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What is an Op-amp
Op-amp is the abbreviation of Operational Amplifier. An operational amplifier is a direct
coupled high gain amplifier usually consisting of one or more differential amplifiers followed
by a level transistor and an output stage.

It is used to amplify both DC as well as AC signals. Op-amp is primarily designed for

computing mathematical functions like addition, subtraction etc. By using suitable external
feedback components, op-amp can be used for applications like amplifiers, oscillators and
comparators etc.

Op--amp is a differential amplifier having very high gain. It has basically 2 inputs, non-
inverting input (Vp or V+) and inverting input (Vn or V-). Opamp will amplify only
the difference between these two inputs i.e. (Vp –Vn) or (V+ –V-).
Op-amp Symbol
+ Positive
inverting input
4 0utput
input - Supply

• The input signals at inverting terminal results in opposite polarity output where as the
inputs signals at non-inverting terminal produces same polarity output.

• Important features of op-amp compared to normal amplifiers are given below.

Very high gain
Very high input impedance
Very low output impedance
High bandwidth
Able to amplify both AC and DC
Low noise
Open loop OPAMP Configuration

• In the case of amplifiers, the term open loop indicates that no connection, exists between input and
output terminals of any type. That is, the output signal is not feedback in any form as part of the
input signal.

• In open loop configuration, The OPAMP functions as a high gain amplifier. There are three open
loop OPAMP configurations.

• Differential Amplifier
• Inverting Amplifier
• Non Inverting Amplifier
Inverting Amplifier

• If the input is applied to only inverting terminal and non-inverting terminal is grounded
then it is called inverting amplifier.

v1= 0, v2 = vin.
vo = -Ad vin

• The negative sign indicates that the output voltage is out of phase with respect to input
180 ° or is of opposite polarity. Thus the input signal is amplified and inverted also.
Non Inverting Amplifier

In this configuration, the input voltage is applied to non-inverting terminals and inverting terminal is
ground .
v1 = +vin v2 = 0
vo = +Ad vin

This means that the input voltage is amplified by Ad and there is no phase reversal at the output.

In all there configurations any input signal slightly greater than zero drive the output to saturation
level. This is because of very high gain. Thus when operated in open-loop, the output of the OPAMP is
either negative or positive saturation or switches between positive and negative saturation levels.
Therefore open loop op-amp is not used in linear applications.
Closed Loop Amplifier

• The gain of the OPAMP can be controlled if feedback is introduced in the circuit. That is, an output
signal is feedback to the input either directly or via another network. If the signal feedback is of
opposite or out phase by 180° with respect to the input signal, the feedback is called negative

• An amplifier with negative feedback has a self-correcting ability of change in output voltage caused
by changes in environmental conditions. It is also known as degenerative feedback because it reduces
the output voltage which results in reduced voltage gain.

• The negative feedback stabilizes the gain, increases the bandwidth and changes the input and output
resistances. Other benefits are reduced distortion and reduced offset output voltage. It also reduces
the effect of temperature and supply voltage variation on the output of an op-amp.
Integrated Circuit

Definition: The “Integrated Circuit “ or IC is a miniature, low cost electronic circuit consisting of
active and passive components that are joined together on a single crystal chip of silicon.


 Small size
 Low cost
 Less weight
 Low supply voltages
 Low power consumption
 Highly reliable
 Fast speed

 Digital ICs
 Linear ICs
Integrated circuits

Monolithic circuits Hybrid circuits

Bipolar Uni polar Thick

&Thin film

Pn junction Dielectric JFET

isolation isolation

Classification of ICs

< 10 active 10-100 100-1000 >1000 Over 1

devices active active active million
devices devices devices active
Integrated BJT’s and MOSFETS 8bit, 16bit Pentium
resistors, Enhanced Microproces Microproces
diodes & MOSFETS sors sors

Temperature Ranges

1. Military temperature range : -55o C to +125o C

2. Industrial temperature range : -20o C to +85o C

3. Commercial temperature range: 0o C to +70o C

IC Package Types

The metal can The Flat Package


The Dual-in-Line (DIP)

Selection of IC Package

Type Criteria

Metal can 1. Heat dissipation is important

package 2. For high power applications like power
amplifiers, voltage regulators etc.

DIP 1. For experimental or bread boarding purposes

as easy to mount
2. If bending or soldering of the leads is not
3. Suitable for printed circuit boards as lead
spacing is more
Flat pack 1. More reliability is required
2. Light in weight
Manufacturer’s Designation for Linear ICs

 Fairchild - µA, µAF

 National Semiconductor - LM,LH,LF,TBA

 Motorola - MC,MFC


 Texas Instruments - SN

 Signetics - N/S,NE/SE

 Burr- Brown - BB
Op-Amp Characteristics
Input offset current
The difference between the bias currents at the input terminals of the op-amp is called as
input offset current.

Input offset voltage

A small voltage applied to the input terminals to make the output voltage zero.

Input bias current

Input bias current is the average value of the base currents entering into inverting and non-
inverting terminals of an op-amp. IB=(IB1 + IB2)/2
Op-Amp Characteristics
Input Resistance:
Input resistance is defined as the equivalent resistance that would be measured at either input terminal
with the other terminal grounded.

Input Capacitance:
Input resistance is defined as the equivalent capacitance that can be measured at either input terminal
with the other terminal grounded.

Offset Voltage Adjustment Range:

741 OP-AMP have offset voltage null capability. Pins 1 and 5 are marked offset null for this purpose. It
can be done by connecting 10 K ohm potentiometer between 1 and 5. By varying the potentiometer,
output offset voltage (with inputs grounded) can be reduced to zero volts. Thus the offset voltage
adjustment range is the range through which the input offset voltage can be adjusted by varying 10 K
pot. For the 741C the offset voltage adjustment range is ± 15 mV.
Op-Amp Characteristics
Input Voltage Range:
Input voltage range is the range of a common mode input signal for which a differential amplifier
remains linear. It is used to determine the degree of matching between the inverting and noninverting
input terminals. For the 741C, the range of the input common mode voltage is ± 13V maximum. This
means that the common mode voltage applied at both input terminals can be as high as +13V or as low
as –13V.
Common Mode Rejection Ratio:
CMRR is defined as the ratio of the differential voltage gain Ad to the common mode voltage gain ACM.
For the 741C, CMRR is 90 dB typically. The higher the value of CMRR the better is the matching
between two input terminals and the smaller is the output common mode voltage.
SupplyVoltage Rejection Ratio:
SVRR is the ratio of the change in the input offset voltage to the corresponding change in power
supply voltages.This is expressed in mV /V or in decibels, SVRR can be defined as :
Op-Amp Characteristics
SVRR = dVio / dV
Where d V is the change in the input supply voltage and d Vio is the corresponding change in the offset
voltage. For the 741C, SVRR = 150 µV / V.

Large Signal Voltage Gain:

Since the OPAMP amplifies difference voltage between two input terminals, the voltage gain of the
amplifier is defined as:

Because output signal amplitude is much larger than the input signal, the voltage gain is commonly
called large signal voltage gain. For 741C is voltage gain is 200,000 typically.
Op-Amp Characteristics

Output voltage Swing:

It is the maximum unclipped peak to peak output voltage that an OPAMP can produce. This also
indicates the values of positive and negative saturation voltages of the OPAMP. The output voltage
never exceeds these limits for a given supply voltages +VCC and –VEE. For a 741C it is ± 13V.

Output Resistance: (RO)

RO is the equivalent resistance that can be measured between the output terminal of the OPAMP and
the ground. It is 75 ohm for the 741C OPAMP.

Output Short circuit Current :

In some applications, an OPAMP may drive a load resistance that is approximately zero. The 741C can
supply a maximum short circuit output current of only 25mA.
Op-Amp Characteristics
Supply Current:
IS is the current drawn by the OPAMP from the supply. For the 741C OPAMP the supply current is 2.8
m A.

Power Consumption:
Power consumption (PC) is the amount of power (vin= 0V) that must be consumed by the OPAMP in
order to operate properly.The amount of power consumed by the 741C is 85 m W.

Gain Bandwidth Product:

The gain bandwidth product is the bandwidth of the OPAMP when the open loop voltage gain is reduced
to 1.
Op-Amp Characteristics
Slew Rate:
Slew rate is defined as the maximum rate of change of output voltage per unit of time under
large signal conditions and is expressed in volts / m secs.

Input OffsetVoltage and Current Drift:

It is also called average temperature coefficient of input offset voltage or input offset current.
The input offset voltage drift is the ratio of the change in input offset voltage to change in
temperature and expressed in mV /° C. Input offset voltage drift = ( DVio / D T).

Similarly, input offset current drift is the ratio of the change in input offset current to the
change in temperature. Input offset current drift = ( D Iio / D T).
Equivalent Circuit of Op-Amp

 An operational amplifier circuit is designed so that

1) Vout = Av (V1-V2) (Av is a very large gain)
2) Input resistance (Rin) is very large
3) Output resistance (Rout) is very low

Rout Vout
+ Av(V1- V2)
Ideal Voltage Transfer Curve of Op-Amp

The output voltage cannot exceed the positive and negative saturation voltages. These saturation voltages
are specified for given values of supply voltages. This means that the output voltage is directly
proportional to the input difference voltage only until it reaches the saturation voltages and thereafter
the output voltage remains constant.

Thus curve is called an ideal voltage transfer curve, ideal because output offset voltage is assumed to be
Basic Block Diagram of Op-Amp

• The Input Stage is a dual input balanced output differential amplifier which provides
most of the voltage gain of amplifier and also establishes the input resistance of op-amp.

• Intermediate Stage is a dual input unbalanced output differential amplifier. DC voltage

at the output stage will be above ground potential due to direct coupling.

• Therefore, a Level Shifting Stage is used to shift the dc level to zero.

• The Output Stage is usually a complementary push-pull amplifier which increases

output voltage swing and current supplying capability of the op-amp. It also responsible
for establishing low output resistance of the op-amp.
Basic Block Diagram of Op-Amp

Input Stage
Input Stage is a dual input balanced output differential amplifier which provides most of the voltage
gain of amplifier and also establishes the input resistance of op-amp. Simple circuit of a dual input
balanced output differential amplifier is shown below.

Dual Input Balanced Output Differential Amplifier

Basic Block Diagram of Op-Amp
Intermediate Stage

Intermediate Stage is a dual input unbalanced output differential amplifier.

Dual Input Unbalanced Output Differential Amplifier

Basic Block Diagram of Op-Amp
Level Shifting Stage
Since opamps are direct coupled, dc level at the output will be above zero. Each amplifier stage produces
AC amplification of the signal but at the same time the DC level is shifted due to the bias voltages. So we
need to use level translator circuits to shift dc level to zero. We can use voltage divider emitter follower
for that purpose. DC voltage is determined by the ratio of R1 and R2. For better results we may
also current mirror or diode current bias circuits as below.
Complete Block Diagram of Op-Amp
Output Stage
This stage should be capable of supplying load current and should have low output resistance.
Complementary push pull amplifier increases the output voltage swing of the output signal and also
increases the current supplying capability of op-amp.

Simple Op-Amp Circuit Diagram

Inverting & Non Inverting Amplifiers
Some Numerical Problems

• Calculate the voltage gain for each stage of this amplifier circuit (both as a ratio and in
units of decibels), then calculate the overall voltage gain:

• Write the transfer function (input/output equation) for an operational amplifier with an open-loop
voltage gain of 100,000, and the inverting input connected directly to its output terminal. In other
words, write an equation describing the output voltage of this op-amp (Vout) for any given input
voltage at the non-inverting input (Vin(+)):

Then, once you have an equation written, solve for the over-all voltage gain (AV = [(Vout)/(Vin(+))]) of
this amplifier circuit, and calculate the output voltage for a non-inverting input voltage of +6 volts.
Some Numerical Problems

• Calculate the necessary resistor value (R1) in this circuit to give it a voltage gain of 30.
Some Numerical Problems
Some Numerical Problems

• Differential gain Ad, of an op amp measures 100. In the measurement of

common-mode gain experiment when 1.0V is applied common to both the
inputs, output voltage measured is 0.01V. How much is common-mode
rejection ratio (CMRR)?
Feedback Configurations

These connections are classified according to whether the voltage or current is feedback to the input in
series or in parallel:
• Voltage – series feedback
• Voltage – shunt feedback
• Current – series feedback
• Current – shunt feedback

In series feedback, the feedback signal is connected in series with the input voltage signal. In shunt
feedback, the feedback signal is connected in parallel with an input current source.
Voltage Series Feedback Amplifier

It is also called non-inverting voltage feedback circuit. With this type of feedback, the input signal drives
the non-inverting input of an amplifier; a fraction of the output voltage is then feed back to the inverting
Input Resistance of Voltage Series Feedback Amplifier
Output Resistance of Voltage Series Feedback Amplifier
Voltage Shunt Feedback Amplifier
Voltage Follower

The lowest gain that can be obtained from a non-inverting amplifier with feedback is 1. When the non-
inverting amplifier gives unity gain, it is called voltage follower because the output voltage is equal to the
input voltage and in phase with the input voltage. In other words the output voltage follows the input
Differential Amplifier with One Op amp
Differential Amplifier with Two Op amp
Inverting configuration Summing Amplifier
Non Inverting configuration Summing Amplifier
Summing Amplifier With Differential Configuration
Some Numerical Problems

• Determine the amount of current from point A to point B in this circuit, and also the output
voltage of the operational amplifier:
Some Numerical Problems

Calculate the output voltage if V1 = –0.2 V and V2 = 0 V.

Determine the output voltage when V1 = –V2 = 1 V.

Some Numerical Problems
Instrumentation Amplifier Block Diagram
Instrumentation Amplifier
Applications of Instrumentation Amplifier

Temperature Controller:

Light Intensity Meter:

The same circuit can be used to detect variations in the intensity of light, by replacing the thermistor
by a Light Dependent Resistor (LDR). The bridge is set to a balanced condition in darkness. When light
falls on the LDR, its resistance changes and unbalances the bridge. This causes the amplifier to produce
a finite output, which in turn drives the meter.
Some Numerical Problems
Current to Voltage Converter
Voltage to Current Converter with Floating Load
Low Voltage DC Voltmeter
Diode Match Finder/Zener Diode Tester/LED Tester
Voltage to Current Converter with Grounded Load
The Integrator
Frequency Response of Practical Integrator
The Differentiator
The Frequency Response of Differentiator