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You are on page 1of 80

&

Eng. Mahmoud Hammoud

1

Domestic Hot Water System

Contents

Hot water consumption and demands

Pumping systems and performance

Boiler types & selection

Examples

2

Pipe Sizing

Oversizing

High cost – extra but unnecessary

Increase heat loss from distributing piping

Undersizing

Slow or even no water during peak demand

Variation in temperature & pressure at outlet (obvious in mixer for shower)

High noise level

3

Supply Hot Water Pipe Sizing

sized . First of all calculate the total fixture units (0.75 of total FU)

then find the corresponding flow in gpm and then refer to pipe

flow chart and select the corresponding pipe size.

the limit of flow velocity.

4

Domestic Hot Water-return Pipe Sizing [Large Systems]

will be satisfactory. However for large installation, the heat loss

from the return line becomes a major consideration.

The following method is used to size the return pipe.

supply + return piping.

total length by 30 Btu/Ft (28.8 W/m) for insulated pipe , and

60 Btu/Ft (57.6 W/m) for un-insulated pipe to obtain the

approximate heat loss in Watt.

5

Domestic Hot Water-return Pipe Sizing [Large Systems]

C. Divide the total heat loss calculated previously (from the multiplication of

the total effective length by 28.8 W/m ). Refer to the basic equation and

calculate the mass flow in Kg/s. take Specific heat factor is taken as 4.18

Kj/Kg.C & where 11°C is the allowable temperature drop.

D. Convert from Liter/sec to gpm and than determine the pipe size of the

return pipe from pipe flow-chart of the closed system .

E. The calculated gpm is used to size the return circulated pump flow rate.

F. Determine the required GPM (L/s ) in each circulating loop and size the hot

water return pipe based on this GPM and the allowable friction loss as

determined above step E.

6

Domestic Hot Water-return Pipe Sizing [Large Systems].

Suppose the total effective length of the supply & return hot water pipe length is

100 m ,steel insulated pipe. It is required to size the return pipe size .

100 x 28.8 W/m 3000 watt = 3 KW.

The corresponding flow rate is: Power S.hc m T

Q 4.18 m 11C 3Kw

m 0.0656 0.07 L / s

7

Domestic Hot Water-return Pipe Sizing [Large Systems].

8

Domestic Hot Water-return Pipe Sizing [Large Systems].

smaller pipe size (operation costs). In

condition that we do not exceed , the pressure

drop and velocity limitations.

9

Pipe Insulation

chimneys, and hot water pipes lose their

heat when exposed to outside air. Hence

they should be insulated

Insulation material should be non-

corrosive, non-toxic, moisture resistant,

rot- and vermin-proof, fire-resistant, light,

easy to apply, anti-weathering, durable

and, in addition possess good insulation

properties and low thermal conductivity.

Insulation material could be fiberglass or

rubber type insulation like armaflex which

comes in the form of tube and the pipe is

pulled inside it .

10

Pipe Insulation

Reasons

Heat conservation.

Reduce noise.

Control surface condensation.

Freeze prevention.

used in duct insulation (Fiber

glass).

11

Insulation Thickness

shall conform to the following table:

a. Conditioned air supply and return (ductwork) 1 1/2"

b. Refrigerant suction and liquid lines: 1/2"

c. Condensate drain pipes 1/2"

d. Acoustic duct liner. 1”

e: Heating water pipes up to 1" diameter: 1"

f. Heating water pipes above 1 ”: 1 1/2"

g. Domestic hot water pipes: 1"

k. Boiler, water heater 2”

L. Boiler breeching & steel chimney 2.1/2”

12

Insulation Thickness

Boiler +Water Storage

Instantaneous Or Semi-instantaneous

Types Of Heaters

13

Electrical Water Heater Power

3/4 of the total fixture units are used for hot water

1.25 "

Hot water

4 bar Inlet water flow ?

Pressure Releif valve

Thermostat Drain

Electrical power

Temp.

1.5, 2.4, 4-5, & 9 Kw

Electrical water heater Size of EWH

1" 15, 20 , 30, 40, 50 ,

Cold water 1" 66, 80 &1 20 gallons

3/4 of the total fixture units are used forc old water

Power 4.2 Kw

Heating time Efficiency 3 3600 0.75

Where Shc is the specific heat capacity of water ( 4.2 Kj/kg. ºK), Heating time or recovery period T = 3

hrs, The mass of water 150 Liters = 150 Kg., Temperature rise from 10 to 65 ºC. 14

Insulation efficiency is 75-80 %.

Electrical Water Heater

15

Hot Water Temperature

16

Service Water Heating

For 4 bed rooms 3 bathroom , The Electrical water heater capacity is 250 Liters

As a general rule Hot water 35 Liter /person/day 17

Service Water Heating

18

In general, electric water heaters are fully automatic and have a storage tank, one or

more electric elements, and operating and safety controls. The heating elements are

available in a variety of standard voltages and wattages to meet the specific

requirements of the installations.

Electrical water heater are fitted with electrical resistance ( heater) 1.5 Kw, 2.4 Kw , 4- 5

Kw, 9 Kw . They could be horizontal or vertical type . EWH are insulated and protected

by steel jacketing.

EWHs should have pressure /temperature relief valve which will relieve excessive

pressure . For high pressure EWH the use of none -return is not recommended. In this

case ,the pressure relief valve is connected to nearest floor drain.

EWHs are controlled by thermostat which will activate the electrical heater

automatically.

Available EWHs size are 15, 20 , 30, 40, 50 , 66, 80 & 120 gallons

19

Resistance Heating Element

Usually the electrical water heaters have a primary resistance heating element

near the bottom , and possible a secondary element located within the upper

quarter or third of the tank.

Minimum wattage ratings of two element heaters are based as follows :

For the upper unit (8 watt / liter) of the tank capacity.

For the lower unit (5 watt/liter) of the tank capacity.

For fast heating of ( 30-40-50 gal ), we take (26 watt/litter) for each unit.

For one single element heater ,we take (26 watt/litter).

20

21

Resistance Heating Element Location

liters/person a day. Which is about 30% of the total water requirement.

Heating time (sec .)

( Power (Kw)) efficiency

22

The Electric Water Heater shown below is a product of Kangquan Electrical

Appliance Co., Ltd., model KDE100, capacity: 100L and power: 1600W.

23

Hot Water Demand

Definition

Is the rate of flow in pgm furnished by a water

supply system to various types of plumbing fixtures

and water outlets under normal conditions.

Maximum Demand

Is the peak value of the demand. The values Hot of

water demand are shown previously in table (W-2 ).

Demand Factor

Is the ratio of the maximum demand of the hot water

heating system to the total connected load or the

total of the individual requirements of all the fixtures

of the system.

24

Water To Water Storage Heater

A hot-water storage tank must meet code requirements that depend on its size

and pressure and the authority having jurisdiction. Its capacity should be

selected so that 60 to 80 percent of the volume of water in the tank may be

drawn off before the temperature drop (caused by the incoming cold water)

becomes unacceptable. A value of 70 percent usually is used in design

calculations.

Heated water from boiler enter the coil of the water storage vessel where it will

heat the water , and then returns to boiler at lower temperature . Whereas the

domestic Hot water leaves the top of the water tank to the supply distribution

piping upon demand for the various fixtures and apparatus. When recalculation

of the hot water is provided, the warm water is returned to the bottom of the

hot water vessel or tank by a circulate pump.

Normally heating water from boiler enters the water tank at 180 º F ( 82 º C )

and return to boiler at 160 º F ( 70 º C), ∆T = 12-15 º C.

25

Hot Water Requirement For Storage

The hot water storage for Buildings & Hotels will be calculated based on unit

hourly demand rates as follows :

Gallon Per Hour

bathtub 20 gph 20 gph

Shower 30 gph 75 gph

Sink 10 gph 30 gph

Laundry 20 gph 28 gph

Dishwashers 15 gph 50 gph

Demand factor 0.3 0.25

Storage factor 1.25 0.8

26

27

28

Procedure For Estimating The Heating Capacity (Recovery Capacity) Of

A Hot-water Heating System Having A Storage Tank.

Step(2) Then multiply the number of fixtures of each type by the probable

demand for each type of fixture.

Step(3) Obtain the maximum demand by taking the sum of products of step (2)

Step(4) Then obtain the hourly heating capacity by multiplying the maximum

demand in step3 by the demand factor obtained from table 2.

Step(5) Multiply the hourly heating capacity of step 4 by the storage capacity

factor given in table HW-1 for the appropriate type of building to obtain the

required capacity of the storage tank.

29

Example

Suppose you have to calculate , the hot water storage capacity , the boiler power

of an apartment house (building) having the following data:

60 Lavatories , 40 kitchen sinks ,and 10 laundry 60 showers, and 40 dishwasher .

Step 1&2

The probable water demand are as follows:

From table HW-1;

Lavatories = 60 x 2 gph = 120 gph

Kitchen sink = 40 x 10 gph = 400 gph .

Laundry = 10 x 20 gph = 200 gph .

Shower = 60 x 30 gph = 1800 gph.

Dishwasher = 40 x 15 gph = 600 gph .

30

Example cont.

Step 3

The Maximum demand of the hot water demand is:

=((60×2gph)+ (60×30gph)+ (40×10gph) + (40 x 15 gph) +(10x 20 gph ))= 3120 gph.

Step 4

Building demand factor = 0.3 (from table HW-1 ).

Hourly heating capacity = (3120×0.3) = (936 gph)= 15.6 gpm.= 0.985 liter /sec or 3546 L/hr.

Step 5

The required capacity of the storage tank is:

Usable capacity = 936 x 1.25 = 1170 gal i.e. (4429 liters)

[1.25 is the storage factor from table Hw-1]

Safety storage

Since only 70% of the tank is usable, so the actual tank capacity = (1170 / 0.7 gallon) = (1670 gallon)

that is (6327 liters).

31

Program

Given

60 Lavatories , 40 kitchen sinks ,and 10 laundry 60 showers, and 40 dishwasher

32

Program

Boiler Power Calculation

Boiler Power

Q (BTU/h)=GPM×(60min/hour)×ΔT1×(8.3 lb/gal)

Q (boiler in BTU/h) = 500 ×gpm ×ΔT1

Wher gpm = Calculated water demand in gpm (flow rate ) ;

o

ΔT = Temperature difference between initial & Fianal [ 20 F=11 C

we have 936 gph = 15.6 gpm of water to be heated , temperature rise ∆T=20 ºF.

QT= 500 x 15.6 x 20 = 156000 BTU/hr

34

Acceptable Temperature Of Domestic Hot Water

35

Boiler Power

1boiler Hp = 9.81 KW.

The required gross boiler power for heating water + overcome the heat loss from

pipe and boiler + the heat needed to rise the initial water temperature ( Pick up )

is given by:

QBoiler = QT [1+ a + b]

QT = Calculated “boiler power+ heating domestic water’

a = additional heat coefficient to overcome the heat loss in the pipe systems and

boiler. [0.1]

b = additional heat coefficient to overcome the pick up period [0.1 to 0.2] . The

required gross output is then;

As mentioned before : for QT= 230 Kw ,

36

Boiler Power

37

Hot Water Pumps

Pumps used in hot water primary and secondary distribution systems are used

mainly for maintaining or increasing the rate circulation. Pumps are

constructed to withstand the high temperature of water. They have a cast-iron

body and a gun-metal impeller. Impellers made of other materials, such as

bronze , stainless steel and cast iron are also used.

Hot water pump is recommended to be located in the return side of the pump

to reduce the possibility of cavitation .

quite low and the pump horse power is also small .Hot water recirculation

pumps should never be used as booster pumps to increase the pressure in

the hot water system, as this creates imbalance in the pressures of hot and

cold water supply.

38

Hot Water & Boiler Circulated Pumps

pumps used in Hot water system:

Pump1 (primary): Is used to circulate

the hot water from boiler to storage

tank (closed system).

hot water system (Located in the returned pipe

).

Circulating pump is controlled by an immersion thermostat (in the return line) set to

start and stop the pump over a 11 ºC). However for continuous hot water supply the

thermostat is eliminated.

39

The Calculation Of The Closed Loop Circulated Pump

P T P.R.V.

Hot woter

BOILER Q= gpm

h=6 m

KW

Return hot water

FUEL Supply

Expansion Vessel

100 L

40

Hot Water Circulating Pump

( Inside The Apartment)

than 20-30 m) hot water circulator might be provided in order to

have hot water in the piping system all the time and not to wait

for a long time to have hot water.

To size the hot water circulator 1st calculate the total hot water

fixture units (as mentioned for cold water ). Normally hot water

fixture unit is 0.75 of total fixture unit.

41

Example

Suppose we have a large flat having the following plumbing fixtures estimate

the circulated pump discharge in gpm :

4 showers x 2 x 0.75 =6

4 lavatories x 1 x 0.75 =3

2 bath tubes x 2 x 0.75 =3

4 bidet x 2 x 0.75 =6

2 sinks x 2 x 0.75 =3

_________

Total = 21 FU

1.05 gpm .

drop per 100 ft as discussed earlier including pipe fittings.

42

Hot Water Circulating Pump

( Inside The Apartment)

For hot water systems in which piping from the heater to the fixture

or appliance is short [(30 m), or less], circulating systems are not

generally used. But it is common practice to provide circulating

pump in all hot water supply systems in which it is desirable to have

hot water available continuously at the fixtures.

43

Calculation Of Circulating Pump

-1 Capacity

Circulating

pump 2

H.W. S

R.H.W.

R.H.W.

Circulating pump

C.W.S

44

Suppose We Have A Building Containing The Following Plumbing

Fixtures Estimate The Circulate Pump-1 Flow Rate In gpm

Kitchen sink = 40 x 2 x 0.75 = 60 Fus .

Laundry = 10 x 2 x 0.75 = 15 Fus .

Shower = 60 x 2 x 0.75 = 90 Fus.

Dishwasher = 40 x 1 x 0.75 = 30 Fus .

------------------------

Total = 240 FU

This is the discharge of the circulated pump , which circulate the water from (boiler tank)

to building.

45

Calculation Of The Circulating Pump

-2 Capacity

Pump 2

P T P.R.V.

R.H.W.

Circulating pump

C.W.S

FUEL Supply

Expansion Vessel

T=20 F =11 C

Pump 1

46

Estimating Circulating Pump 2 Capacity

In U.S.units

The GPM of the systemCirculatin g pump ;

Q (BTU/h) GPM (60min/hour ) T1 (8.3 lb/gal)

Q (gpm) Q (boiler in BTU/h) / (8.3 T1 60min/hour )

Q (boiler in BTU/h) /500 T1

In SI units

Power Kw 227

Kg/sec 4.9 L/s

4.2 11 4.2 11

This is the discharge of the circulated pump 2, which circulate the water from boiler-

storage tank- Boiler 47

Head Of The Circulated Pump

loss due to pipe friction & fittings.

hA hL p

The elevation difference is not included .

The head loss due is determined from Darcy equation or Hazzen

William equation.

Fº = 1.8 Cº + 32 , Cº = 0.55 (Fº - 32)

48

Example

assuming the following : The pipe length is 600 ft. and an allowance for fittings

on straight pipe of 25 %-50 % is to be use.

The actual pipe length + Equivalent length (due to fittings and valves etc.)

Leff . L Le

2- The total head loss or pressure drop hL is determined as :

The head loss per unit of length h1(5-7ftw./100ft ) multiplied by the effective

length .

Le ff L 25% L 600 150 750 ft

hL Leff . 5 ft / 100 ft 750 0.05 37.5 ft that is [ 11 m ]

Usually the Pump is oversized by 10 % of head & 5% flow 49

Expansion Tank Capacity

50

Sealed Heating System

Closed- Expansion Tank Capacity

51

Sealed Heating Systems. Closed- Expansion Tank

In the sealed system of heating ,the open expansion tank and feed cistern is

replaced by a flexible- membrane expansion vessel. The vessel may fitted near

the boiler , either on the supply flow or return pipe.

The expansion vessel must be sized so that its volume is at least equal to the

volume of expansion of water in the system, when raised from 10 to 95 ºC,

irrespective of the normal working temperature.

Where

E = expansion of water m3

VS = volume of water before being heated m3 in the boiler+ system

1 = density of water before being heated Kg/ m3 ,T1=10C

2 = density of water after being heated Kg/ m3,T2=95 C

1 2

E Vs E (0.04 -0.06 ) Vs

2

52

Roof Booster Pump Calculation

Down feed (F32)

L L L eff e

hst 6m

L e

120 ft 36m

Leff 15 36 51m

hl 5111m 5.61m

100m

hA hst hl P

∆P is the surplus pressure required hA 6 5.61 8 7.6m

to operates the fixture (shower)= 8 m

Q 19 gpm 53

BAU 2012

Hot water Expansion Vessel Size

Selection

90 C 1.0359

e 1 1 0.04

10 C 1.00027

e The expansion coefficient for water heating from 10 to 90 C

90 C 1.0359 Liter / Kg Is the spesific volume of water @ 90 C

10 C 1.00027 Liter / Kg Is the spesific volume of water @10 C

Vacc e x Vs 0.04 Vs

Vacc Accepted volume Liters

Vs Total water volume in the heating system

(Boiler , Pipes & Radiators) in liters 54

Hot water Expansion Vessel Size

Selection

• The Total volume of closed expansion tank with a

bladder is calculated from Boyle’s Law :

Vs e

Vtotal

Pmin

1

Pmax

Pi = initial static pressure above the vessel i.e charge pressure (absolute) of

vessel. This pressure must not be lower than the hydrostatic pressure at

the point where the tank is connected to the system.

Pf= maximum operating pressure (absolute) of the relief (safety) valve,

taking into account any differences in level between the vessel and the safety

valve. (around 4 bar gage ) 55

Example

Pi = initial static charge pressure

(absolute) of vessel. This pressure

must not be lower than the

hydrostatic pressure at the point

where the tank is connected to the

system

As a rule of thumb 13 liters for every 1000 w of

boiler output .

For Example 350 kW , water in the heating

water system W= 4500 Liters

Let say 15 m from technical floor to boiler room

P1= 15+10 =25 m (initial static charge pressure

(absolute value) that is 2.5 Bar

P2= around 4 bar gage +1 bar =5 Bar

W e 4500x0.04

Vtotal 350 liters

Pmin 2.5

1 1

Pmax 5 56

Expansion Tank Capacity Types

57

Open-Expansion tank capacity

The volume of the expansion tank is given by :

Volume of the expansion tank [in liters ]

ΔT 12 C

The volume of the expansion tank with respect to its boiler power

000 000

hr. 000 000 000

me L

58

Open Expansion tank pipe

diameter

The pipe diameter of the expansion tank is given by :

Q Boiler(Kcal/h)

Pipe diameter 15 1.5 [in mm]

1000

It is not recommended to use pipe diameter less than 1 inch.

Q = m× C × T

heat loss or gain is given below :

Q (BTU/h) gpm (60min/hour ) TF (8.3 lb/gal) BTU/lb - F

Q (BTU/h) 500 GPM TF

The gpm of the system ;

gpm Q ( BTU/h) / 500 TF , [In U.S.units]

This eqauation can be used to determine the boiler power,

Radiator capacity , fan coil heating or cooling capacity.

60

Drawing Of Water

Distribution Systems

61

62

63

Boiler Selection And

Specifications

64

Expansion of Pipe material

L L T

L = Amount of change in pipe length, mm

= Coefficient of linear expansion, mm/m. C ( for (API ) PPr

= 0.15 mm/m C)

T= Temperature difference , C

L = is the original length of pipe m

difference of 50 C

Calculate the pipe expansion L :

L = 0.15 x 6 x 50 =45 mm

65

Expansion of Pipe material

66

Calculate the length of the Arm Ls ,assuming that D= 25 mm & L =45

mm.

Ls 30 25 45 10 cm 67

Calculation Of The Arm Length Ls

68

Determination Of The Width Between The Arms B

69

Determination Of The Width Between The Arms B

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

References

1- Mechanical & electrical equipment for buildings –by Stein/Reynolds, Ninth edition, John

Wiley, 2000.

2-Practical Plumbing Engineering, Cyril M.Harris, ASPE,1998.

3- Building Services & equipment (I/II/III), F.Hall, Third edition, 1994.

4- Upland engineering, Mechanical consulting office, Dr. Ali Hammoud.

5- Applied hydraulics Part I & II .”Lecture notes." by A. Hammoud BAU- 1995

6- Pumps with practical applications, .”Lecture notes.” by A. Hammoud BAU- 1999.

7- Lowara catalogue

8- Plumber’s & pipefilter’s , Calculations Manual by R. Dodge Woodson.

9- Plumbing Design & practice by S G Deolalikar

10- fluidedesign – Jacques Chaurette

12- Internet web sides

13- Faber & Kell’s Heating Air-conditioning of Buildings Ninth edition India-2002

78

Questions

79

Thank You

80

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