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PROJECT PLANNING &

MANAGEMENT

LCDR JAYSON P LAMOSTE PN


LEARNING OBJECTIVES
DEFINE WHAT PROJECT IS
DESCRIBE PROJECT LIFE CYCLE
DESCRIBE MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS
DESCRIBE THE ACTIVITIES RELATED TO
THE DIFFERENT PHASES OF A PROJECT
PROJECT MANAGEMENT DOCUMENTS
MANAGEMENT TOOLS
 What is a project?
 Any unique endeavor with specific

objectives
 With multiple activities

 With defined precedent

relationships
 With a specific time period for

completion
Examples?
 A major event like a wedding

 Designing a political campaign

 Any construction project


LESSON 1

PROJECT LIFE CYCLE


 Conception: identify the need
 Feasibility analysis or study: costs
benefits, and risks
 Planning: who, how long, what to do?
 Execution: doing the project
 Termination: ending the project
LESSON 2

MANAGEMENT
FUNCTIONS
PLANNING REPORTING
ORGANIZING MONITORING &
STAFFING EVALUATION
DIRECTING COORDINATING
CONTROLING REVIEWING
Reference: Effective Project Reference: Project Management &
management Technique Construction Engineering
LESSON 2 – MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS

1. PLANNING
 Setting up of goals, objectives
& targets of an organization or
a construction project.
Padernal & Coronel

 The process of anticipating the


things to be done & preparing
the means to do them.
TANSINCO
LESSON 2 – MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS

2. ORGANIZING
Is a management function that deals
with the development of an
organizational structure, functional
chart and a positional chart – all
aimed at realizing the established
objectives & targets of a project.
LESSON 2 – MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS

2. ORGANIZING
Is a management function that deals
with the development of an
organizational structure, functional
chart and a positional chart – all
aimed at realizing the established
objectives & targets of a project.
LESSON 2 – MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS

2. ORGANIZING
Sets the activities required to attain the goal,
sorts & group them systematically. It assigns the
groups to those responsible to carry them out and
who are delegated with authority. A structure is
thereby established which defines authority,
relationships, and internal coordination. The
authority referred to is the power granted to the
manager or supervisor. In a project, this must be
exercised decisively but prudently.
WHOSE JOB IS IT
This is a story about four people named
Everybody, Somebody, Anybody, and Nobody.
There was an important job to be done and
Everybody was asked to do it. Everybody was
sure Somebody would do it. Anybody could have
done it, but Nobody did it. Somebody got angry
about that, because it was everybody's job.
Everybody thought Anybody could do it but
Nobody realized that Everybody wouldn't do it. It
ended up that Everybody blamed Somebody when
Nobody did what Anybody could have done.
LESSON 2 – MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS

3. STAFFING
Deals with the recruitment and
development of competent
employees through a process of
evaluation, selection, placement
and human resource development
(includes setting up of training
programs and benefit schemes)
LESSON 2 – MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS

4. DIRECTING
 Providing instructions to lower level
personnel, communicating the work to be
done particularly, leading the tasks required in
a project, and monitoring people to work
efficiently and effectively.
 Involves guiding & assigning those delegated
with authority and who are responsible for
the different activities or the entire project.
Communications, oral or written, are
maintained vertically & horizontally in the
organization to facilitate their functions.
LESSON 2 – MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS

5. CONTROLLING
Is a function performed by middle and top-
level project engineers and managers. They
measure accomplishments according to set
targets. They check personnel productivity
and examine the quality of work. If there
are deviations, appropriate corrective
actions are recommended and verified
thereafter if such were followed after a
reasonable period of time.
LESSON 2 – MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS

5. CONTROLLING
Is a process that is continuously maintained
to adopt the plan of work to the actual
demands of the situation. Monitoring of the
work is an inherent part of this function. It is
meant to get a good picture of how the
work is progressing in the proper course
and schedule. In case the need arises,
corrective measures are applied on time.
LESSON 1 – MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS

6. REPORTING
Deals with the periodic preparation of
required reports for submission to higher
authorities and to the project owner. If
financing was secured, copies of the reports
should likewise be given to financial or
lending institution for variation. Forms
depicting all pertinent information are
developed and subsequently accomplished.
LESSON 1 – MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS

7. MONITORING & EVALUATION


Related to Controlling. There are instances
when Monitoring is performed monthly and
Evaluation is done on a semi-annual basis.
Issues, problems & constraints that hinder
project completion & implementation of plans
are identified and analysed. Solutions are
recommended and actions are developed and
executed. The forms used in Monitoring &
Evaluation may vary on the details or depth of
the contents.
LESSON 2 – MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS

8. COORDINATING
This function of Management involves formal
meetings including planning sessions, project
coordination, consultation and problem
solving meetings. It is the venue to
communicate the project participant’s views,
positions and opinions. After productive
deliberations, decisions are made and
participants agree on course of actions to
take.
LESSON 2 – MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS

8. REVIEWING
A project is reviewed in a holistic manner when it
is 95% completed or after completion –
depending on the agreement of project
participants. The whole process of Project
Management or Construction Management,
especially its results, is once more reviewed prior
to project turnover. This ensures that all aspects
are covered, desired objectives and targets are
achieved and all problems are solved.
LESSON 3
ACTIVITIES FOR DIFFERENT
PHASES OF A PROJECT
PRE-DESIGN PHASE
DESIGN PHASE
PROCUREMENT PHASE
CONSTRUCTION PHASE
POST-CONSTRUCTION PASE
Reference: Construction Project Management User’s Manual
LESSON 3

PRE-DESIGN PHASE
CONSULTATIONS & MEETINGS
BRAIN STORMING
CONCEPTUAL DESIGN
FEASIBILITY STUDY
SURVEY
LESSON 3

DESIGN PHASE
DAEP
SCOPE OF WORKS
COST ESTIMATES
SCHEDULE / TIME TABLE
LESSON 3

PROCUREMENT PHASE
PRE-PROC CONFERENCE
PRE-BIDDING CONFERENCE
SOBE
POST-QUAL
NOA
NTP
PRE-CONSTN CONFERENCE
LESSON 3

CONSTRUCTION PHASE
SITE POSSESION
MOBILIZATION
ACTUAL CONSTRUCTION
TIAC
PROJECT ACCEPTANCE
LESSON 3

POST-CONSTN PHASE
TIAC
PROJECT ACCEPTANCE
DEMOBILIZATION
MAINTENANCE
LESSON 4

According to the
PROJECT Usborne Book of
MANAGEMENT
Amazing Facts the Thomas Narrow
DOCUMENTS
Bridge in the USA was one of the worst
ever engineering feats.In high winds its
deck swings up & down in giant high
waves. The bridge was intended to
withstand winds of 190 kph (120 mph).
Four months after it opened though, it
collapsed in winds of 67 kph (42 mph)
LESSON 4 – PROJ MANAGEMENT DOCUMENTS

CONSTRUCTION LOG BOOK


WEATHER CHART
VIDEOS OR PHOTOS
POURING PERMIT
MATERIAL TEST RESULTS
PILE DRIVING RECORDS
LESSON 4 – PROJ MANAGEMENT DOCUMENTS

PROGRESS REPORTS
MINUTES OF CONFERENCES
PLANS & ESTIMATES
PERT / CPM
GANTT CHART
AS-BUILT PLANS
PROJECT COMPLETION REPORT
LESSON 4 – PROJ MANAGEMENT DOCUMENTS

PROGRESS REPORTS
MINUTES OF CONFERENCES
PLANS & ESTIMATES
PERT / CPM
GANTT CHART
AS-BUILT PLANS
PROJECT COMPLETION REPORT
LESSON 5

LETS WATCH THIS VIDEO

MANAGEMENT TOOLS
LESSON 5 – MANAGEMENT TOOLS

BAR CHART
One of the earliest tools for planning &
scheduling. Developed by Henry Lawrence Gantt.
Thus sometimes called the GANTT CHART. The
BAR CHART is clear, concise, and easy to prepare.
Most important is, it is so simple to understand. It
shows the activities and graphically depicts their
starts & finishes. However, information you get
from the BAR CHART is limited compared with
other management tools like the PERT/CPM
diagram.
LESSON 5– MANAGEMENT TOOLS

Fig. 2 – Simple BAR CHART

CASE STUDY 1: If activity B is delayed for 2 days,


instead of day2, it will finish on day 6. What day
will activity C start? What day will the completion
of the whole project be?
BAR CHART
LESSON 5 – MANAGEMENT TOOLS
SCENARIO A:
Activity C & D is dependent on activity B, & E.
Activity E is not dependent of activity B.

Fig. 2 – Simple BAR CHARTT

BAR CHART
LESSON 5 – MANAGEMENT TOOLS
SCENARIO A:
Activity C & D is dependent on activity B, & E.
Activity E is not dependent of activity B.
Day to finish the Project is Day 14.

Fig. 2 – Simple BAR CHARTT

BAR CHART
LESSON 5 – MANAGEMENT TOOLS
SCENARIO A:
Activity C & D is dependent on activity B, & E.
Activity E is not dependent of activity B.
Day to finish the Project is Day 14.

Fig. 2 – Corrected BAR CHARTT

BAR CHART
LESSON 5 – MANAGEMENT TOOLS
SCENARIO B:
Activity C & D is dependent on activity B, & E.
Activity E is dependent of activity B.

Fig. 2 – Simple BAR CHARTT

BAR CHART
LESSON 5 – MANAGEMENT TOOLS
SCENARIO B:
Activity C & D is dependent on activity B, & E.
Activity E is dependent of activity B.
Day to finish the Project is Day 16.

Fig. 2 – Simple BAR CHARTT

BAR CHART
LESSON 5 – MANAGEMENT TOOLS
SCENARIO B:
Activity C & D is dependent on activity B, & E.
Activity E is dependent of activity B.
Day to finish the Project is Day 16.

Fig. 2 – Corrected BAR CHARTT

BAR CHART
LESSON 5 – MANAGEMENT TOOLS
Figure 3 shows an improved BAR CHART that
offers more information than the previous bar
chart.

Fig. 3 – Modified BAR CHARTT

BAR CHART
LESSON 5 – MANAGEMENT TOOLS

PERT/CPM
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
– Developed to manage the Polaris-Submarine
weapon system and the Fleet Ballistic Missile
capability project of the NAVY. A statistical
technique for measuring and forecasting progress
in research and development programs, it is
applied as a decision-making tool designed to
save time in achieving end-objectives.

PERT/CPM
LESSON 5 – MANAGEMENT TOOLS

PERT/CPM
Critical Path Method (CPM) – Developed to
coordinate maintenance projects in the chemical
industry, the most widely used scheduling
technique for scheduling. Often referred to as
critical path scheduling, This method calculates
the minimum completion time for a project along
with the possible start and finish times for the
project activities. The critical path itself
represents the set or sequence of
predecessor/successor activities which will take
the longest time to complete. PERT/CPM
LESSON 5 – MANAGEMENT TOOLS

SO WHAT S
I

THE
DIFFERENCE ?

LETS WATCH THIS VIDEO


LESSON 5 – MANAGEMENT TOOLS
Both PERT and CPM
 Graphically display the precedence relationships
& sequence of activities
 Estimate the project’s duration
 Identify critical activities that cannot be delayed
without delaying the project
 Estimate the amount of slack associated with
non-critical activities
 Duration of activities for PERT is probabilistic
while for it’s Deterministic for CPM.
PERT/CPM
LESSON 5 – MANAGEMENT TOOLS

4
E 8
B
K
A 2
J
1 C 5
F 7
L 10
O 11

D 3 G N
M
H 6 9

I
Elements: Activities & Events
Feature: Precedence relations
PERT/CPM
LESSON 5 – MANAGEMENT TOOLS
ACTIVITIES DURATION PRECEDENCE
A 6 ---
B 7 A
C 1 A
D 14 ---
E 5 B
F 8 C.D
G 9 C,D
H 3 D
I 5 H
J 3 F
K 4 E,J
L 12 F
M 6 G.I
N 2 G.I
O 7 L.N
PRECEDENCE TABLE PERT/CPM
LESSON 5 – MANAGEMENT TOOLS
CONSTRUCTING
the PERT/CPM DIAGRAM
STEP 1. List all Activities of the Project.
STEP 2. Determine the Duration of
each Activity.
STEP 3. Make a Precedence Table.
STEP 4. Draw the Diagram.

PERT/CPM
LESSON 5 – MANAGEMENT TOOLS
EXERCISE:

ACTIVITIES DURATION PRECEDENCE


A 4 ---
B 5 ---
C 3 A
D 3 A
E 2 B,C

PERT/CPM
LESSON 5 – MANAGEMENT TOOLS

The DIAGRAM is constructed:


D

A
C
Now what ???
B
Project
Start
E

Project
End
No two different activities shall have the same
starting node and finishing node.
PERT/CPM
LESSON 5 – MANAGEMENT TOOLS

 In some cases, “Dummy” activities are added if


necessary.

D
C
B
Project Project
Start End
E

PERT/CPM
LESSON 5– MANAGEMENT TOOLS
Dummy Activity Example
To be able to bolt a bracket to a panel, the operations
required are :
 Design bracket A -
 Build bracket B A
 Build panel C -
 Drill holes in panel D A,C

A A B A B
D
C C D C D

PERT/CPM
LESSON 5 – MANAGEMENT TOOLS
Determining the Critical Path

Add activity duration in the diagram:

A
4 D
3 C
3
Project B Project
Start 5 End
E
2

PERT/CPM
LESSON 5 – MANAGEMENT TOOLS
Determining the Critical Path
The CRITICAL PATH is the path through the project on
which any delay will cause the completion of the entire
project to be delayed:
:

A
4 D
3 C
3
Project B Project
Start 5 End
E
2

PERT/CPM
LESSON 5– MANAGEMENT TOOLS
Determining the Critical Path
The CRITICAL PATH is the path through the project on
which any delay will cause the completion of the entire
project to be delayed:
:

A
4 D
3 C
3
Project B Project
Start 5 End
E
2

PERT/CPM
LESSON 5 – MANAGEMENT TOOLS
Determining the Critical Path
 For fairly simple projects, the critical path is usually
the longest path through the project.
 For projects with several parallel and interlinked
activities, this may not always be the case.
 For more complicated projects, the critical path can
be determined with an ‘earliest time’ forward sweep
through the diagram followed by a ‘latest time’
reverse sweep.

PERT/CPM
LESSON 5– MANAGEMENT TOOLS
Determining the Critical Path
The EARLIEST starting time of each activity is associated
with the events. It corresponds to the longest time of any
path from any previous event.

4
A

0 4 D
3 C
3
Project B Project
Start 5 End
7 E 9
2

PERT/CPM
LESSON 5– MANAGEMENT TOOLS
Determining the Critical Path
The LATEST starting time of each activity is also
associated with the events. It corresponds to the longest
time of any path from any subsequent event.

4
A 4

0 4 D
0 3 C
3
Project B Project
Start 5 End
7 E 9
7 2 9

PERT/CPM
LESSON 5– MANAGEMENT TOOLS
Determining the Critical Path
The CRITICAL PATH is the path along which the earliest
time and latest time are the same for all events, and the
early start time plus activity time for any activity equals the
early start time of the next activity.
4
A 4

0 4 D
0 3 C
3
Project B Project
Start 5 End
7 E 9
7 2 9

PERT/CPM
LESSON 5– MANAGEMENT TOOLS
This project cannot be completed in less than 9 weeks
given the expected duration of the activities.
However, activities B & D could be delayed or extended by
up to 2 weeks each without affecting the minimum project
completion time. This is termed ‘float’ or ‘slack’ time.

4
A 4

0 4 D
0 3 C
3
Project B Project
Start 5 End
7 E 9
7 2 9

PERT/CPM
Example
Activity Duration Precedence
A 3 -
B 3 A
C 4 -
D 1 C
E 3 B, D
F 2 A, B, D
G 2 C, F
H 4 G
I 1 C
J 3 E, G
K 5 F, H, I
Example

B E
A
F J
Project
D G Project
Start
End
C K
H
I

PERT/CPM
Example
Summary: CPM Steps
 List all activities and expected durations.
 Construct CPM diagram for activities list.
 Determine EARLIEST start time for each event
(working forward from project start).
 Determine LATEST start time for each event
(working backwards from project end).
 Identify the CRITICAL PATH (and the ‘float’
time for any non-critical activities).