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What is LNG ?

• Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane,


CH4, with some mixture of ethane C2H6) that has been converted to
liquid form for ease and safety of non-pressurized storage or transport.
• It takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas in the gaseous state
(at standard conditions for temperature and pressure).
• It is odorless, colorless, non-toxic and non-corrosive.
• Hazards include flammability after vaporization into a gaseous state,
freezing and asphyxia.
• The liquefaction process involves removal of certain components, such
as dust, acid gases, helium, water, and heavy hydrocarbons, which
could cause difficulty downstream.
Conditions for Liquefy:
• Natural gas is condensed into a liquid at close to atmospheric pressure by
cooling it to approximately:
 −162 °C (−260 °F);
 maximum transport pressure is set at around 25 kPa (4 psi).
When to Liquefy NG?
• Natural gas is mainly converted in to LNG to achieve the natural gas
transport over the seas where laying pipelines is not feasible
because of:
 Technical
 Economical limitations
Why LNG over CNG?
• LNG achieves a higher reduction in volume than compressed natural gas
(CNG) so that the (volumetric) energy density of LNG is 2.4 times greater
than that of CNG (at 250 bar) or 60 percent that of diesel fuel.
• This makes LNG cost efficient in marine transport over long distances.
However, CNG carrier can be used economically up to medium distances in
marine transport
• Maximum Range up to which CNG carrier can economically transport CNG
is 2000 NMI.
Process:
Transportation

Condensate
CO2Removal
Removal

Treatment Plant

Mercury, H2S
Dehydration
Removal

Refrigeration

Liquefaction

Storage and Unloading

Transportation &
Marketing
Properties of LNG:
Chemical Formula CH4 (Methane)

Boiling Point -161°C or -257.8°F

Liquid Density 426kg/m³ or 26.5943lb/ft³


Gas Density at 25°C or 77ºF 0.656 kg/m³ or 0.04095lb/ft³
Specific Gravity (Air=1) 0.554
Limits of Flammability 5.3% to 14%
Auto Ignition Temperature 595°C or 1103°
Calorific Value
Typical 2-Train LNG Plant
Make- Fuel
Up Fuel
Gas
Train 1
Gathering
Inlet Gas Gas Inlet Gas NGL Liquefaction LNG Storage
Reception Treating Recovery
1.5 Bcfd Liquid LNG
8 Mtpa
NGL (1.1 Bcfd)
Train 2
Fractionation

Propane Propane
Condensate Storage .73 Mtpa
Stabilization (27 Mbpd)

Butane Butane
Storage .5 Mtpa
(17 Mbpd)
Condensate Condensate
Storage 1.2 Mtpa
(34 Mbpd)

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Types of Equipment Require at terminal
 Main equipment used for cargo transfer are loading arms or
hard arms, which are jetty based.
 It is necessary to consider:
 Fitting of Emergency shut‐down systems.
 Emergency Release Couplings.
 Storage tanks.
 Fire‐fighting equipment
Cargo transfer systems

• Hoses
– Hoses used should be done according a suitable standard.
– Hoses correctly supported in a hose cradle.
– Materials suitable for LNG hoses:
• Composite
• Rubber
• Stainless steel
• Hard arms – loading arms
• Vapor return
• Insulating flanges
Cargo System:
Insulating flanges:
• The need to prevent electrical flow through loading arm or
hose makes it
necessary to insert an insulating flange.
• It is inserted in the lower end of the outer loading arm.
• Insulating properties tested: 500 volt insulation resistance
tester
Shore storage

The storage of LNG can be done using the


following:
• Double‐wall tanks (LNG, LPG, chemical gases)
• Double‐containment tanks (LNG, LPG)
• In‐ground tanks (LNG)
Ancillary equipment
• Pressure relief venting: pressure relief valves will be installed in LNG
tanks.
• Pipelines and valves: These equipment will be installed in
accordance with the standard used for the LNG tank.
• Pumps, compressors and heat exchangers: Either inside or outside
of the tank.
Different types:
• Deepwell pumps
• Vertical in‐line pumps
• Horizontal foot‐mounted pumps
• Submerged pumps within the tank
Instrumentation

Product metering. Typically the following types of metering:


•Positive displacement meter
•Turbine meter
•Vortex meter
•Ultrasonic meter
•Coriolis mass flow meter
Pressure, temperature and level instrumentation.
Gas detection systems. Detection of gas leakages. Installed in terminals and
jetties.
LNG cargo Equipment:
Basic equipment for LNG cargo:
• Return Gas Blowers
• High Duty Compressors
• Natural Gas Heaters
• LNG Vaporizers
• Fuel Gas Supply Compressor - 4 stroke Dual / Tri Fuel Engines
• 2-stage BOG compressors
• LNG Pump
• BOG Re-liquefaction plants
• Specialized machinery:
– Gas sealing
– Flow control Vanes
– High Speed Bearings
Name of LNG equipment Supplier: Country of Supplier: Website Address Contact Email Id:

LUXI NEW ENERGY EQUIPMENT GROUP


China http://www.luxigasequipment.com lipengpeng@lxhg.com
CO., LTD

Chengdu Tinayi Natural Gas


China http://www.toplng.com TOPLNG@hotmail.com
Compressor Manufacturing

China International Marine Containers


China http://www.cimc.com
(Group) Ltd.

CSSC SHENGHUI EQUIPMENT CO., LTD. China http://www.chinasws.com office@chinasws.com

Inox India Pvt. Ltd India http://www.inoxcva.com inox@inoxcva.com

SUZHOU HUAFU CRYOGENIC VESSEL China http://www.shangko.com srje@china.com

China http://www.cng-equipments.com tdjwl@163.com


Zigong Tongda Machinery
Manufacturing

China http://www.clng.hk james@gacrl.com


China LNG Corporation Limited.

Hangzhou Sunshine Gas Equipment China http://www.oxygenplantschina.com/ info@oxygenplantschina.com


Company