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Basic LAN Switching

© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPNGN1 v1.01—2-1
• Define a LAN
• Describe the components of a LAN
• Describe the functions provided by a LAN
• Describe various types and sizes of LANs
• Describe the evolution of Ethernet
• Identify the standards for Ethernet LANs
• Describe how Ethernet LANs manage the physical signals using Carrier
Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)
• Describe the format of an Ethernet Frame
• Describe how the MAC address is formatted in an Ethernet LAN

© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPNGN1 v1.01—2-2
• Layer 2 switching is essential for building IP NGN infrastructure

Access
Aggregation
IP Edge
Core
Residential

Mobile Users

Business

IP Infrastructure Layer

Access Aggregation IP Edge Core

© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPNGN1 v1.01—2-3
• A LAN is a network of computers and other components located
relatively close together.

Small Office LAN

Large Office LAN

© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPNGN1 v1.01—2-4
• Computers: PC
- PCs
- Servers
• Interconnections:
- Network interface cards (NICs)
- Media
Switch
• Network devices:
- Hub
- Switches
• Protocols:
- Ethernet
- IP PC Server
- Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
- DHCP

© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPNGN1 v1.01—2-5
• Data and applications:
- Sharing files and applications
- More efficient collaboration
• Shared resources:
- Cameras
- Printers
• Communication path to other networks:
- Access to the Internet

© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPNGN1 v1.01—2-6
• A LAN can be configured in a variety of sizes, depending on the
requirements of the environment in which it operates.

Small office,
home office
(SOHO) LAN Enterprise LAN

© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPNGN1 v1.01—2-7
Year Ethernet Activity
1970 First packet radio network
1973 Ethernet invented at Xerox
1977 U.S. patent issued
1982 DIX releases 10 Mb/s Ethernet
1992 First stackable Ethernet hub
2002 IEEE approves 802.3ae; 10 Gb/s
June 2010 40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s Ethernet standardized as IEEE 802.3ba
40 Gb/s serial single-mode optical fiber standard (40GBASE-FR)
March 2011
as IEEE 802.3bg

© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPNGN1 v1.01—2-8
LLC Sublayer IEEE 802.2

Ethernet II / IEEE 802.3


Data Link
Layer MAC

IEEE 802.3ab
IEEE 802.3u

IEEE 802.3z

Token Ring /
Sublayer

IEEE 802.3

IEEE 802.5
FDDI
Physical Physical
Layer Layer

OSI Layers LAN Specifications

© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPNGN1 v1.01—2-9
Carrier Sense

Multiple Access

Collision
Collision

Collision Detection
(Backoff Algorithm)
JAM JAM JAM JAM JAM
© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPNGN1 v1.01—2-10
Field Length (Bytes)
8 6 6 2 46–1500 4

T
Destin. Source y
Preamble Data FCS
Address Address p
e

Ethernet Frame

Field Length (Bytes)


7 1 6 6 2 46–1500 4
L
S e
Destin. Source n
Preamble O g
802.2 Header and Data FCS
Address Address
F t
h

IEEE 802.3 Frame


Legend:
Destin. Address = Destination Address
FCS = Frame Check Sequence
SOF = Start-of-Frame Delimiter

© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPNGN1 v1.01—2-11
Components of a MAC address:
• 24-bit Organizational Unique Identifier (OUI):
- Identifies the manufacturer of the NIC card
- IEEE regulates the assignment of OUI numbers
- Includes broadcast or multicast bit, and locally-administered address bit
• 24-bit vendor-assigned end station address:
- Uniquely identifies the Ethernet hardware

1 1 22 bits 24 bits
Broadcast
Local

OUI Vendor-Assigned

© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPNGN1 v1.01—2-12
• MAC address is expressed as six groups of two hexadecimal digits,
separated by hyphens (-) or colons (:), in transmission order

1 1 22 bits 24 bits
Broadcast
Local

OUI Vendor-Assigned

00:00:0c:43:2e:08

© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPNGN1 v1.01—2-13
• A LAN is a network that is located in a limited area.
• The components of a LAN are computers, interconnections, network
devices, and protocols.
• A LAN provides network users with communication and resource-
sharing functions.
• A LAN can be of various sizes to fit different requirements.
• Ethernet was originally developed in the 1970s by Digital Equipment
Corp. (DEC), Intel, and Xerox, and was called DIX Ethernet.
• Ethernet LAN standards specify cabling and signaling at both physical
and data link layers of the OSI model.
• Ethernet LANs manage the signals on a network by CSMA/CD, which is
an important aspect of Ethernet.
• The Ethernet frame contains header information, trailer information, and
the actual data.
• The MAC address is a 48-bit number usually represented in
hexadecimal format.

© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPNGN1 v1.01—2-14
© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SPNGN1 v1.01—2-15