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Managing People and Organizations

Module 10 - Managing for the future

Lecture Sequence 3 - Managing work stress


BITS Pilani
Pilani | Dubai | Goa | Hyderabad
Dr. Annapoorna Gopal
Learning Objectives

• After studying this lecture sequence, you should be able to:


– Define stress and identify its potential sources.
– Identify the consequences of stress.
– Contrast the individual and organizational approaches to managing stress.
– Explain global differences in organizational work stress.

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BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Work Stress

Stress
– A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an
opportunity, constraint, or demand related to what he or she desires and
for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important
• Types of Stress
– Challenge Stressors
• Stress associated with workload, pressure to complete tasks, and time
urgency
– Hindrance Stressors
• Stress that keeps you from reaching your goals, such as red tape
• Cause greater harm than challenge stressors

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BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Demands-Resources Model of Stress

• Demands
– Responsibilities, pressures, obligations, and uncertainties in the workplace
• Resources
– Things within an individual’s control that can be used to resolve demands
• Adequate resources help reduce the stressful nature of demands

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BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
A Model of Stress

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BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Potential Sources of Stress

• Environmental Factors
– Economic uncertainties due to changes in the business cycle
– Change in business priorities due to changes in the political scenario
– Threat to manpower requirement due to technological changes/innovation
• Organizational Factors
– Task demands related to the job
– Role demands of functioning in an organization
– Interpersonal demands created by other employees
• Personal Factors
– Family and personal relationships
– Economic problems from exceeding earning capacity
– Personality problems arising from basic disposition
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BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Review

1. Discuss various factors that are responsible for creating stress in the
employees of an organisation?

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BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Consequences of Stress

• Stressors are additive: high levels of stress can lead to the following
symptoms
– Physiological
• High blood pressure, headaches, stroke
– Psychological
• Dissatisfaction, tension, anxiety, irritability, boredom, and
procrastination
• Greatest when roles are unclear in the presence of conflicting demands
– Behavioral
• Changes in job behaviors, increased smoking or drinking, different
eating habits, rapid speech, fidgeting, sleep disorders
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BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Managing Stress

• Individual Approaches
– Implementing time management
– Increasing physical exercise
– Relaxation training
– Expanding social support network
• Organizational Approaches
– Improved personnel selection and job placement
– Training
– Use of realistic goal setting
– Redesigning jobs
– Increased employee involvement
– Improved organizational communication
– Offering employee sabbaticals
– Establishment of corporate wellness programs
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BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Managing Stress

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JwKWVkqdbpQ

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BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Review

1. What are the steps that can be taken both by the organisation and the
employees to reduce the stress on the employees? Discuss.

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BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Global Implications

• Stress
– Job conditions that cause stress vary across cultures
– Evidence suggests that stress is equally bad for employees of all cultures
– Having friends and family can reduce stress

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BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Summary and Managerial Implications

• Stress can be good or bad for employees

• Despite possible improvements in job performance caused by stress, such


improvements come at the cost of increased job dissatisfaction

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BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
M10_L3 : Assessment Time

1. Read http://arunkottolli.blogspot.com/2006/07/managing-global-careers-
dealing-with.html. Discuss the effects of culture shock on stress levels of
expatriate workers. Based on the article, have the students define what
preparations should be made to help an employee cope with culture shock

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BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956