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Why do we conserve fodder

Regular supply of quality fodder is


essential for sustainable development
of livestock
Fodder is the cheapest source of feed
Fodder production is 40% short in
supply (NARC, 2008-9)
Lean periods of fodder availability

Seasional Green Fodder Avaliability In Pakistan


25
FODDER (Kg) / ANIMAL / DAY

20

15

10

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

M ON TH S

(FAO, 1995)
Lean periods of fodder availability

 These periods adversely effect the productivity


of animals
 Under these conditions it is not possible to
increase area under fodder cultivation due
production of grain for human production
 The only option is to increase per acre yield of
fodder
 Conservation of fodder can be helpful in saving
the surplus fodder and using it during scarcity
period
What is silage?

Silage is a product of anaerobically


preserved green fodder in succulent
form
Main goal of silage making is to
preserve as much of the nutritional
value of original crop as possible
Fodder crops for silage making-
Any fodder which has sufficient quantity of
fermentable CH2O can be ensiled but
most favorable is the maize.
Sorghum
Sadabahar
Oat
Lucerne
Mott grass
Sugar cane tops
TYPES AND SIZES OF SILOS
o Different types of
silos (i.e. trench,
bunker and tower)
at varying sizes are
used including,
bunker, trench and
tower silos.
o The most common
is the bunker silo.
CHEMICAL CHANGES
o Acids are produced by bacteria that
convert fermentable carbohydrates
into organic acids, predominantly lactic
and acetic acids (fermentation phase).
o If fermentation progresses, more acids
are produced, pH drops, and
eventually the acidity level is adequate
to inhibit or kill most bacteria and other
microorganisms (stable phase).
CHEMICAL CHANGES
o Concentration of fermentable CH2O in the
forage, its buffering capacity, DM content
and the number and type of bacteria
present on the fodder are the main factors
that could affect the rate of pH decline,
final pH and quality of the silage.
o A quality silage has pH 4.2 or lower, lactic
acid 3.0-13%, Butyric acid 0.5-0.7%,
acetic acid 5-10%, ethanol 10-15% and
Nitrogen content less than 11% of fodder
dry matter.
PHASES OF SILAGE PRESERVATION
Aerobic phase
 Air trapped in forage is utilized in aerobic respiration and proteolysis
(1 day if well packed)
Fermentation phase
 Lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus buchneri,
Enterococcus faecium and Pediococcus and other anaerobic bacteria
multiply and produce organic acids lactic (1-3%) and acetic acids
(3%), Propionic acid (1%) butyric acid (0.1%) and ethanol (0.5%) that
reduce pH to 3.8 and 5.0 ( during 15-30 days)
Stable phase
 Once preserved by fermentation, stable phase can last months or
years in anaerobic conditions
Feed-out phase
 To minimize losses, silage should be used quickly once exposed to air

Harvest Transport Ensile


CONDITIONS OF SILAGE MAKING
Stage of harvest, 1/10th bloom or
Soft dough stage
Moisture Content, wilting and
addition of absorbent
Chopping of fodder
Use of additives, inoculants
Urea, soluble CH2O, CSL or
Acids etc.
Quick filling of silos
Elimination of Air by extensive
compaction
Anaerobic conditions, plastic
sheet and mud plaster
WSC LEVELS IN COMMON FORAGES
Alfalfa
vegetative stage 9%
full bloom 7%
Legume grass mix (50:50) 13%
Barley
flowering 18%
milk stage 32%
soft dough 24%
 Legumes having high buffering capacity
require about 10 – 12% WSC to ensile.
 Grasses having moderate buffering capacity
require a minimum of 6 - 8% WSC
COVERING THE BUNKER
• Polyethylene sheet and mud plastering
• remove the air out?
• Weight down edges especially
• Seal up holes carefully
Factors Affecting Quality of Silage

o Stage of harvest 1/10th bloom, more nutrients


o Concentration of fermentable CH2O in the forage,
o Buffering capacity,
o DM or moisture content of fodder (30%DM)
o Number and type of bacteria present on the fodder
o A quality silage has pH 4.2 or lower,
o lactic acid 3.0-13%, Butyric acid 0.5-0.7%, acetic acid
5-10%, ethanol 10-15% and Nitrogen content less
than 11% of fodder Dry matter.
pH: weak areas in the bunker

G. Borreani, E. Tabacco, G. Colombari – 2002


HAY AND HAYLAGE
 Hay: is grass, legumes or other herbaceous
plants that have been cut, dried, and stored for
use as animal fodder, particularly for grazing
livestock such as cattle, horses, goats, and
sheep.
 Haylage: For animals that eat silage, a bale
wrapper may be used to seal a round bale
completely and trigger the fermentation process.
It is a technique used as a money-saving
process by producers who do not have access
to a silo, and for producing silage that is
transported to other locations.
SUMMARY
1. Harvest the fodder at a stage of maturity that optimizes forage
quality and quantity

2. Ensile at the proper DM content


3. Chop the forage into small particles
4. Avoid silage contamination with dirt
5. Fill silo rapidly
6. Pack the silo well as to best expel oxygen
7. Seal with plastic for at least 30 days
8. After removal of silage for feeding the face should be
tightly closed again
9. Use inoculants or additives only if required
RECOMMENDATION
o The availability of green fodder has large
variation during different seasons of the year.
Two extremes of seasons, the summer and
winter impose a severe snag in the availability of
fodders adversely affecting the production of
livestock.
o Ensiling extra fodder would help to maintain year
round uniform supply of feed to livestock.
o It would go a long way to bridge the gap of
nutrient supply during fodder scarcity periods
and facilitating the farmers for profitable
livestock farming.
LIMITATIONS
 Extensive research available
 Multi-cut fodder verities are available
 On farm training facility is available, Extension
workers are doing good job
 Farmer are agree to make silage
 Machinery is costly and farmers cannot afford it
 Nestle is also doing good but in limited area
 Expectation from government is to purchase
machinery and keep it at district level (especially
in corn growing areas) for use by the farmers on
customer hire basis