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• Key Words:
• Tourism, tourists, tourist phenomenon, tourism Industry,
smokeless industry

• Learning Objectives:
• O1. The definition of tourism
• O2. The phenomenon of mass tourism
• O3. The importance of tourism
• O1. The definition of tourism
• Tourism is travel for predominantly recreational or
leisure purposes or the provision of services to
support this leisure travel. The World Tourism
Organization defines tourists as people who "travel to
and stay in places outside their usual environment for
not more than one consecutive year for leisure,
business and other purposes not related to the
exercise of an activity remunerated from within the
place visited". Tourism has become a popular global
leisure activity.
• Tourism is vital for many countries, due to the
income generated by the consumption of goods
and services by tourists, the taxes levied on
businesses in the tourism industry, and the
opportunity for employment in the service
industries associated with tourism. These service
industries include transportation services such as
cruise ships and taxis, accommodation such as
hotels, restaurants, bars, and entertainment
venues, and other hospitality industry services
such as spas and resorts.
• O2. The phenomenon of mass tourism
• Tourism, both as a phenomenon and as an
industry has made rapid advances. Tourism
phenomenon includes all activities related to
tourism industry. It familiarizes us with, history,
evolution, nature, growth global and international
aspects of tourism. Skills required for tourism
career, opportunities, awareness and varied
aspects of tourism are also included in tourism
• Different authors have taken different
approaches when proposing definitions, but
one thing that most seem to agree on is the
difficulty they attach to defining tourism. Further
difficulties exist in defining precise forms of
tourism. Holloway (1994) describes as
problematic establishing clear lines between
shoppers and tourists.
• O3. The importance of tourism
• Tourism, nowadays is one of the most popular
ways of spending free time. It is higly
developed in almost all countries, mainly
because of material profits it brings. But
unfortunately, there is the other side of the
coin too, especially if it comes about foreign
• From educational point of view, travelling lets
people to see world, other peoples, culture
and traditions. It is said, that “traveling
broadens” and most people consider, it does.
At the same time, tourists who do not have
knowledge about World, can “see the grass
greener on the other side of the fence”. It
causes danger of discontent with country that
person live in, what entail complaints and
• Also economical aspect plays huge role in domestic
market economy. Lots of people work in tourist
branches what is often their only source of income.
What is more, there are some countries - like Malta
for example - where tourism is basis of all its
revenue. Howewer, if all field are tourist-minded,
prices are inflated what is huge drawback for natives.
Conclusion: Tourism plays an
important role in people’s lives as well
as in the economic sector and it will
sooner become, following the general
tendency of human social evolution,
the most effective economic field.(the
smokeless industry)
• Key Words:
• The tourist system, geographical approach, economical

• Learning Objectives:
• O1. The tourism system
• O2. Economic Approach
• O3. Geographical Approach
• O1.The tourism system
• Tourism is acknowledged as a ‘high growth’ industry
globally with over 700 million tourist arrival
internationally, the sector accounts for more than US $
500 billion by way of receipt. Besides, the sector
possesses immense income, employment and foreign
exchange generation potential, thereby, providing a
multiplier effect to the economy. The tourism industry is
widely regarded as having the ability to generate high
levels of economic output with relatively lesser levels of
capital investment.
• That tourism spans a variety of fields of business and
study has already been discussed.
• This has clear implications for the provision
of organizational frameworks for tourism
• Many different frameworks have been developed in
relation to particular orientations as well as some
which offer a more holistic view.
• O2. The Economic Approach
• Because of it’s importance to both domestic and
world economies, tourism has been examined closely
by economists, who focus on supply, demand,
balance of payments, foreign exchange, employment,
expenditures, development, multipliers, and other
economic factors. This approach is useful in providing
a framework for analyzing tourism and its
contributions to a country’s economy and economic
• The disadvantage of the economic approach is
that whereas tourism is an important economic
phenomenon, it has noneconomic impacts as
well. The economic approach does not usually
pay adequate attention to the environmental,
cultural, psychological, socio-logical, and
anthropological approaches.
• O3.The Geographical Approach
• Geography is a wide-ranging disciple, so it is natural
that geographers should be interested in tourism and
its spatial aspects. The geographer specializes in the
study of location, environment, climate, landscape,
and economic aspects. The geographer’s approach
to tourism sheds light on the location of tourist areas,
the movements of people created by tourism locales,
the changes that tourism brings to the landscape in
the form of tourism facilities, dispersion of tourism
development, physical planning, and economic,
social, and cultural problems.
• Since tourism touches geography at so many
points, geographers have investigated the area
more thoroughly than have scholars in many other
disciplines. Because the geographer’s approach is
so encompassing- dealing with land use, economic
aspects, demographic impacts, and cultural
problems – a study of their contributions is highly
recommended. Recreational geography is a
common course title used by geographers studying
this specialty.
• Because tourism, leisure, and recreational are so
closely related, it is necessary to search for literature
under all these tiles to discover the contribution of
various fields. Geographers were instrumental in
starting both the Journal of Leisure Research and
Leisure sciences, which should be read regularly by
all serious students of tourism.
Conclusion: Tourism has grown to be an
activity of worldwide importance and
significance. It has grown rapidly to become
a major social and economic force in the
Directly or indirectly, tourism is part of the
fabric of most of the world’s industries,
including transportation, retailing,
advertising, sports, goods and equipment,
clothing, the food industry, and health care.
• Key Words:
• The principle of spatiality, The principle of causality ,The
principle of integration

• Learning Objectives:
• O1. To name the principales of study of TRN
• The principle of spatiality
• The principle of
spatiality, according to which
the research of the tourist The principle of causality
phenomenon makes use as a The principle of causality, whose aim
key method of observation, and is the study of appearance, assertion,
as mean of representation of and development of tourist process.
discipline. Due to this pattern As activity method, it has recourse to
the descriptive model is being the detailed analysis of phenomena,
widely used to inform potential carried out by means of explanation
tourists. that can be accomplished by a
mathematical model (formula,
The principle of integration
The principle of integration of
characteristic phenomena is logistical
structures, designed to show the
objective aspects(activity method-
synthesis, operation means- graphic
representations(cartographic models).
The cartographic model is the final
stage of any scientific demarche.
Conclusion : Between the
principles there is a close link.
The first principle serves as a
basis for the second one, while
the latter – for the third one.
• 4 The categories of the TRM

• Key Words:
• Tourist resources, tourist infrastructure, tourist
potential, tourist flow

• Learning Objectives:
• O1. To underline the main notions used in the
tourism industry
• Tourist resources and their The tourist natural
classification resources are: relief,
• Tourist resources represent all climate,
the attractive elements of a hydrography,
territory without taking into vegetation, fauna,
account their origin and the etc. And the human
connection between them. There resources are:
can be distinguished two groups museums, religious
of objects that make up the erections, and so
tourist resources: on.
The tourist infrastructure
Infrastructure is the basic
physical and organizational
Tourist flow – It represents structures needed for the
the movement of the visitors operation of a society or
from their place of residence enterprise, or the services and
to the place visited. It is a facilities necessary for an
dynamic category, which economy to function.
considers human factor by
its number and financial
Conclusion: The tourist
phenomenon is defined by a
series of notions. The most
important are: tourist,
tourism, tourist
infrastructure, tourist
potential, tourist flow, tourist
product, etc.
• 5 The factors influencing the tourist phenomenon

• Key Words:
• Demographic factors, economic factors, political factors,
psychological factors, social factors

• Learning Objectives:
• O1. To determine ehich are the factors of influencing the
tourism phenomenon
Economic factors
This phenomenon
Economic factors have a
appears due to the big influence on
human’s necessity of tourism, because it has
recovery and relaxation become, first of all, a
and of gaining practiced activity by the
knowledge, which is the people who have provided
main purpose of tourism. for themselves at least the
The demographic factors minimal costs of living. This
influence by the means that they have to
provide for their lives a high
numerical increase of
level of standard of living in
population, and this this way that he or she
influence represents the could save money for other
most important cause of necessities like traveling.
the increasing number of
Psychological factors have
the special role in the promotion
Political factors of the recreational activities. In
Political factors can often case the economic factors are
influence the increase or the meant to provide the material
decrease of the tourism conditions, the psychological
elements determine human’s
development between the
necessity for travel, which
states that are in conflict or
means the pressure influence
with different social on people’s mind by the day by
dispositions. day stress, the density of
population In some specific
areas, the isolation from nature,
and so on.
Conclusion: All the factors play
a major role in the development
of the tourist phenomenon and
have a big influence on the
process of the tourism.