToAddModList
drb-ToAddModList value 1
drb-Identity :1
rlc-Config
am
ul-AM-RLC
t-PollRetransmit : ms40
pollPDU : p32
pollByte : kB25
3. RLF due to HO Failure
First Phase Second Phase

normal operation Attempting PRACH to target cell no recovery during T311 goes back to idle

RRC_CONNECTED RRC_IDLE

radio link failure Cell reselection


and Tracking Area
T304 running RRC connection Update if RRC
RRC Conn ReConf re-establishment
while UE Re-Establishment
with MobilityInfo attempted to fails
attempting access
(”HO command”) to target cell. source or target
cell during t311

T304 expires

from RRC Connection Reconfiguration:

mobilityControlInfo
targetPhysCellId : 33
t304 : ms1000
newUE-Identity
Bin : 14 EB (= 5355)
Default Values for Timers/Constants
Source: 3GPP TS 36.331
• RLF timers signaled in BCCH SIB2
• In 3GPP Rel9 optionally in RRC Conn Reconfig
• If not signaled to UE, default values are assumed:

Name Value
t310 ms2000
n310 6
t311 ms3000
n311 0
SUMMARY
• The participants should now be able to:
• Measure LTE Retainability performance
• Describe the E-RAB release procedure and associated counters
• Use eNodeB counters to create E-RAB Retainability KPIs
• Explain the eNodeB parameters that influence Retainability