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ENTRY SLIP – GRAMMAR REVIEW

A key finding from her 1.


intensive, field, studies is A. NO CHANGE
the extent to which B. intensive field studies
elephant survival depends C. intensive field studies,
on learned behavior. As D. intensive, field studies
Moss has observed,
however, a calf must learn 2.
how to use its trunk. F. NO CHANGE
G. for instance,
H. as always,
J. by now,
ENTRY SLIP – GRAMMAR REVIEW
At first a young elephant will 3.
A. NO CHANGE
drink by kneeling down at
B. which it sips
the water's edge and it C. and sipping
sipped directly with its D. that sips
mouth. The habit of pulling 4.
water into its trunk. Then F. NO CHANGE
releasing that water into its G. trunk and then
H. trunk then by
mouth develops only after J. trunk
months as if witnessing 5.
other elephants doing so. A. NO CHANGE
B. when witnessing
C. of witnessing
D. then witness
Class #11 HOMEWORK REVIEW
ACT Practice Test #1
Section 1: #s 8, 58, 72
Section 3 (Reading) : Passage #1

Workbook
Grammar Review Exercise #1 (pgs. 91 – 92)
ACT English – Rhetorical Skills
In this segment we will cover…
Lesson #1 Introduction & Question Types (pg. 95)
Organization
Lesson #2 Transitions
Lesson #3 Sentence & Paragraph Order
Style
Lesson #4 Concision
Lesson #5 Appropriate Word Choice
Strategy
Lesson #6 Author’s Goal/Additions & Deletions
Pg. 94
ACT Rhetorical Skills Fast Facts
1. 35 out of 75 English questions will test
“rhetorical skills”

2. These questions test style, strategy, and


organization.

Pg. 95
Lesson #1: Introduction
Rhetorical Skills questions will test style,
organization, and author’s strategy. For some
questions, you will need to understand the
author’s argument and think about the most
logical flow of ideas.
RS Question Types
Style Organization Strategy
Rosie must have heard To make this If the author’s goal
us talking, because she was [main idea],
began to amble over
passage most
logical, paragraph does this passage
to us.
do this?
5 should be
A. NO CHANGE placed…
B. have heard of
C. of heard about
D. of heard

On pg. 96, use your ACT Practice exam to fill in the chart. Then,
answer the questions at the bottom of the page.
RS Question Types
Question Type Have to Read whole passage or paragraph?

Transitions No
Paragraph & Sentence Location Yes
Not necessarily (when the question asks you about
Appropriate Word & Phrase
“matching the author’s style” you have to have some
Choice
understanding)

Concision No
Main Idea(s)/Author’s Goal or
Yes
Purpose

Deletions/Insertions Sometimes

Based on the amount of reading you have to do for each question type, which RS
question types should you approach first?
Lesson #2: Transitions
• Organization questions test transitions
sentences (opening or closing sentences to
paragraphs or the entire passage).
• You will have to read around the
underlined word or phrase, but you will
not have to read the entire passage.

• See example questions on the next slides.

Pg. 97
A.Transition Word Questions
Of the RS organization questions, you should
approach transition word questions first.
• ACT Example
– Which of the following would NOT be an
acceptable replacement to the underlined portion?
A. However,
B. Nevertheless,
C. Alternatively,
D. Finally,
Transitions
• Learning transition words & symbols will
help you attack questions about the logical
order of sentences or paragraphs.
• Learning transition words will also help you
solve “appropriate word choice” questions.
Categories of Common Transition Words

1. Same Direction: These words add another point to


the discussion. Writers present one or more ideas that
continue along the same line of thought as a previous
idea.
2. Cause & Effect: These words indicate a consequence
of an action or source of a problem and are sometimes
synonymous with time words. The transition word may
answer the “why.”
3. Contrast: These words show differences between two
or more items being compared.
4. Time/Sequence: These words provide step-by-step
organization to writing. Sequential words include: next,
first, second, then, after, before.
Pg. 98
Transition Words, Phrases, and Symbols
With a partner, fill in as many additional
transitions words, phrases, and symbols in the
chart on pg. 98.
Transition Words, Phrases, and
Symbols
Same Direction Cause and Effect Contrast Time/Sequence
And Therefore But Next
Also Since Although First
Further Because Yet Second
In fact Consequently Rather After
;/: Hence Despite Before
In addition As a result In contrast While
Moreover Accordingly However Subsequently
Similarly In order to Nonetheless Following
Additionally For the purpose of Though During
Indeed Due to Notwithstanding Last/Lastly
Such as Given Conversely Instantly
For example Finally
To illustrate In conclusion
In other words Overall
Using Transitions: Guided Practice
1. My yoga studio is only 2 miles away. I go three
times a week.

– (But) My yoga studio is only 2 miles away, but I only


go three times a week.

– (So) My yoga studio is only 2 miles away, so I go three


times a week.

– (Because) Because my yoga studio is only 2 miles


away, I go three times a week.

Pg. 99
Using Transitions: Guided Practice
2. Richard applied to sixteen schools. He was afraid his PSAT
scores would hurt his admission chances.

– (Therefore) Richard was afraid his PSAT scores would hurt his
admission chances; therefore, he applied to sixteen schools.

– (Because) Richard applied to sixteen schools because he was


afraid his PSAT scores would hurt his admission chances.

– (Since) Since Richard was afraid that his PSAT scores would
hurt his admission chances, he applied to sixteen schools.
Using Transitions: Guided Practice
3. Harriet, a web developer, would like to move to San
Francisco. It is a very expensive city.

– (Although) Although Harriet, a web developer, would like


to move to San Francisco, it is a very expensive city.

– (Nevertheless) Harriet, a web developer, would like to


move to San Francisco; nevertheless, it is a very expensive
city.

– (Yet) Harriet, a web developer, would like to move to San


Francisco, yet it is a very expensive city.
Using Transitions: Guided Practice
4. You must mix all of the soft ingredients in a large
bowl on medium speed. The mixture completely
liquefies.
– (;) You must mix all of the soft ingredients in a large bowl
on medium speed; the mixture completely liquefies.

– (Once) Once you mix all of the soft ingredients in a large


bowl on medium speed, the mixture completely liquefies.

– (Then) You must mix all of the soft ingredients in a large


bowl on medium speed, and then the mixture completely
liquefies.
ACT Examples
Now that we have practiced identifying different
types of transitions and using them to combine
sentences, let’s take a closer look at some SAT
examples…

Work with a partner to read the passage on pg.


100 and answer the questions (#s 1 – 4).

Rhetorical Skills: Transitions Pg. 100


ACT Examples
Example Problem Model Response
1. … The fire ring shows make crowds The correct answer is “A,” no
“ooh” and “aah.” In addition, the daredevil change.
stunt acts and comedic sideshows have
adults on the edges of their seats and The sentence continues in the Same
laughing uncontrollably. One of my Direction as the one before –
fondest childhood memories at the circus describing acts in the show.
was a performance in which a robust
clown and his monkey rode a Vespa while You Try Solving
attempting to pop balloons and throw
confetti at the crowd.

A. NO CHANGE
B. Finally,
C. Therefore,
D. However,
ACT Examples
Example Problem Model Response
2. One of my fondest childhood 2. H. However,
memories at the circus was a
performance in which a robust clown The sentence presents a Contrasting
and his monkey rode a Vespa while
idea from the paragraph/sentence
attempting to pop balloons and throw
prior.
confetti at the crowd.

Next, the circus is not what it appears


to be. Behind the scenes, there are You Try Solving
many not-so-spectacular things that
happen to the animals.

F. NO CHANGE
G. Additionally,
H. However,
J. Moreover,
ACT Examples
Example Problem Model Response
3. Behind the scenes, there are many 3. B. For Example,
not-so-spectacular things that
happen to the animals. As a result, The sentence presents an idea that is
circus animals live in undignified related to the idea prior and that
conditions, exist most of their continues in the Same Direction/Adds
lives in cages, and spend days, to said idea.
even weeks, on the road. You Try Solving
A. NO CHANGE
B. For example,
C. However,
D. Yet,
ACT Examples
Example Problem Model Response
4. During training, circus animals 4. J. because
experience physical pain and they
are pushed to perform in ways
that do not suit their natural The second complete idea is the
instincts and character. Cause of the first complete idea.
You Try Solving
F. NO CHANGE “And” would work IF it were preceded
G. though by a comma.
H. yet
J. because
Transition Word Practice
• On pg. 101, work with a partner to complete
questions 1 – 3 about transition words &
phrases.
• You will have five minutes.

5 minutes
Transition Word Practice
KEY
1. B. however,
2. H. however,
3. C. although
B. Transitions from Paragraph to Paragraph,
Introductions, and Conclusions
• These transition questions are a little more challenging
because they require you to understand the main
ideas of two paragraphs.
• Example: Given that all of the choices are true, which
one most effectively introduces the information that
follows in this paragraph?
A. NO CHANGE
B. Though school regulations vary,
C. Educated with these options,
D. Mindful of his victory,

Pg. 102
B. Transitions from Paragraph to Paragraph,
Introductions, and Conclusions
1. Which of the following would be the best introduction to
the passage?
A. Elephants require an enormous amount of food – up to
300kg of food per day for a large elephant.
B. Each year, hundreds of elephants and people are killed or
injured when elephants raid farmland and destroy
farmers’ crops.
C. The easiest and least expensive way to protect crops
from elephants is to employ guards.
D. Male elephants are more likely to raid crops than female
elephants.
Answer: B
B. Transitions from Paragraph to Paragraph,
Introductions, and Conclusions

2. Which of the following provides the best


transition from the previous paragraph?

F. NO CHANGE
G. Because of this fact,
H. As a result,
J. Though conservationists disagree,

Answer: H
B. Transitions from Paragraph to Paragraph,
Introductions, and Conclusions
Remember the following:
Does the answer choice retain the original meaning?
Is the answer concise?
Is the answer choice grammatically correct?
Guided Practice
1. Which of the following best introduces Paragraph 2?

A. NO CHANGE
B. The costs are significant, once you consider wasted
time, lost productivity, poor public-health outcomes,
and increased carbon emissions. In the…
C. One of the greatest concerns with failing
infrastructure is the risk it poses to citizens. In the…
D. In the long term, the situation is even more
problematic. In the…

Answer: C
Pg. 103
Guided Practice
2. Which of the following would the best transition from
paragraph 2 to paragraph 3?

F. NO CHANGE
G. In addition to the obvious safety concerns posed by
crumbling infrastructure,
H. Therefore, we must utilize new technologies to ensure that
our infrastructure is more resilient;
J. Infrastructure provides goods and services that have great
contribution to the economy and national defense;

Answer: G
ACT-Style Guided Practice
3. Given that all the choices are true, which one most
effectively concludes paragraph 4?

A. However, it is absolutely crucial to the American economy


and public safety that local governments funnel more tax
dollars into infrastructure.
B. Therefore, the time has come to begin freeway
construction.
C. In addition, nothing is as important as public transportation
and public safety.
D. However, no single neighborhood should be held
responsible for what it cannot avoid where there are
accidents.
Answer: A
More Paragraph Transition Practice

• On pg. 104, work with a partner to


complete questions 1 – 3 about transition
words & phrases.
• You will have five minutes.
5 minutes
More Paragraph Transition Practice

KEY
1. B
2. F
3. A
Transition Practice – Mixed
Practice
• On pg. 105 – 106, work with a partner to
complete questions 1 – 6 about transition
words & phrases.
• You will have ten minutes.
10 minutes
Transition Practice – Mixed Practice

KEY
1. D (decade less than their)
2. F (NO CHANGE)
3. B (For this reason…)
4. F (However…)
5. B (the consequences of…)
6. F (NO CHANGE)
Class #12 HOMEWORK
• Using ACT Practice Test #1, complete the
following problems:
– Section 1 (English – Transitions) #s 11, 14, 17, 21,
26, 36, 52, 53, 73, 75
CHECKPOINT
• What technique could you use for the Word
Choice questions in the English Section?