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• the risk of HIV transmission from patient to

surgeon is low
• The estimated risk of transmission from a
needlestick from a source with HIV-infected
blood is estimated at 0.3%.
• Postexposure prophylaxis for HIV has
significantly decreased the risk of
seroconversion for health care workers with
occupational exposure to HIV
• Risk of HIV transmission to physicians is as 1 in
200.000 surgeons if no postexposure
prophylaxis taken

• Hep B and C infections


• Yersinia pestis (Plague)
• caused by Yersinia pestis.
• transmitted via flea bites from rodents.
• Individuals who develop a painful
• enlarged lymph node lesion termed a “bubo” associated with
fever, severe malaise, and exosure to fleas should be suspected to have plague.
Diagnosis is confirmed via aspirate of the bubo
• and a direct antibody stain to detect plague bacillus. Typical
• morphology for this organism is that of a bipolar safety-pin–
• shaped Gram-negative organism. Postexposure prophylaxis for
• patients exposed to plague consists of doxycycline. Treatment
• of the pneumonic or bubonic/septicemic form includes administration
• of either streptomycin, an aminoglycoside, doxycycline,
• ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, or chloramphenicol.94
Smallpox
• Variola, the causative agent of smallpox
• Variola virus is highly infectious in the aerosolized form
• incubation period of 10 to 12 days,
• Clinical manifestations of malaise, fever, vomiting, and
headache appear,
• characteristic centripetal rash
• The fatality rate 30%.
• Postexposure prophylaxis up to 4 days
• Cidofovir, an acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogue,
has treatment of smallpox.