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PRESENTATION BY RAHUL DAS

13UCE120
CONTENT
 Introductio
Different types of load consider in designing
 Necessity of structural analysis before designing
Different types of design method
Necessity of reinforcement in beam
Different types of reinforced section
Forces in concrete and steel
Types of beam based on reinforced
Conclusion
INTRODUCTION
Beam is a horizontal member and the column is a
vertical member. Beam transfer the load to the column
And column transfer the load to the foundation and
ultimately foundation transfer load to the ground in a
wider area . Different types of beam based on support
are
 fixed beam,
cantilever beam,
simple supported beam,
 continuous beam
LOAD CONSIDER IN DESIGNING:
The designed structure should bear the following load :
 self weight
 dead load + live load
 wind load
 snow load
 seismic load
Afterall a design engineer design a structure which will economic and provide
maximum strength

NECESSITY OF STRUCTURAL ANALYYSIS BEFORE DESINING


OF BUILDING :
A structural engineer analyse
 slope,
 Deflection
 shear force
 Bending moment
Based on this data design engineer starts designing of members
DESINING METHOD :
mainly there are three types of designing method :
 Working stress method
 Ultimate load method
 Limit state method

working stress method


Assumptions of working stress method :
no load factor is considered after bending also
Tensile strength of concrete is neglected
Seress strain relationship of steel and concrete is a straight line
Plain section remain plain after bending also

DRAWBACK OF WORKING STRESS METHOD:


 no load factor is considered
 concrete is taken as elastic material , but actually concrete is not elastic
 there is no way to account the degree of uncertainity with different types of load
It is difficult to account the creep and srinkage
ULTIMATE LOAD METHOD:
the drawbacks in working stress method are removed BY WHITNEY in ultimate
load method :
 here load factor is considered , working load is multiplied by a load factor to find
ultimate load
 stress strain relationship is non linear for concrete
 reinforcement reuired is less
The main drawback is
There is no control against excessive deflection

LIMITE STATE METHOD


All the drawbacks in working stress method and ultimate laod method are removed
in limit state method
This method states of collapse
 Aslo states of surviceability
it means that the structure will not collapse and it will be serviceable
NECESSITY OF REINFORCEMENT IN BEAM
Concrete can bear compressive stress but tensile strength of
concrete is nearly 15% of compressive strength because large
number of voids are present in concrete structure. As tensile
strength of concrete is less so reinforcement is used in beam to
carry the tensile stresss.

LOCATION OF REINFORCEMENT IN BEAM


Simply supported beam: In this beam tensile stress develop
below the neutral axis so reinforcement provide at bottom

Cantilever beam: In this beam tensile stress develop above


the neutral axis so steel provide at upper portion
LOCATION OF STEEL IN BEAM SECTION

 Cross section of
beam shown by
zooming
Simply supported beam

 Cross section of
beam shown by
zooming

Cantilever beam
TYPES OF REINFORCED SECTION
there are three types of section :

 Under reinforced section


 Balanceed sction
 Over reinforced
Reinforced section Moment carried by
under R.S Steel
Over R.S Concrete
Balanced R.S Steel or conccete

Concrete carry compressive force and steel carry tensile force


FORCES IN CONCRETE AND STEEL
Compressive force on concrete =.36 fck x b
Tensile force on reinforcement =.87 fy Ast
Where b=breadth of beam
d=effective depth of beam
fck= strength of concrete
fy=ultimate strength of steel
Depth of neutral axis
X= .87 fy Ast / .36 fck b
According to IS456, maximum value of neutral
axis Fe250 .53d
Fe415 .48d
Fe500 .46d
Fe550 .44d

if x max > x , it is called under reinforced


x max =x , it is callled ballanced reinforced
x max < x , it is called over reinforced
DIAGRAMS OF UNDER OVER AND BALANCED REINFORCED
SECTION :
UNDER REINRORCED SECTION : BALANCED REINFORCED SECTION :

x x=x max
x max

x < x max x = x max

OVER REINFORCED SECTION :

x
X max

x > x max
TYPES OF BEAMS BASED ON REINFORCEMENT
There are mainly two types of beam:
 singly reinforced beam :means only tension reinforced are provided
 doubly reinforced beam: means both tension and compression r/f is provided

LENHTH TO EFFECTIVE DEPTH RATIO


Support condition le/d
Simply supported 20
Cantilever 7
continuous 27

Ex- if length of a simply upported beam is 5m then the effective depth will
be , d=5000/ 20
=250 mm
Total depth of beam (D) = effective depth(d) + ½ dia of steel + clear cover
width of beam is (b)= d/1.5
CRSOSS SECTION OF A BEAM

d=effective depth of beam


D

clear cover ( min 25 mm for beam)


Total load on beam = self wt+ dead load +live load +wind load+ seismic load
( working load ) =u
Ultimate load = total load * 1.5
=u*1.5
=w
as ultimate load on a beam is w KN/m
then moment M = wl^2/8 TYPE OF LIMITING
According to IS 456, 2000 STEEL MOMENT

Fe250 .148fck b d^2


Fe415 .138 fck b d^2
Fe500 .133 fck b d^2
Fe550 .130 fck b d^2
If limiting moment (IS code)> acting moment
The section is called singly reinforced
In this case
M (acting moment )=.87fyAstd{ 1- fyAst/fck b d }
from this euation we can calculate the area of steel
Again according to IS 456,2000 –
Min area of steel (Ast min) = .85bd/fy
the calculated Ast should > Ast min
If not then provide Ast min
If diameter of steel is h
Number of steel bar =Ast/area of each steel bar single reinforced
Ast

If limiting moment is < acting moment


the section is called over reinforced In this case
additional moment is carried by top reinforcement Asc
Acting moment – limiting moment =Asc fsc (d-d’)
Asc = area of compression or top steel
fsc = yield stress of top steel
Ast2
From this euation we can calculate the area of top steel
d’=effective cover of upper reinforced Ast1
Doubly reinforced
Again .87fy Ast2 = fsc Asc
Ast2=fsc Asc/.87fy
From this euation we can calculate Ast2

The tension reinforcement is calculated by –


Ast1 =.36 fck x b/.87 fy

Total tension bar Ast= Ast1 +Ast2


Number of tension bar= Ast/ cross sectional area of each steel
CONCLUSION
Development length is provided to transfer the stress in
steel to the concrete and if overlap length is reuired it
should provide maintaining the IS 456-2000 code for
transfering the stress from one steel to another steel
Afterall the section designed should economic