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Development Theories

Dr. Debashis Debnath


Introduction
 Development is very elusive concept. It has different
meanings depending on the outlook.
 Development is no longer considered identical with
growth. It is taken to mean growth plus change.
 The traditional approach of development is based on
economic development which implies a sustained annual
increase in GNP or GDP.
 Now it has been redefined in reduction or alleviation of
poverty, inequality and unemployment within the
concept of a growing economy.
 Thus the concept of development based on poverty,
inequality and unemployment criteria is definitely
superior an economic phenomenon
What is development ?
 Accelerated economic growth or simply expressed in
GDP or GNP ?
 Development can not be judged by quantitative only.
 Development is measured by quantitatively as well as
qualitatively
 Development takes place in dynamic process social
change.
 Development is a human process in the sense of human
being and not the material factors as driving force
Development …..
 People’s awareness may decide the direction
in which development will take place.
 Their efficiency, productivity , creativity
and organizational capacities determine the
level of people’s accomplishment.
 Development is the outer realization of
inner potentialities
Development ….
 The level of people’s education, the intensities of
their aspirations and energies, the quality of their
attitudes and values, skills and information all decide
the extent of pace of development.
 Development is the achievement of wholeness
starting from individual, family, community or nation
or even the whole world.
Multi-dimensional Development
in Environment

 Environment vs. Inequality ( Kuznet’s Curve)


 Natural Resources ( Operation, Conservation , Livelihood, Inter-faces
management);
 Mind-set ( Natural, Rural and Eco-tourism);
 Eco-friendly Technologies ( Disaster management or
Introduction contd….
 Today Development is the combination of social development
and economic development .
 Thus combining the two we find:
 Accelerated economic growth with more equitable
distribution of wealth and income
 Full utilization of man-power and better utilization of national
resources. Besides, it has social aspect.
 Social welfare services being made available to the needy
sections of the people women, children, handicapped etc.
 Protection of human environment
 Inter-institutional and inters organizational development.
Development
 Integrating people’s access to products and services to meet their
basic needs;
 Improving opportunity and access to markets to enable people to
build income and assets, including both economic and human
capital;
 Giving people a political voice and enabling them to participate in
and influence the policy-making, decision-making and resource
allocation that directly affect the quality of their lives; and
 Ensuring people have sufficient and physical security or social
insurance to enable them to enable them to better survive natural
and economic crises or conflict.
Definitions of Development:
 A process of social, economic and spiritual and mental changes
from a retrogressive to a forward –looking progressive society.
 Planned growth in the direction of modernity or nation-building
and socio-economic progress involving substantial differentiation
and co-ordination.
 Not only as economic progress but also in terms of improved
quality of life, cultural regeneration, social justice and cohesion,
political awareness and empowerment (Walter Farnandes)
 Widely participatory process of directed social change in a society,
intended to bring about both social and material advancement
(including greater equality, freedom and other valued qualities)for
the majority of the people through their gaining greater control
over their environment.
Definitions of Development:
 Micheal P. Todaro (1985) considers that “development in both a
physical reality and a state of mind in which society has, through
some combination of social, economic and institutional processes,
secured the means for obtaining a better life” (p.87).
-Sustenance- Ability to meet basic needs; Fail to meet up the
primary needs – the absolute under-development; a basic function
of economic activity; Human resources and capability development ;
- Self-esteem : To be a person – Identity , dignity, self-respect,
honour
-Freedom from Servitude: To be Able to Choose-emanicipation from
alienating material conditions of life and from social servitude to
nature, ignorance, other people, misery, institutions, and dogmatic
beliefs, especially that one’s poverty is one’s predestination.
Definition of Development
 “ Development can be defined as a mobilization
of the community, society or nation in very
humanistic and sustainable way in time and space
with various interventions and also with
stakeholder arrangements from the bottom to
top policy-making, planning and programming
to fulfil the societal goals of freedom, rights and
equity.”

• - D. Debnath (2018)
Historical Perspective of Development
 18th Century – The introduction of the word ‘Development’
 1950s - The need for reconstruction in the immediate
aftermath of World War II, followed by Modernization Theory
and the evolution of Colonialism or ” colonization”
 “We must embark on a bold new program for making the
benefits of our scientific advances and industrial progress
available for the improvement and growth of
underdevelopment areas. The old imperialism –exploitation
for foreign profit- has no place in our plans. What are
envisage is a program of development based on the concept
of democratic fair dealing.”- Harry S. Truman(20.01.1949)
 1980s – Ecological crisis and Main viewpoint in the 1980s is
pluralism, a willingness to recognize many different
approaches to development. Post Marxism and post-
structuralism. Collapse of socialism and rise of neo-liberalism
 Critics of Modernization Theory , advancing Dependency
theory.
Historical Perspective of Development
 1990s-Neo-liberal economy in the form of structural
adjustments program.
 Question of sustainability
 Issues of poverty and environmental-developmental debate
 Protecting livelihood strategies and environmental
sustainability
 Nature-society relations and environment resource
conservation
 Concerns of environmentalist and global warming
 Initiation towards Globalization and the establishment of Free
trade policies
 Millennium Development Goals
 Political ecology in political economy
Historical Perspective of Development
 18th Century – The introduction of the word ‘Development’
 1950s - The need for reconstruction in the immediate
aftermath of World War II, followed by Modernization Theory
and the evolution of Colonialism or ” colonization”
 “We must embark on a bold new program for making the
benefits of our scientific advances and industrial progress
available for the improvement and growth of
underdevelopment areas. The old imperialism –exploitation
for foreign profit- has no place in our plans. What are
envisage is a program of development based on the concept
of democratic fair dealing.”- Harry S. Truman(20.01.1949)
 1980s – Ecological crisis and Main viewpoint in the 1980s is
pluralism, a willingness to recognize many different
approaches to development. Post Marxism and post-
structuralism. Collapse of socialism and rise of neo-liberalism
 Critics of Modernization Theory , advancing Dependency
theory.
STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

GLOBALIZATION

MODERNIZATION

SOCIALISM

CAPITALISM

FEUDALISM

PRIMITIVE COMMUNISM
Sustainability
 Sustainability’ means something that lasts long or about the ability to
survive (and thrive) over a given period of time. This is the outcome of the
preservation and conservation movements of 18th and 19th centuries.
 This is a contested concept and value-laden umbrella concept in the
interfaces between environment and society.
 It draws from and overlaps with the notions of human development,
sustainable development, corporate citizenship, social justice,
environmental management, ethics and stakeholder management.
Definition of Sustainable
Development
 Defined as “ development that meets the needs of the
present without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs”.
 It has three parameters under “ Triple-bottom line:
(a) Economic ;
(b) Environmental; and
(c) Social factors.
Sustainable development

 The process in which the set of desirable societal objectives


does not decrease over time
 Minimum disturbance to ecological process
 Judicious utilization of resources and maintaining bio-diversity
 Not compromising with economic quality while craving for
economic quantity.
Parameters of Sustainable
Development
 Dignity- To end poverty and fight inequality;
 People-To ensure healthy life, knowledge and inclusion of women
and children;
 Prosperity- To grow a strong, inclusive and transformative
economy;
 Planet- To protect our ecosystem, society and children;
 Partnership-To catalyze global solidarity for sustainable
development
Equitable and sustainable
development
1. The centrality of pro-poor and environmentally and sustainable
economic growth;
2. The foundation of good governance and effective institutions;
3. The shared responsibility of developed and developing country
governments as development partners;
4. The active participation of the poor themselves; and
5. The importance of private sector development, ranging from foreign
direct investment by large corporations to small and micro-enterprise
development.
Today’s Development Paradigm

 Poverty Reduction
 Human Development
 Participation
 Empowerment
 Gender mainstreaming and Equity
 Peoples’ Rights
 Inclusive Growth