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Variation in current gain
• Current gain (𝛽𝑑𝑐 ) is often named with ℎ 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 (ℎ𝐹𝐸 ).
• Depend on 3 factors :
• Transistor replacement : when we replace a transistor with
another of the same type, the current gain usually change.
• Collector current
• Temperature
Effect of current and
When temperature is 25oC, the current gain is 50 at 0,1mA.
As the current increase from 0,1mA to 10mA, current gain increase
to the maximum of 100, then it decrease to less than 20 at 200mA.

It also notice the effect of temperature. When temperature increase,

The current gain is increase over most of the current range.
Load line
• As the previous chapter, that common emitter connection is
usually called as base biased means setting up a fixed value of
base current.
• Using previous equation, we get the value of 𝐼𝐶 and 𝑉𝐶𝐸 . Both
of this value represent a point in characteristic curve to define
operational region of the transistor. This region usually called
Quiescent Point (Q point).
Load line (graphical solution)
• We can also find the Q point using graphical solution based on
load line, a graph of 𝐼𝐶 𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑢𝑠 𝑉𝐶𝐸 . Using 2nd approximation
we get equation of 𝐼𝐶 and 𝑉𝐶𝐸 . If we graph thins 2 equation,
we will get the load line (represent the effect of load on 𝐼𝐶 and

Slope = 𝑅

𝑅𝐶 = 𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒
The saturation point
• Def : the point where the load line intersects the saturation
region of the collector curve.
• Will be if the base resistance (𝑅𝐵 ) is too small, so there is too
much collector current (𝐼𝐶 ) and the collector-emitter voltage
(𝑉𝐶𝐸 ) drop approximately zero. (𝑅𝐵 ≪, 𝐼𝐶 ≫, 𝑉𝐶𝐸 = 0𝑣)
• Represent the maximum possible collector current for the
• When the transistor is saturated, further increases in base
current produce no further increase in collector current.
• 𝐼𝐶(𝑠𝑎𝑡) = (𝐴)
Cut-off Point
• Point at which the loadline intersect the cut-off region of the
collector curve.
• Cut-off point give information : the maximum possible 𝑉𝐶𝐸 for
the circuit.
• Because the cut-off current is very small, we will approximate
the cut-off point as the lower end of the load line. Since no
current through the collector resistor (𝑅𝐶 ), 𝑉𝐶𝐸 (𝑐𝑢𝑡−𝑜𝑓𝑓) = 𝑉𝐶𝐶
Example (1)
• What are the saturation current and cut-off voltage in fig below :
• Plot the load lines for this 2 circuit.
• For fig. (a)
𝑉𝐶𝐶 30 Load line for the circuit
• 𝐼𝐶(𝑠𝑎𝑡) = = = 10𝑚𝐴
𝑅𝐶 3𝑘
• 𝑉𝐶𝐸 (𝑐𝑢𝑡−𝑜𝑓𝑓) = 𝑉𝐶𝐶 = 30v

• For fig. (b)

• 𝐼𝐶(𝑠𝑎𝑡) = = = 3𝑚𝐴
𝑅𝐶 3𝑘
• 𝑉𝐶𝐸 (𝑐𝑢𝑡−𝑜𝑓𝑓) = 𝑉𝐶𝐶 = 9v

Load line curve shows by changing the collector supply voltage

while keeping the same collector resistance produces two load line of same slope
But with different saturation & cut-off value.
Check Your Understanding
• What are the collector saturation current and the collector –
emitter cut-off voltage in fig below:
• Plot he load line for this 2 circuit. Compare both of the load
line, Explain !
The Operating Point
• Plot the load line (by get 𝐼𝐶(𝑠𝑎𝑡) and 𝑉𝐶𝐸 (𝑐𝑢𝑡−𝑜𝑓𝑓) )
• Find the value of :
• 𝐼𝐵 ,
• 𝐼𝐶 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑉𝐶𝐸 𝑖𝑓 𝛽𝑑𝑐 = 𝑥, (𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑄 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡)
• 𝐼𝐶 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑉𝐶𝐸 𝑖𝑓 𝛽𝑑𝑐 = 0,5𝑥, (𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑄𝐿 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡)
• 𝐼𝐶 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑉𝐶𝐸 𝑖𝑓 𝛽𝑑𝑐 = 1,5𝑥 (𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑄𝐻 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡)

• Plotting the Q point

• Noted : Because the value of 𝐼𝐶 and 𝑉𝐶𝐸 are dependent on the
value of beta in base-biased circuit, the circuit able to said beta-
Example (1)
• Calculate the Q point of this circuit :
• Plot the Q point on the Collector Curve
Check your understanding
• If the 𝛽𝑑𝑐 is 100, what happen to the collector-emitter
voltage? Use 1st and 2nd approximation.

1 MΩ
Emitter Bias
• Resistor from base moved to emitter.
• The Q point of this new circuit is now rock-solid. When the
current gain changes from 50 to 150, the q point shows almost
no movement along the load line.

• The base supply voltage is now applied directly to base (𝑉𝐵𝐵 is

now between base and ground).
• The emitter is no longer grounded, so the emitter voltage is :

• Noted : if 𝑉𝐵𝐵 𝑖𝑠 𝑚𝑜𝑟𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛 20 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑠 𝑉𝐵𝐸 , the ideal

approximation will be accurate. if
𝑉𝐵𝐵 𝑖𝑠 𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛 20 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑠 𝑉𝐵𝐸 , we have to use 2nd
The Emitter Bias
Example : Finding the Q point

𝑉𝐸 = 5 − 0,7 = 4,3𝑣
𝐼𝐸 = = 1,95𝑚𝐴
𝑉𝐶 = 15𝑣 − 1,95𝑚𝐴 1𝑘Ω = 13,1𝑣
𝑉𝐶𝐸 = 13,1𝑣 − 4,3𝑣 = 8,8𝑣
Minor effect of current gain on collector
• 𝐼𝐸 = 𝐼𝐶 + 𝐼𝐵
• 𝐼𝐸 = 𝐼𝐶 +
• 𝐼𝐶 = 𝐼
𝛽𝑑𝑐 +1 𝐸
• 𝑰𝑬 𝒊𝒔 𝒄𝒂𝒍𝒍𝒆𝒅 𝒄𝒐𝒓𝒓𝒆𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 𝒇𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒐𝒓,
• 𝒊𝒕 𝒕𝒆𝒍𝒍𝒔 𝒖𝒔 𝒉𝒐𝒘 𝑰𝑪 𝒅𝒊𝒇𝒇𝒆𝒓𝒔 𝒇𝒓𝒐𝒎 𝑰𝑬
• What is the Vc and Vce from this fig.