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BRINJAL /EGG PLANT

CULTIVATION
INTRODUCTION
• Eggplant is a popular greenhouse crop due to
the high yield potential, rapid growth, and
improved quality possible over a longer
season.
• Egg plant is a perennial and cultivated
commercially as an annual crop.
• The other name of egg plant is auberigine,
brinjal.
VARIETIES
• CO1
• CO2
• (BR)
• PPI(B)
• COBH1
The other varieties and hybrids include krishna,
manjarigota,pragati,vaishali,ABVI, and COBH2.
CLIMATE
• Egg plant prefers warm climatic conditions the
plant grows well in day temperature 24ºC to
30ºC and with night temperature not below
20ºC.
• The plant can tolerate drought and high rain
fall and flowering is not affected by day
length.
SOIL
• The plant grows in a wide variety of soils. Soils
that are deep, fine, rich loam soils are much
preferred for healthy growth with high yield.
• The soil pH should be within 5.5 to 6.5 range
for optimum growth.
LAND PREPARATION
• Egg plant is a long duration crop and soil must
be well prepared for cultivation .Prepare the
field thoroughly with four to five plowing and
turn soil at least 20 cm deep
PROPAGATION
• Eggplants can be propagated by seeds and
transplanting. Germination of seeds is slow
and must be sown in nursery beds. Seedlings
of 30 to 35 days are ready for transplanting to
the main field.
SEED RATE
• Seed of 800 grams to 1000 grams is required
to raise the seedlings in nursery for a hectare
land.
SEED TREATMENT
• Before sowing the eggplant seeds must be
treated with four grams of trichoderma per
kilogram or 10 grams of pseudomonas
fluorescens per kilogram of seed .
• The seeds can also be treated with 10 grams
of azospirillum per kilogram seed by mixing in
rice gruel which act as adhesive.
SOWING
• Eggplant can be cultivated twice in a year. The
sowing can be from december to january and
may to june
PLANT SPACING
• Raise beds of 120 cm in width and 30 cm
interval between beds. Seedlings are raised on
a raised bed. Spacing of 60*60 cm between
plants for variety and 90*60 cm between
hybrid seedlings. Planting can also be done at
a spacing of 90*60*75 cm in a paired row.
EGG PLANT IN GREEN HOUSE
• Eggplant is a popular crop grown in green
house for its long season and high yield
potential. Growing of eggplant in greenhouse
offers distinct advantages of quality and
productivity. Eggplant growers can
substantially increase their income by
growing eggplant in greenhouse in cool
season (off-season) by regulating temperature
inside the greenhouse.
IRRIGATION
• Irrigation to main field can be done throw
furrow flooding or drip irrigation . Timely
irrigation is quite essential for good growth,
flowering, fruit setting and development of
fruits. The brinjal field should be regularly
irrigated to keep the moist during frosty days.
• After establishment of seedlings, irrigate at
weekly intervals.
MANURES AND FERTILIZERS
• At the last plowing mix soil with 25 tonnes per
hectare of farm yard manure or compost
along 100 kg of nitrogen,150kg of
phosphorous, and 100 kg of potassium is
given basal dose. After planting the seedlings
at about each week three to five kg of
nitrogen must be applied for period of vegetal
growth.
MULCHING
• Mulch with black LDPE sheets of 25 micron
thickness and bury both the ends into the soil
to a depth of 10 cm.
PESTS AND DISESES
• Shoot & fruit borer
• Nematode and Damping off disease
• Epilachna beetle
• Whitefly
• Ash Weevil
• Aphid
• Red Spider mite etc..
HARVEST AND YIELD
• Harvest can be done 55 – 60 days after
transplanting. Fruits are harvested at tender
stage at 4 – 5 days intervals.
• Yield:
Varieties:25 to 30 t/ha
Hybrids:60 - 80 t/ha
STORAGE
• Do not leave harvested eggplants in the
greenhouse longer than necessary or they will
heat up and decrease in quality. Eggplant can be
stored at 80% relative humidity and a
temperature of 54–59°F/12– 15°C. Do not store
with crops that emit ethylene, like tomatoes.
Eggplants are sensitive to dehydration, so if fruits
are intended to be on display for more than a
short period of time, they should be wrapped to
prevent drying out.
REFERENCE
• http://agritech.tnau.ac.in/horticulture/horti_v
egetables_brinjal.html
• http://demandware.edgesuite.net/bbbw_prd/
on/demandware.static/-/Library-Sites-
JSSSharedLibrary/default/dwa8063392/assets
/information/eggplant-greenhouse-
production.pdf
CASE STUDY
1.WATER USE AND YIELD OF GREENHOUSE
GROWN EGGPLANT UNDER DRIP IRRIGATION
K.Chartzoulakis aN.Drososb
2. Genetically modified parthenocarpic eggplants:
improved fruit productivity under both
greenhouse and open field cultivation.
Nazzareno Acciarri1, Federico Restaino2,
Gabriele Vitelli1,
Domenico Perrone2,Michela Zottini3,
Tiziana Pandolfini3, Angelo Spena3 and
Giuseppe Leonardo Rotino4
ABSTRACT 1
• The water consumptive use of eggplant, hyb. Delica,
grown in unheated greenhouse was determined using
tensiometers. The maximum evapotranspiration (ETm),
when soil water potential was maintained at values
higher than −20 KPa, ranged from 0.5 to 4.5 mm day−1,
with a whole season irrigation requirement
corresponding to 380 mm. Water amount equal to 0.85
× ETm had no effect on fruit yield, which was 6.5 kg per
plant; water application of 0.65 × ETm and 0.40 ×
ETm reduced total yield by 35% and 46%, respectively.
Fruit number per plant was significantly reduced at
0.65 × ETm and 0.40 × ETmwhile fruit size was not
affected by the amount of water applied.
CONTD…
• The crop ETm in October (at planting) was 0.2 of A pan
evaporation (Epan) located outside the greenhouse. This
value remained constant until February and then
increased gradually to 0.8 × Epan at the end of the
experiment, in May. Salt content was higher at the
surface 10 cm soil layer with all amounts of water
applied. With 1.00 × ETm and 0.85 × ETm salts were
leached out of root zone, while an additional amount
of water was required at 0.65 and 0.40 × ETm for salt
leaching.

ABSTRACT 2
• RESULTS:
GM parthenocarpic eggplants have been evaluated in
three field trials. Two greenhouse spring trials have
shown that these plants outyielded the corresponding
untransformed genotypes, while a summer trial has
shown that improved fruit productivity in GM
eggplants can also be achieved in open field
cultivation. Since the fruits were always seedless, the
quality of GM eggplant fruits was improved as well. RT-
PCR analysis demonstrated that the DefH9-iaaM gene
is expressed during late stages of fruit development.