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Copyright © 2013 Waleed Elsafoury

GSM Network Protocols

BY:
ENG. Waleed Elsafoury
GSM Network Protocols
Transmission function:

MS, BTS and BSC are concerned with transmission


Main RR procedures:
Power control
Channel quality monitoring
Handover
Frequency hopping
Discontinuous transmission
Timing advance.
GSM Network Protocols
Enables power adaptation of MS and BTS.

Main reasons for power control:


Saving MS battery Power
Improve CIR.

Can be enabled or disabled.


Performed separately for uplink and DL.
Measurements on UL and DL are sent to BSC every 480 ms.

Measurements in terms of:


Signal strength in dB.
Signal quality in BER.
GSM Network Protocols
MS Power (dBm)

Max. transmit power

Power increase step

Distance

Signal strength
measured at BTS

Upper threshold

Lower threshold

Distance
Power control
increase command
GSM Network Protocols
Handover Control
Automatic switching of a call from one TCH to another.
Can be within the cell or between cells.
Reasons for intra-cell handover
1. reduction of co-channel interference.
2. Maintenance activity
3. Equipment failure
Handover occurs on TCH when call is in speech stage.
Only started if power control is not helpful.
Unique feature of mobile network.
GSM Network Protocols
Handover types:
Inter cell handover
Involves change of carrier and BTS.
Intra-cell handover
Involves change of carrier in same cell.
GSM Network Protocols
Handover types

BSC
MSC-B
MSC-A

BTS
BTS
BTS
BSC

BSC

BTS
Intra-BSC HO BTS Inter-MSC HO

Inter-BSC HO
Intra-MSC HO Intra-cell HO
GSM Network Protocols
Requirements for Handover
1. Execution speed
2. Reliability
• No excessive HO
• No delayed HO
• No early HO
3. Transparent to users (not aware)
4. Service-dependent (voice, data)
GSM Network Protocols
Criteria for Handover
BSC receives measurement data from BTS
and MS.

The MS measures downlink:


Signal strength (dBm)
Signal quality (BER)
Signal strength of 6 neighboring BTSs downlink

The BTS measures UL:


Signal strength received from MS.
Signal quality received from MS.
Distance between BTS and MS.
GSM Network Protocols

BSC

MSC-A
BTS
BTS
GSM Network Protocols
Handling of Handover
Reserved channel concept
Some channels are reserved for HO

2
New calls

Handover
Nc

N
GSM Network Protocols

N-times retry
 Multiple request for Handover

Handover queue
 HO wait for a free channel.

Sub-rating algorithm
 Full rate TCH is split into 2 half rate TCHs.
GSM Network Protocols
Intra-BSC (Inter-cell) HO

2
Old BTS

BSC
3
4

1
5
5

New BTS
GSM Network Protocols
Inter-BSC (Intra-MSC) HO

Old
4
Old BTS BSC
1

4 4
9 8

5 MSC
6
2
3
7
4
7
7

New
New BTS BSC
GSM Network Protocols
Inter-MSC HO

GSM PLMN PSTN

Old MSC-A
5 Old BTS BSC
1
5
9 9

2 5 8
6
7
4 3
8 5
8

New MSC-B
New BTS BSC
GSM Network Protocols
Mobility Management (MM)

o Main task of MM is to support mobility.

o MM activities include:
1. Location update
2. Update HLR/VLR
3. TMSI re-allocation.
4. Authentication of MS.
GSM Network Protocols
Location Update in same MSC/VLR

 If MS detects a change in LAI, it informs network


 MSC/VLR check if it is a visitor

1
2 2
3 HLR
4
4
3
VLR

BSC MSC

BTS
GSM Network Protocols
Location Update with New MSC/VLR

 When MS enters into new LA, location update.


 LA may belong to new MSC/VLR.

5 4

2 HLR
3
1 4
New
VLR
MSC Old
BSC
VLR

BTS
GSM Network Protocols
Periodic Registration

o MS is forced to send registration periodically.

o If MS miss registration, the network marks

it as detached.

o This occurs if MS is out of area.

o This avoids paging.


GSM Network Protocols
IMSI Attach
o When MS is switched on, it performs attach.

BSC MSC/VLR

BTS
2 3
4
GSM Network Protocols
Mobile Originated Call

GSM PSTN
PLMN
1
1 Telephone
3 2
2 3
4 4
4 5

BSC MSC/VLR Exchange

BTS
GSM Network Protocols
Mobile Terminated Call
GSM PLMN PSTN
MSRN
5 1 Local
HLR GMSC Exchange
2 MSISDN
MSISDN
1 MSISDN

M
SR
5 6 N

N
4 S R
IM
M
SI
MSC
VLR
Telephone
TMSI
7 11

SI TM
ing SI
TM8 Pag NFO BSC
H P9 HI
PC O 8
ST DC 10
H C
8 AC
R 9 H S 11
C
G 8
A10 H
11 CC
SD BTS
BTS