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Domestic Hot Water System

Prepared by : Dr.Ali Hammoud


&
Eng. Mahmoud Hammoud

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Domestic Hot Water System

Contents

 Pipe sizing and water heater storage


 Hot water consumption and demands
 Pumping systems and performance
 Boiler types & selection
 Examples

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Pipe Sizing

 Avoid Oversizing & Under-sizing


 Oversizing
 High cost – extra but unnecessary
 Increase heat loss from distributing piping

 Undersizing
 Slow or even no water during peak demand
 Variation in temperature & pressure at outlet (obvious in mixer for shower)
 High noise level

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Supply Hot Water Pipe Sizing

 In a manner similar to cold water pipe , the hot water Pipe is


sized . First of all calculate the total fixture units (0.75 of total FU)
then find the corresponding flow in gpm and then refer to pipe
flow chart and select the corresponding pipe size.

 The higher the temperature of the water, the lower would be


the limit of flow velocity.

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Domestic Hot Water-return Pipe Sizing [Large Systems]

 Usually for small installation, a 0.5 or 0.75 in hot water return


will be satisfactory. However for large installation, the heat loss
from the return line becomes a major consideration.
 The following method is used to size the return pipe.

A. Calculate the approximate total effective length of all hot water


supply + return piping.

B. Based on ASHRAE recommendation , Multiply the calculated


total length by 30 Btu/Ft (28.8 W/m) for insulated pipe , and
60 Btu/Ft (57.6 W/m) for un-insulated pipe to obtain the
approximate heat loss in Watt.

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Domestic Hot Water-return Pipe Sizing [Large Systems]

C. Divide the total heat loss calculated previously (from the multiplication of
the total effective length by 28.8 W/m ). Refer to the basic equation and
calculate the mass flow in Kg/s. take Specific heat factor is taken as 4.18
Kj/Kg.C & where 11°C is the allowable temperature drop.

D. Convert from Liter/sec to gpm and than determine the pipe size of the
return pipe from pipe flow-chart of the closed system .
E. The calculated gpm is used to size the return circulated pump flow rate.

F. Determine the required GPM (L/s ) in each circulating loop and size the hot
water return pipe based on this GPM and the allowable friction loss as
determined above step E.

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Domestic Hot Water-return Pipe Sizing [Large Systems].

 Suppose the total effective length of the supply & return hot water pipe length is
100 m ,steel insulated pipe. It is required to size the return pipe size .
 100 x 28.8 W/m 3000 watt = 3 KW. 
 The corresponding flow rate is: Power  S.hc  m  T 


Q  4.18  m  11C   3Kw

m  0.0656  0.07 L / s

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Domestic Hot Water-return Pipe Sizing [Large Systems].

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Domestic Hot Water-return Pipe Sizing [Large Systems].

 If there is more than one choice, we select the


smaller pipe size (operation costs). In
condition that we do not exceed , the pressure
drop and velocity limitations.

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Pipe Insulation

 Boilers, storage tanks, calorifiers,


chimneys, and hot water pipes lose their
heat when exposed to outside air. Hence
they should be insulated
 Insulation material should be non-
corrosive, non-toxic, moisture resistant,
 rot- and vermin-proof, fire-resistant, light,
easy to apply, anti-weathering, durable
and, in addition possess good insulation
properties and low thermal conductivity.
 Insulation material could be fiberglass or
rubber type insulation like armaflex which
comes in the form of tube and the pipe is
pulled inside it .

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Pipe Insulation

 Reasons
 Heat conservation.
 Reduce noise.
 Control surface condensation.
 Freeze prevention.

 The insulating material is the same


used in duct insulation (Fiber
glass).

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Insulation Thickness

Thicknesses or insulation to be supplied and installed for the various systems


shall conform to the following table:

(Fiber glass thickness)


a. Conditioned air supply and return (ductwork) 1 1/2"
b. Refrigerant suction and liquid lines: 1/2"
c. Condensate drain pipes 1/2"
d. Acoustic duct liner. 1”
e: Heating water pipes up to 1" diameter: 1"
f. Heating water pipes above 1 ”: 1 1/2"
g. Domestic hot water pipes: 1"
k. Boiler, water heater 2”
L. Boiler breeching & steel chimney 2.1/2”

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Insulation Thickness

Domestic Hot Water System

Electrical Water Heater

Water To Water Storage Heater


Boiler +Water Storage

Instantaneous Or Semi-instantaneous
Types Of Heaters
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Electrical Water Heater Power

3/4 of the total fixture units are used for hot water
1.25 "
Hot water
4 bar Inlet water flow ?
Pressure Releif valve
Thermostat Drain
Electrical power
Temp.
1.5, 2.4, 4-5, & 9 Kw
Electrical water heater Size of EWH
1" 15, 20 , 30, 40, 50 ,
Cold water 1" 66, 80 &1 20 gallons
3/4 of the total fixture units are used forc old water

S .hc  Kg  T . 4.2  150  (65  10)


Power    4.2 Kw
Heating time  Efficiency 3  3600  0.75
Where Shc is the specific heat capacity of water ( 4.2 Kj/kg. ºK), Heating time or recovery period T = 3
hrs, The mass of water 150 Liters = 150 Kg., Temperature rise from 10 to 65 ºC. 14
Insulation efficiency is 75-80 %.
Electrical Water Heater

1Kcal /h = 4 Kj/h = 1.11.10-3 Kw= 1.11 W


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Hot Water Temperature

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Service Water Heating

For 4 bed rooms 3 bathroom , The Electrical water heater capacity is 250 Liters
As a general rule Hot water 35 Liter /person/day 17
Service Water Heating

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 In general, electric water heaters are fully automatic and have a storage tank, one or
more electric elements, and operating and safety controls. The heating elements are
available in a variety of standard voltages and wattages to meet the specific
requirements of the installations.
 Electrical water heater are fitted with electrical resistance ( heater) 1.5 Kw, 2.4 Kw , 4- 5
Kw, 9 Kw . They could be horizontal or vertical type . EWH are insulated and protected
by steel jacketing.
 EWHs should have pressure /temperature relief valve which will relieve excessive
pressure . For high pressure EWH the use of none -return is not recommended. In this
case ,the pressure relief valve is connected to nearest floor drain.
 EWHs are controlled by thermostat which will activate the electrical heater
automatically.
 Available EWHs size are 15, 20 , 30, 40, 50 , 66, 80 & 120 gallons

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Resistance Heating Element

 Usually the electrical water heaters have a primary resistance heating element
near the bottom , and possible a secondary element located within the upper
quarter or third of the tank.
 Minimum wattage ratings of two element heaters are based as follows :
 For the upper unit (8 watt / liter) of the tank capacity.
 For the lower unit (5 watt/liter) of the tank capacity.
 For fast heating of ( 30-40-50 gal ), we take (26 watt/litter) for each unit.
 For one single element heater ,we take (26 watt/litter).

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Resistance Heating Element Location

 As a rule of thumb the daily water consumption of hot water is about 35


liters/person a day. Which is about 30% of the total water requirement.

mass  s.h.c  temp.rise (t )


Heating time (sec .) 
( Power (Kw))  efficiency
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 The Electric Water Heater shown below is a product of Kangquan Electrical
Appliance Co., Ltd., model KDE100, capacity: 100L and power: 1600W.

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Hot Water Demand
Definition

Demand Of Water Supply


Is the rate of flow in pgm furnished by a water
supply system to various types of plumbing fixtures
and water outlets under normal conditions.

Maximum Demand
Is the peak value of the demand. The values Hot of
water demand are shown previously in table (W-2 ).

Demand Factor
Is the ratio of the maximum demand of the hot water
heating system to the total connected load or the
total of the individual requirements of all the fixtures
of the system.
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Water To Water Storage Heater

 A hot-water storage tank must meet code requirements that depend on its size
and pressure and the authority having jurisdiction. Its capacity should be
selected so that 60 to 80 percent of the volume of water in the tank may be
drawn off before the temperature drop (caused by the incoming cold water)
becomes unacceptable. A value of 70 percent usually is used in design
calculations.

 Heated water from boiler enter the coil of the water storage vessel where it will
heat the water , and then returns to boiler at lower temperature . Whereas the
domestic Hot water leaves the top of the water tank to the supply distribution
piping upon demand for the various fixtures and apparatus. When recalculation
of the hot water is provided, the warm water is returned to the bottom of the
hot water vessel or tank by a circulate pump.

 Normally heating water from boiler enters the water tank at 180 º F ( 82 º C )
and return to boiler at 160 º F ( 70 º C), ∆T = 12-15 º C.

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Hot Water Requirement For Storage

The hot water storage for Buildings & Hotels will be calculated based on unit
hourly demand rates as follows :
Gallon Per Hour

Fixture type Building Hotels

Lavatory 2 gph 2 gph


bathtub 20 gph 20 gph
Shower 30 gph 75 gph
Sink 10 gph 30 gph
Laundry 20 gph 28 gph
Dishwashers 15 gph 50 gph
Demand factor 0.3 0.25
Storage factor 1.25 0.8

Domestic hot water temperature will be 60° C.

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Procedure For Estimating The Heating Capacity (Recovery Capacity) Of
A Hot-water Heating System Having A Storage Tank.

Step(1) Tabulate the number of fixtures of each type in the building.


Step(2) Then multiply the number of fixtures of each type by the probable
demand for each type of fixture.
Step(3) Obtain the maximum demand by taking the sum of products of step (2)
Step(4) Then obtain the hourly heating capacity by multiplying the maximum
demand in step3 by the demand factor obtained from table 2.
Step(5) Multiply the hourly heating capacity of step 4 by the storage capacity
factor given in table HW-1 for the appropriate type of building to obtain the
required capacity of the storage tank.

N.B. Not to be used for instantaneous or semi-instantaneous types of heaters.

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Example

Suppose you have to calculate , the hot water storage capacity , the boiler power
of an apartment house (building) having the following data:
60 Lavatories , 40 kitchen sinks ,and 10 laundry 60 showers, and 40 dishwasher .
Step 1&2
The probable water demand are as follows:
From table HW-1;
 Lavatories = 60 x 2 gph = 120 gph
 Kitchen sink = 40 x 10 gph = 400 gph .
 Laundry = 10 x 20 gph = 200 gph .
 Shower = 60 x 30 gph = 1800 gph.
 Dishwasher = 40 x 15 gph = 600 gph .

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Example cont.

Step 3
The Maximum demand of the hot water demand is:
=((60×2gph)+ (60×30gph)+ (40×10gph) + (40 x 15 gph) +(10x 20 gph ))= 3120 gph.
Step 4
Building demand factor = 0.3 (from table HW-1 ).
Hourly heating capacity = (3120×0.3) = (936 gph)= 15.6 gpm.= 0.985 liter /sec or 3546 L/hr.
Step 5
The required capacity of the storage tank is:
Usable capacity = 936 x 1.25 = 1170 gal i.e. (4429 liters)
[1.25 is the storage factor from table Hw-1]
Safety storage
Since only 70% of the tank is usable, so the actual tank capacity = (1170 / 0.7 gallon) = (1670 gallon)
that is (6327 liters).

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Program
Given
60 Lavatories , 40 kitchen sinks ,and 10 laundry 60 showers, and 40 dishwasher

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Program

From the basic equation Q = m× C × T 33


Boiler Power Calculation

Boiler Power
Q (BTU/h)=GPM×(60min/hour)×ΔT1×(8.3 lb/gal)
Q (boiler in BTU/h) = 500 ×gpm ×ΔT1
Wher gpm = Calculated water demand in gpm (flow rate ) ;
o
ΔT = Temperature difference between initial & Fianal [ 20 F=11 C

From the previous example: T=20 F


we have 936 gph = 15.6 gpm of water to be heated , temperature rise ∆T=20 ºF.
QT= 500 x 15.6 x 20 = 156000 BTU/hr

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Acceptable Temperature Of Domestic Hot Water

Fº = 1.8 Cº + 32 , Cº = 0.55 (Fº - 32)

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Boiler Power

1 Kw = 860 Kcal/hr. = 3413 BTU/ hr.


1boiler Hp = 9.81 KW.

The required gross boiler power for heating water + overcome the heat loss from
pipe and boiler + the heat needed to rise the initial water temperature ( Pick up )
is given by:
 QBoiler = QT [1+ a + b]
 QT = Calculated “boiler power+ heating domestic water’

a = additional heat coefficient to overcome the heat loss in the pipe systems and
boiler. [0.1]
b = additional heat coefficient to overcome the pick up period [0.1 to 0.2] . The
required gross output is then;

QBoiler = [1.2 or 1.3 ] QT


As mentioned before : for QT= 230 Kw ,
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Boiler Power

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Hot Water Pumps

 Pumps used in hot water primary and secondary distribution systems are used
mainly for maintaining or increasing the rate circulation. Pumps are
constructed to withstand the high temperature of water. They have a cast-iron
body and a gun-metal impeller. Impellers made of other materials, such as
bronze , stainless steel and cast iron are also used.

 Hot water pump is recommended to be located in the return side of the pump
to reduce the possibility of cavitation .

 In well-designed systems, frictional loss in pipe-lines during recirculation is


quite low and the pump horse power is also small .Hot water recirculation
pumps should never be used as booster pumps to increase the pressure in
the hot water system, as this creates imbalance in the pressures of hot and
cold water supply.

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Hot Water & Boiler Circulated Pumps

There are two centrifugal circulated


pumps used in Hot water system:
Pump1 (primary): Is used to circulate
the hot water from boiler to storage
tank (closed system).

Pump2 (secondary): is used to circulate the


hot water system (Located in the returned pipe
).

Circulating pump is controlled by an immersion thermostat (in the return line) set to
start and stop the pump over a 11 ºC). However for continuous hot water supply the
thermostat is eliminated.
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The Calculation Of The Closed Loop Circulated Pump

From the roof

P T P.R.V.
Hot woter

BOILER Q= gpm
h=6 m
KW
Return hot water
FUEL Supply

Expansion Vessel
100 L

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Hot Water Circulating Pump
( Inside The Apartment)

 If water heater is located far away from plumbing fixtures (more


than 20-30 m) hot water circulator might be provided in order to
have hot water in the piping system all the time and not to wait
for a long time to have hot water.

 To size the hot water circulator 1st calculate the total hot water
fixture units (as mentioned for cold water ). Normally hot water
fixture unit is 0.75 of total fixture unit.

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Example

 Suppose we have a large flat having the following plumbing fixtures estimate
the circulated pump discharge in gpm :

 4 showers x 2 x 0.75 =6
 4 lavatories x 1 x 0.75 =3
 2 bath tubes x 2 x 0.75 =3
 4 bidet x 2 x 0.75 =6
 2 sinks x 2 x 0.75 =3
_________
Total = 21 FU

As a rule of thumb For every 20 FU provide 1 gpm of circulation 21 FU/ 20 FU =


1.05 gpm .

Pump head is calculated by multiplying pipe effective length by the pressure


drop per 100 ft as discussed earlier including pipe fittings.
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Hot Water Circulating Pump
( Inside The Apartment)

For hot water systems in which piping from the heater to the fixture
or appliance is short [(30 m), or less], circulating systems are not
generally used. But it is common practice to provide circulating
pump in all hot water supply systems in which it is desirable to have
hot water available continuously at the fixtures.

Sizing of hot water circulating pump is simplified by

 1 gpm for every 20 fixtures units in the system.

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Calculation Of Circulating Pump
-1 Capacity

Circulating
pump 2

H.W. S
R.H.W.

H.W.Storage tank H.W. S

R.H.W.

Circulating pump
C.W.S

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Suppose We Have A Building Containing The Following Plumbing
Fixtures Estimate The Circulate Pump-1 Flow Rate In gpm

 Lavatories = 60 x 1 x 0.75 = 45 Fus.


 Kitchen sink = 40 x 2 x 0.75 = 60 Fus .
 Laundry = 10 x 2 x 0.75 = 15 Fus .
 Shower = 60 x 2 x 0.75 = 90 Fus.
 Dishwasher = 40 x 1 x 0.75 = 30 Fus .
------------------------
Total = 240 FU

For every 20 FU provide 1 gpm of circulation 240 FU/ 20 FU = 12 gpm


This is the discharge of the circulated pump , which circulate the water from (boiler tank)
to building.

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Calculation Of The Circulating Pump
-2 Capacity

Pump 2

H.W.Storage tank H.W. S


P T P.R.V.
R.H.W.

BOILER Boiler Circulating pump


Circulating pump
C.W.S

FUEL Supply
Expansion Vessel
T=20 F =11 C

Pump 1
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Estimating Circulating Pump 2 Capacity

In U.S.units
The GPM of the systemCirculatin g pump ;
Q (BTU/h)  GPM  (60min/hour )  T1  (8.3 lb/gal)
Q (gpm)  Q (boiler in BTU/h) / (8.3  T1  60min/hour )
 Q (boiler in BTU/h) /500  T1
In SI units

Power KW  Kg/sec.  4.2Kj/Kg.C  (11) C


Power Kw 227
Kg/sec    4.9 L/s
4.2  11 4.2  11
This is the discharge of the circulated pump 2, which circulate the water from boiler-
storage tank- Boiler 47
Head Of The Circulated Pump

As it is known that , the role of the circulated pump is to overcome


loss due to pipe friction & fittings.

hA  hL  p
 The elevation difference is not included .
 The head loss due is determined from Darcy equation or Hazzen
William equation.
Fº = 1.8 Cº + 32 , Cº = 0.55 (Fº - 32)

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Example

Suppose we have to estimate the head required of a circulated pump ,


assuming the following : The pipe length is 600 ft. and an allowance for fittings
on straight pipe of 25 %-50 % is to be use.

1- Determine, the total effective length E.L that is:


The actual pipe length + Equivalent length (due to fittings and valves etc.)
Leff .  L   Le
2- The total head loss or pressure drop hL is determined as :
The head loss per unit of length h1(5-7ftw./100ft ) multiplied by the effective
length .
Le ff  L  25% L  600  150  750 ft
hL  Leff .  5 ft / 100 ft  750  0.05  37.5 ft that is [ 11 m ]
Usually the Pump is oversized by 10 % of head & 5% flow 49
Expansion Tank Capacity

Fº = 1.8 Cº + 32 , Cº = 0.55 (Fº - 32)

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Sealed Heating System
Closed- Expansion Tank Capacity

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Sealed Heating Systems. Closed- Expansion Tank

In the sealed system of heating ,the open expansion tank and feed cistern is
replaced by a flexible- membrane expansion vessel. The vessel may fitted near
the boiler , either on the supply flow or return pipe.
The expansion vessel must be sized so that its volume is at least equal to the
volume of expansion of water in the system, when raised from 10 to 95 ºC,
irrespective of the normal working temperature.
Where
E = expansion of water m3
VS = volume of water before being heated m3 in the boiler+ system
1 = density of water before being heated Kg/ m3 ,T1=10C
2 = density of water after being heated Kg/ m3,T2=95 C

 1   2 
E  Vs  E (0.04 -0.06 ) Vs
  2 
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Roof Booster Pump Calculation
Down feed (F32)
L  L  L eff e

hL  h1  Leff  11 ft / 100  Leff


hst  6m
L e
 120 ft  36m
Leff  15  36  51m
hl  5111m  5.61m
100m
hA   hst  hl  P
∆P is the surplus pressure required hA  6  5.61  8  7.6m
to operates the fixture (shower)= 8 m
Q  19 gpm 53
BAU 2012
Hot water Expansion Vessel Size
Selection

90 C 1.0359
e 1   1  0.04
10 C 1.00027
e  The expansion coefficient for water heating from 10 to 90 C
 90 C  1.0359 Liter / Kg Is the spesific volume of water @ 90 C
 10 C  1.00027 Liter / Kg Is the spesific volume of water @10 C

Vacc  e x Vs  0.04 Vs
Vacc  Accepted volume Liters
Vs  Total water volume in the heating system
(Boiler , Pipes & Radiators) in liters 54
Hot water Expansion Vessel Size
Selection
• The Total volume of closed expansion tank with a
bladder is calculated from Boyle’s Law :

Vs  e
Vtotal 
Pmin
1
Pmax

Pi = initial static pressure above the vessel i.e charge pressure (absolute) of
vessel. This pressure must not be lower than the hydrostatic pressure at
the point where the tank is connected to the system.
Pf= maximum operating pressure (absolute) of the relief (safety) valve,
taking into account any differences in level between the vessel and the safety
valve. (around 4 bar gage ) 55
Example
Pi = initial static charge pressure
(absolute) of vessel. This pressure
must not be lower than the
hydrostatic pressure at the point
where the tank is connected to the
system
As a rule of thumb 13 liters for every 1000 w of
boiler output .
For Example 350 kW , water in the heating
water system W= 4500 Liters
Let say 15 m from technical floor to boiler room
P1= 15+10 =25 m (initial static charge pressure
(absolute value) that is 2.5 Bar
P2= around 4 bar gage +1 bar =5 Bar

W e 4500x0.04
Vtotal    350 liters
Pmin 2.5
1 1
Pmax 5 56
Expansion Tank Capacity Types

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Open-Expansion tank capacity
The volume of the expansion tank is given by :

0.03  QBoiler (Kcal/h)


Volume of the expansion tank  [in liters ]
ΔT  12 C 

The volume of the expansion tank with respect to its boiler power

Kcal/ 20 30 60 100 200


000 000
hr. 000 000 000

Kw. 23 35 70 116 232

Volu 50 75 100 150 200


me L

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Open Expansion tank pipe
diameter
The pipe diameter of the expansion tank is given by :

Q Boiler(Kcal/h)
Pipe diameter  15  1.5 [in mm]
1000
It is not recommended to use pipe diameter less than 1 inch.
Q = m× C × T

The relation between Water temp erature , flow rate , and


heat loss or gain is given below :
Q (BTU/h)  gpm  (60min/hour )  TF  (8.3 lb/gal)  BTU/lb - F
Q (BTU/h)  500  GPM  TF
The gpm of the system ;
gpm  Q ( BTU/h) / 500  TF , [In U.S.units]
This eqauation can be used to determine the boiler power,
Radiator capacity , fan coil heating or cooling capacity.

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Drawing Of Water
Distribution Systems

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Boiler Selection And
Specifications

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Expansion of Pipe material

L    L  T
L = Amount of change in pipe length, mm
 = Coefficient of linear expansion, mm/m. C ( for (API ) PPr
 = 0.15 mm/m  C)
T= Temperature difference , C
L = is the original length of pipe m

For example : A 6 m copper pipe is subjected to temperature


difference of 50 C
Calculate the pipe expansion L :
L = 0.15 x 6 x 50 =45 mm
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Expansion of Pipe material

66
Calculate the length of the Arm Ls ,assuming that D= 25 mm & L =45
mm.
Ls  30  25  45  10 cm 67
Calculation Of The Arm Length Ls

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Determination Of The Width Between The Arms B

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Determination Of The Width Between The Arms B

B= 200 +2 x L =200+ 2x45 = 290 mm.

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References

1- Mechanical & electrical equipment for buildings –by Stein/Reynolds, Ninth edition, John
Wiley, 2000.
2-Practical Plumbing Engineering, Cyril M.Harris, ASPE,1998.
3- Building Services & equipment (I/II/III), F.Hall, Third edition, 1994.
4- Upland engineering, Mechanical consulting office, Dr. Ali Hammoud.
5- Applied hydraulics Part I & II .”Lecture notes." by A. Hammoud BAU- 1995
6- Pumps with practical applications, .”Lecture notes.” by A. Hammoud BAU- 1999.
7- Lowara catalogue
8- Plumber’s & pipefilter’s , Calculations Manual by R. Dodge Woodson.
9- Plumbing Design & practice by S G Deolalikar
10- fluidedesign – Jacques Chaurette
12- Internet web sides
13- Faber & Kell’s Heating Air-conditioning of Buildings Ninth edition India-2002

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Questions

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Thank You

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