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Human Comfort Zone
As humans we try to maintain a body
temperature of 98.6° F
– Three Mechanisms
• Heat generated within the body
• Heat gained from surroundings
• Heat lost to surroundings
Human Comfort Zone
We shiver to
generate heat
Human Comfort Zone
We sweat to
Give off heat
Human Comfort Zone
We get goosebumps
Human Comfort Zone
Blood Flow
– Decreases to hands and feet in winter
– Increase in summer to encourage heat loss
Thermal Neutrality
To be comfortable humans must loose heat
at the same rate as it is produced or
Factors Affecting Human Comfort
• Air temperature
• Air Speed
• Humidity
• Mean radiant temperature

Each has a direct influence on heat loss or

gain to the human body
Factors Affecting Human Comfort
• Air Temperature - This affects
temperature differences between the body
and the surroundings, consequently
affecting the rate of heat loss or gain by
Factors Affecting Human Comfort
Air Speed - This affects the rate at which
the body loses heat by convection.
– An air temperature of 35°F and a wind speed
of 20 miles/hour combine to give a wind chill
temperature of 11.2°F.
– Air speed is also very important during
summer when the body is trying to lose heat
to maintain comfort.
Factors Affecting Human Comfort
Humidity - Affects the rate at which the
body loses heat by evaporation. During hot
weather, high humidity increases discomfort
by making it more difficult to evaporate
perspiration into the air.
Mean Radiant Temperature
• Mean Radiant Temperature' (MRT). This
is defined as the temperature of a sphere
at the point in question which would
exchange no net radiation with the
Factors Affecting Human Comfort
Mean Radiant Temperature (MRT) - MRT is
the average surface temperature of the
surroundings with which the body can
exchange heat by radiant transfer.

Radiant heat transfer to and from the body is

quite apparent when sitting near a fireplace
(high MRT) or large cold window area (low
Mean Radiant Temperature
In general for every 1 degree F that the MRT
drops, the air temperature must be raised about
1.4 degrees F to achieve comfort conditions.

How can you raise the MRT?

• Close blinds and curtains
• Solar Film on windows
• Seal heat leaks
• Comfort is achieved by either increasing
the ambient temperature or by raising the
mean radiant temperature of an
• A higher radiant temperature means that
people become comfortable with a lower
ambient temperature and the reverse is
also true.
Bioclimate Chart
Example 1
• Dry Bulb 73°
• Relative Humidity 50%
In the zone
Example 2
• Dry Bulb Temp. 78°
• Relative Humidity 70%
Example 2
• Dry Bulb Temp. 78°
• Relative Humidity

• Requires a wind
speed of 250 FPM
MPH = 2.84
Example 3
• Dry Bulb Temp. = 50°F
• Relative Humidity 55%
Example 3
• Dry Bulb Temp. = 50°F
• Relative Humidity 55%

BTU/Hour = 250
• Conduction
A method by which heat is transferred from a warmer
substance to a cooler substance by molecular collisions.
Direct contact.

• Convection
A method by which heat is transferred by currents in a
liquid or gas.

• Radiation
A method by which heat can be transferred through
objects and empty space. Electromagnetic.
Conduction Examples
• Liquid - Liquid - Pouring cold cream into
• Liquid - Gas - Ocean and Atmosphere
• Gas - Gas – Cold and warm weather
systems mixing
• Solid - Solid – Touch a hot pot on a stove
Conduction Rate Factors
• Contact Area

• Type of Material Cast Iron vs Stainless


• Temperature Difference

• Distance heat must travel

Convection Examples
• In a closed room cool air will settle to the
bottom while warm air will rise
• Bowl of soup – Hot liquid in the center
moves to the cooler outside where it drops
and is reheated at the center and the cycle
• Warm air rising through a heat register
Radiation Examples
• The sun’s heat

• A bonfire

• Warm soil on a cool night

Radiation Rate Factors
• Surface area

• Type of material

• Temperature difference
More Radiation Terms
• Reflectance (or reflectivity) refers to the
fraction of incoming radiant energy that is
reflected from the surface. Reflectivity and
emissivity are related and a low emittance
is indicative of a highly reflective surface.

• For example, aluminum with an emittance

of 0.03 has a reflectance of 0.97.
More Radiation Terms
• Emittance (or emissivity), refers to the
ability of a material’s surface to give off
radiant energy. All materials have
emissivities ranging from zero to one. The
lower the emittance of a material, the
lower the heat radiated from its surface.
Emissivity or Emittance
Material Surface Emittance
Asphalt 0.90 - 0.98
Aluminum foil 0.03 – 0.05
Brick 0.93
Fiberglass 0.80 – 0.90+
Glass 0.95
Steel 0.12
Wood 0.90
• R-Value is the measure of resistance to
heat flow through the defined material.
The higher the R-Value the less heat will
transfer through the wall, making the
system more energy efficient.
• U-Value –is the reciprocal of the R-Value
(1/R) and is a measure of the rate of heat
WINDOWS - 4 Ways to Evaluate

• Solar Heat Gain Coefficient

• Visible Transmittance

• Air Leakage
The rate of heat loss is
indicated in terms of the
U-Factor of a window
assembly. The insulating
value is indicated by the
R-Value which is the
inverse of the U-Value.

The lower the U-Value

the greater a windows
resistance to heat flow
and the better the
insulating value.
The SHGC is the fraction of
incident solar radiation
admitted through a window.
SHGC is expressed as a
number between 0 and 1.
The lower a windows solar
heat gain coefficient, the
less solar heat it transmits.
The visible transmittance is
an optical property that
indicates the amount of
visible light transmitted.
Theoretical values vary
between 0 and 1, but most
values are between 0.3 and
Air Leakage
Heat loss and gain occur
by infiltration through
cracks in the window

Air leakage is expressed

in cubic feet of air passing
through a square foot of
window area.

.3 is recommended for
Low-E Windows
• Glass is coated with silver or tin oxide
which allows visible light to pass through
but reflects infrared heat radiation back
into the room.
– Reduces heat loss
• Allows visible light to pass through but
reflects infrared heat radiation away from
the room
– Reduces heat gain
High number for
cold climate. Low
The lower the number for warm
number the better climates
the insulating

Varies from 0 to The best windows

1.0 The higher the have air leakage
# the more light is rating between 0.1
transmitted. and 0.6 cfm/ft.
with Clear
with Bronze
or Gray Tinted
with High-
Low-E Glass,
with Moderate-
Low-E Glass,
• Multi Point Fan Systems
– One fan located in the attic
– Connects to baths and kitchen
– Timed to run at high speed during high use
times such as morning (showers, bacon ) and
– Xvent
Heat Recovery Ventilation
How it works
• In the heating season the core transfers heat
from the outgoing, stale household air to preheat
the incoming, fresh air.

• Cross-current sections, ensure the two air

streams are always kept separate preventing the
incoming fresh air from being contaminated by
the outgoing stale air.
Heat Recovery Ventilation
• During the air-conditioning season, the
HRV reverses this process, removing
some of the heat from the incoming air
and transferring it to the outgoing air.
Heat Recovery Ventilation
• Heat Recovery System - uses fans to
maintain a low-velocity flow of fresh outdoor air
into the building (incoming air stream) while
exhausting out an equal amount of stale indoor
air (exhaust air stream). Fresh air is supplied to
all levels of the building while stale air is
removed from areas with high levels of
pollutants and moisture.
Heat Recovery System

Air Exchange - Expels stale, polluted indoor air

and gaseous pollutants and continually
exchanges them with a continuous flow of fresh,
revitalized outdoor air to improve Indoor Air
Heat Recovery System

Excess Humidity Control - Helps prevent

uncontrolled excess humidity by expelling
excess humidity from the air, thereby reducing
the risk of window condensation, mildew and
mold, which prevents structural damage and
deterioration to your home.
Heat Recovery System

• Heat Recovery Core - As warm air is expelled

from your house, it warms the incoming cold,
fresh air before it’s circulated throughout your
home. The result is a constant supply of fresh
air, no unpleasant drafts and greater home
• Sized to ventilate the entire house at a
minimum of .35 air changes per hour.

• Minimum CFM requirement can be

calculated as follows
• Determine square footage and multiply
times ceiling height.
• Divide by 60 minutes
• Multiply times .35 (minimum air changes)
HRV Calculation
• Determine square
footage and
multiply times
ceiling height.
• Divide by 60
• Multiply times .35
(minimum air
• Calculate the minimum CFM for a home
with 2000SF main level, 1000SF second
level and 750 SF finished basement

Note: Main and second level have 9 foot

ceilings and basement has 8 foot
3000 SF x 9’ = 27000
750 x 8’ = 6000
Total 33000

33000/60 = 550

.35 x 550 = 192.5 CFM

HEPA Filter
Energy Recovery Ventilators
How are HRV’s Installed?
How are HRV’s Installed?
How are HRV’s Installed?
Radiant Floor Heat
Three types
• Radiant Air Floors

• Electric Radiant Floors

• Hot Water (Hydronic)

Radiant Floor Heat
Types of installation
Wet Installations
• Large thermal mass of a concrete slab floor
• lightweight concrete over a wooden subfloor

Dry Installations
Where the installer "sandwiches" the radiant floor tubing
between two layers of plywood or attaches the tubing
under the finished floor or subfloor.
Radiant Floor Heat
Air Heated Radiant Floors Not
recommended for residential applications

Electric Radiant Floors -

Electric Radiant Heat - Wet
Wet Installation
Wet Installation
Dry Installation
Dry Installation
Hydronic Radiant Heat
Wet Installation
• PEX piping in Concrete (thick slab)
Wet Installation
• Thin Slab Application Gypcrete over plywd
Electric Toe Kick Heat
Toe Kick Electric Heat
Heat Pump and Furnace
Thermostat Indoor

Heat Pump

Heat Pump and Air Handler

Air Handler

Heat Pump

Air Cleaner
Air Conditioner and Furnace

Indoor Cooling

Air Cleaner
Air Conditioner

Air Conditioners and Air Handlers


Air Handler

Air Conditioner

Air Cleaner