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CHAPTER 8

DIRECTIONAL VALVES
Three-Position Valve

Three Position Valve with Transition Condition

Figure 8-1 Graphic symbol for 3-position directional valve

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Basic
Check Valve
Ball Type

No Flow

Free Flow

Figure 8-2 A check valve is a one-way valve. Ball type is shown

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Poppet Type

No Flow

Free Flow

Figure 8-3 In-line poppet type check valve operation

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Right Angle Check

Figure 8-4 Typical right angle check valve

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Right Angle Check
With Orifice

Figure 8-5 Restriction check valve operation


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Pilot-Operated Check

Figure 8.6 Pilot-to-open check valve


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PO
Check Valve

Small poppet
unseals first

Then larger
poppet opens

Figure 8-7 Operation of pilot-operated check valve with decompression poppet


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Drain Drain

Pilot Pilot

Free Flow Blocked Flow

Figure 8-8 Pilot-to-close check valve operation

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Pilot pressure holds valve When the pump stops, the
closed while pump is running valve opens, discharging
the accumulator to tank

Figure 8-9 Automatic accumulator discharge circuit

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A B A B A B

P T

T P T T P T

Figure 8-10 Two position, three-way spool valve

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A B A B A B

P T

T P T T P T

Figure 8-11 Two-position, four-way spool type valve


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Spring Offset
A B

P T

T B P A

Figure 8-12 Four-way, two position valve


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Spring Centered Valve
A B

P T

T B P A
Figure 8-13 Spring-centered valve is a three-position valve

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Spring Offset
A B

P T

T B P A
Figure 8-14 Two-position, four-way valve is spring offset

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A B

P T

T B P A
Figure 8-15 Three-position, four-way detented valve

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A B A B

P T P T
Closed
Center Float
Center
A P B T A P B T

A B A B

P T P T
Open Tandem
Center Center

A P B T A P B T

Figure 8-16 Four-way valve center condition


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A B

P T

T B P A

Figure 8-17 Manually (lever) actuated, three position, four-way valve with spring centering
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A B Cam

P T

T B P A

Figure 8-18 Mechanically actuated (cam roller) four-way valve


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A B

P T

Pilot Pilot
Air In Air Out

T B P A

Figure 8-19 Pneumatically actuated four-way valve


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A B

P T

Pilot Pilot
Oil In Oil Out

T B P A
Figure 8-20 Hydraulically actuated, pilot-operated valve

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Coil
AMPS Push Pin

Armature

A/C

A P B T

Figure 8-21 Push-type solenoids commonly used to shift spools of small valves

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AMPS

A/C

A P B T

Figure 8-22 Armature is pulled into electromagnetic force of the solenoid, shifting the valve spool
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Dynamic Seal O-Ring

Armature

Manual Override

Coil
Push Pin

Figure 8-23 Air gap solenoid design


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Core Tube
Push Pin Armature

N S Manual Override

N S

Figure 8-24 Wet armature solenoid design


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In-rush Current
Current

Holding Current

Time

Figure 8-25 In-rush and holding current of energized coil

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Pilot Stage

Main Stage

X T A P B Y
External Pilot Pressure External Drain

Figure 8-26 Typical solenoid controlled, pilot operated valve (two-stage valve)
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A B A B y

X P T X P T
75 psi
75 psi External pilot Internal pilot
pressure via the pressure via
X port internal
passageways
in the
valve body

Figure 8-27 Left: External pilot check valve Right: Return line pilot pressure check valve
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Drain Plug Placement
P
B
A T

Y PORT

Figure 8-28 Plug options for internal/external drain for pilot valve

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X T A P B Y
Pilot Pressure / Load Drop Check Valve

Figure 8-29 Integral pilot pressure check valve


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External Internal
Operation A A B B Operation A B

x P T y
x y

X
X
P T P T

AB A B

A B y A B

X P T P T

Figure 8-30 Variations of two-stage valve symbols


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Pilot Plug
P
Placements
B
A T

P PORT

X PORT

Figure 8-31 Plug options for pilot pressure supply


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Pilot chokes slow down
Adjustable the main stage spool
flow controls shifting speed, reducing
system shock

X T A P B Y
Figure 8-32 Pilot choke mounted on valve
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Small volume
pin speeds
the spool
shift

X T A P B Y
Figure 8-33 Pilot piston speeds spool shifting

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Adjustable
flow controls

Stroke Limiters

X T A P B Y

Figure 8-34 Stroke limiter option


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D03 / NG 6 D07 / NG16
T
T P
A B X

P
A B
Y
D05 / NG10
P
A B D010 / NG 32
T T
T P Y

D08 / NG 25
T P
Y X A B
A B
X

Figure 8-35 Pattern interface terminology for mounting standards

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Prox Sensor

Pilot to close
Pilot to open

From tank
From system
gate

Main ram

Figure 8-36 High flow position of a pre-fill valve


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Prox Sensor

From system
gate
Pilot to close

Pilot to open

From tank

Main ram

Figure 8-37 High pressure position of a pre-fill valve


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Inlet 1 Inlet 2
Floating Ball

Outlet

Inlet 1 Inlet 2

Outlet

Figure 8-38 Shuttle valve and symbol


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