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Chapter 2

Application Layer

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Application Layer 2-1

Chapter 2: outline
2.1 principles of network 2.6 P2P applications
applications 2.7 socket programming
2.2 Web and HTTP with UDP and TCP
2.3 FTP
2.4 electronic mail
2.5 DNS

Application Layer 2-2

Chapter 2: application layer
our goals:  learn about protocols by
 conceptual, examining popular
implementation aspects application-level
of network application protocols
protocols  HTTP
 transport-layer  FTP
service models  SMTP / POP3 / IMAP
 client-server  DNS
paradigm  creating network
 peer-to-peer applications
paradigm  socket API

Application Layer 2-3

Some network apps
 e-mail  voice over IP (e.g., Skype)
 web  real-time video
 text messaging conferencing
 remote login  social networking
 P2P file sharing  search
 multi-user network games  …
 streaming stored video  …
(YouTube, Hulu, Netflix)

Application Layer 2-4

Creating a network app application
data link

write programs that: physical

 run on (different) end systems

 communicate over network
 e.g., web server software
communicates with browser
no need to write software for application

network-core devices transport

data link application
 network-core devices do not physical transport
run user applications data link

 applications on end systems

allows for rapid app
development, propagation

Application Layer 2-5

Application architectures
possible structure of applications:
 client-server
 peer-to-peer (P2P)

Application Layer 2-6

Client-server architecture
 always-on host
 permanent IP address
 data centers for scaling

 communicate with server
client/server  may be intermittently
 may have dynamic IP
 do not communicate directly
with each other
Application Layer 2-7
P2P architecture
 no always-on server peer-peer
 arbitrary end systems
directly communicate
 peers request service from
other peers, provide service
in return to other peers
 self scalability – new
peers bring new service
capacity, as well as new
service demands
 peers are intermittently
connected and change IP
 complex management

Application Layer 2-8

Processes communicating
process: program running clients, servers
within a host client process: process that
 within same host, two initiates communication
processes communicate server process: process that
using inter-process waits to be contacted
communication (defined by
 processes in different hosts
communicate by exchanging  aside: applications with P2P
messages architectures have client
processes & server

Application Layer 2-9

 process sends/receives messages to/from its socket
 socket analogous to door
 sending process shoves message out door
 sending process relies on transport infrastructure on
other side of door to deliver message to socket at
receiving process

application application
socket controlled by
process process app developer

transport transport
network network controlled
link by OS
link Internet
physical physical

Application Layer 2-10

Addressing processes
 to receive messages,  identifier includes both IP
process must have identifier address and port numbers
 host device has unique 32- associated with process on
bit IP address host.
 Q: does IP address of host  example port numbers:
on which process runs  HTTP server: 80
suffice for identifying the  mail server: 25
process?  to send HTTP message to
 A: no, many processes web
can be running on same server:
host  IP address:
 port number: 80
 more shortly…

Application Layer 2-11

App-layer protocol defines
 types of messages open protocols:
exchanged,  defined in RFCs
 e.g., request, response  allows for interoperability
 message syntax:  e.g., HTTP, SMTP
 what fields in messages proprietary protocols:
& how fields are
 e.g., Skype
 message semantics
 meaning of information
in fields
 rules for when and how
processes send & respond
to messages

Application Layer 2-12

What transport service does an app need?
data integrity throughput
 some apps (e.g., file transfer,  some apps (e.g.,
web transactions) require multimedia) require
100% reliable data transfer minimum amount of
 other apps (e.g., audio) can
throughput to be
tolerate some loss “effective”
 other apps (“elastic apps”)

timing make use of whatever

throughput they get
 some apps (e.g., Internet
telephony, interactive security
games) require low delay
to be “effective”  encryption, data integrity,

Application Layer 2-13

Transport service requirements: common apps

application data loss throughput time sensitive

file transfer no loss elastic no

e-mail no loss elastic no
Web documents no loss elastic no
real-time audio/video loss-tolerant audio: 5kbps-1Mbps yes, 100’s
video:10kbps-5Mbps msec
stored audio/video loss-tolerant same as above
interactive games loss-tolerant few kbps up yes, few secs
text messaging no loss elastic yes, 100’s
yes and no

Application Layer 2-14

Internet transport protocols services

TCP service: UDP service:

 reliable transport between  unreliable data transfer
sending and receiving between sending and
process receiving process
 flow control: sender won’t  does not provide:
overwhelm receiver
reliability, flow control,
 congestion control: throttle congestion control,
sender when network
overloaded timing, throughput
 does not provide: timing, guarantee, security,
minimum throughput orconnection setup,
guarantee, security
 connection-oriented: setup Q: why bother? Why is
required between client and there a UDP?
server processes

Application Layer 2-15

Internet apps: application, transport protocols

application underlying
application layer protocol transport protocol

e-mail SMTP [RFC 2821] TCP

remote terminal access Telnet [RFC 854] TCP
Web HTTP [RFC 2616] TCP
file transfer FTP [RFC 959] TCP
streaming multimedia HTTP (e.g., YouTube), TCP or UDP
RTP [RFC 1889]
Internet telephony SIP, RTP, proprietary
(e.g., Skype) TCP or UDP

Application Layer 2-16

Securing TCP

TCP & UDP SSL is at app layer

 no encryption  Apps use SSL libraries,
 cleartext passwds sent which “talk” to TCP
into socket traverse SSL socket API
Internet in cleartext  cleartext passwds sent
SSL into socket traverse
 provides encrypted Internet encrypted
TCP connection  See Chapter 7
 data integrity
 end-point
Application Layer 2-17
Chapter 2: outline
2.1 principles of network 2.6 P2P applications
applications 2.7 socket programming
 app architectures with UDP and TCP
 app requirements
2.2 Web and HTTP
2.3 FTP
2.4 electronic mail
2.5 DNS

Application Layer 2-18

Web and HTTP
First, a review…
 web page consists of objects
 object can be HTML file, JPEG image, Java applet,
audio file,…
 web page consists of base HTML-file which
includes several referenced objects
 each object is addressable by a URL, e.g.,

host name path name

Application Layer 2-19

HTTP overview
HTTP: hypertext
transfer protocol
 Web’s application layer
protocol PC running
 client/server model Firefox browser

 client: browser that

requests, receives,
(using HTTP protocol) server
and “displays” Web running
objects Apache Web
 server: Web server server
sends (using HTTP
protocol) objects in iphone running
response to requests Safari browser

Application Layer 2-20

HTTP overview (continued)
uses TCP: HTTP is “stateless”
 client initiates TCP  server maintains no
connection (creates information about
socket) to server, port 80 past client requests
 server accepts TCP
connection from client aside
protocols that maintain
 HTTP messages “state” are complex!
(application-layer protocol
 past history (state) must be
messages) exchanged maintained
between browser (HTTP  if server/client crashes, their
client) and Web server views of “state” may be
(HTTP server) inconsistent, must be
 TCP connection closed reconciled

Application Layer 2-21

HTTP connections
non-persistent HTTP persistent HTTP
 at most one object  multiple objects can
sent over TCP be sent over single
connection TCP connection
 connection then between client, server
 downloading multiple
objects required
multiple connections

Application Layer 2-22

Non-persistent HTTP
suppose user enters URL: (contains text, references to 10
jpeg images)
1a. HTTP client initiates TCP
connection to HTTP server
(process) at 1b. HTTP server at host on port waiting
80 for TCP connection at port 80.
“accepts” connection, notifying
2. HTTP client sends HTTP request client
message (containing URL) into
TCP connection socket. 3. HTTP server receives request
Message indicates that client message, forms response
wants object message containing requested
someDepartment/home.index object, and sends message into
its socket
Application Layer 2-23
Non-persistent HTTP (cont.)
4. HTTP server closes TCP
5. HTTP client receives response
message containing html file,
displays html. Parsing html file,
finds 10 referenced jpeg objects

6. Steps 1-5 repeated for each of
10 jpeg objects

Application Layer 2-24

Non-persistent HTTP: response time

RTT (definition): time for a

small packet to travel from
client to server and back
HTTP response time: initiate TCP
 one RTT to initiate TCP

connection RTT

 one RTT for HTTP request

and first few bytes of HTTP RTT
time to
response to return transmit
 file transmission time file
 non-persistent HTTP
response time =
time time
2RTT+ file transmission

Application Layer 2-25

Persistent HTTP

non-persistent HTTP issues: persistent HTTP:

 requires 2 RTTs per object  server leaves connection
 OS overhead for each TCP open after sending
connection response
 browsers often open  subsequent HTTP
parallel TCP connections messages between same
to fetch referenced objects client/server sent over
open connection
 client sends requests as
soon as it encounters a
referenced object
 as little as one RTT for all
the referenced objects

Application Layer 2-26

HTTP request message

 two types of HTTP messages: request, response

 HTTP request message:
 ASCII (human-readable format)
carriage return character
line-feed character
request line
(GET, POST, GET /index.html HTTP/1.1\r\n
HEAD commands) Host:\r\n
User-Agent: Firefox/3.6.10\r\n
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml\r\n
header Accept-Language: en-us,en;q=0.5\r\n
lines Accept-Encoding: gzip,deflate\r\n
Accept-Charset: ISO-8859-1,utf-8;q=0.7\r\n
carriage return, Keep-Alive: 115\r\n
line feed at start Connection: keep-alive\r\n
of line indicates
end of header lines
Application Layer 2-27
HTTP request message: general format

method sp URL sp version cr lf request

header field name value cr lf
~ ~
~ lines

header field name value cr lf

cr lf

~ entity body ~
~ body

Application Layer 2-28

Uploading form input
POST method:
 web page often includes
form input
 input is uploaded to
server in entity body

URL method:
 uses GET method
 input is uploaded in URL
field of request line:

Application Layer 2-29

Method types
HTTP/1.0: HTTP/1.1:
 HEAD  uploads file in entity
 asks server to leave body to path specified
requested object out in URL field
of response  DELETE
 deletes file specified in
the URL field

Application Layer 2-30

HTTP response message
status line
status code HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\n
status phrase) Date: Sun, 26 Sep 2010 20:09:20 GMT\r\n
Server: Apache/2.0.52 (CentOS)\r\n
Last-Modified: Tue, 30 Oct 2007 17:00:02
header ETag: "17dc6-a5c-bf716880"\r\n
Accept-Ranges: bytes\r\n
lines Content-Length: 2652\r\n
Keep-Alive: timeout=10, max=100\r\n
Connection: Keep-Alive\r\n
Content-Type: text/html; charset=ISO-8859-
data, e.g., data data data data data ...
HTML file
Application Layer 2-31
HTTP response status codes
 status code appears in 1st line in server-to-
client response message.
 some sample codes:
200 OK
 request succeeded, requested object later in this msg
301 Moved Permanently
 requested object moved, new location specified later in this msg
400 Bad Request
 request msg not understood by server
404 Not Found
 requested document not found on this server
505 HTTP Version Not Supported
Application Layer 2-32
Trying out HTTP (client side) for yourself
1. Telnet to your favorite Web server:

telnet 80 opens TCP connection to port 80

(default HTTP server port) at
anything typed in sent
to port 80 at

2. type in a GET HTTP request:

GET /~ross/ HTTP/1.1 by typing this in (hit carriage
Host: return twice), you send
this minimal (but complete)
GET request to HTTP server

3. look at response message sent by HTTP server!

(or use Wireshark to look at captured HTTP request/response)
Application Layer 2-33
User-server state: cookies
many Web sites use cookies  Susan always access Internet
four components: from PC
1) cookie header line of  visits specific e-commerce
HTTP response site for first time
message  when initial HTTP requests
2) cookie header line in arrives at site, site creates:
next HTTP request  unique ID
message  entry in backend
3) cookie file kept on database for ID
user’s host, managed
by user’s browser
4) back-end database at
Web site
Application Layer 2-34
Cookies: keeping “state” (cont.)
client server

ebay 8734
usual http request msg Amazon server
cookie file creates ID
usual http response
1678 for user create backend
ebay 8734
set-cookie: 1678 entry database
amazon 1678
usual http request msg
cookie: 1678 cookie- access
usual http response msg action

one week later:

ebay 8734 usual http request msg
amazon 1678 cookie: 1678 cookie-
usual http response msg action
Application Layer 2-35
Cookies (continued)
what cookies can be used cookies and privacy:
for:  cookies permit sites to
 authorization learn a lot about you
 shopping carts
 you may supply name and
 recommendations
e-mail to sites
 user session state (Web

how to keep “state”:

 protocol endpoints: maintain state at
sender/receiver over multiple
 cookies: http messages carry state

Application Layer 2-36

Web caches (proxy server)
goal: satisfy client request without involving origin server
 user sets browser: Web
accesses via cache
 browser sends all HTTP proxy
requests to cache server
 object in cache: cache client
returns object server
 else cache requests
object from origin
server, then returns
object to client
client origin

Application Layer 2-37

More about Web caching
 cache acts as both why Web caching?
client and server  reduce response time
 server for original for client request
requesting client
 client to origin server  reduce traffic on an
 typically cache is institution’s access link
installed by ISP  Internet dense with
(university, company, caches: enables “poor”
residential ISP) content providers to
effectively deliver
content (so too does
P2P file sharing)

Application Layer 2-38

Caching example:
 avg object size: 100K bits origin
 avg request rate from browsers to servers
origin servers:15/sec public
 avg data rate to browsers: 1.50 Mbps Internet
 RTT from institutional router to any
origin server: 2 sec
 access link rate: 1.54 Mbps 1.54 Mbps
consequences: access link

 LAN utilization: 15% problem! institutional

 access link utilization = 99% 1 Gbps LAN
 total delay = Internet delay + access
delay + LAN delay
= 2 sec + minutes + usecs

Application Layer 2-39

Caching example: fatter access link
 avg object size: 100K bits origin
 avg request rate from browsers to servers
origin servers:15/sec public
 avg data rate to browsers: 1.50 Mbps Internet
 RTT from institutional router to any
origin server: 2 sec
 access link rate: 1.54 Mbps
154 Mbps 1.54 Mbps
154 Mbps
consequences: access link

 LAN utilization: 15% institutional

 access link utilization = 99% 9.9% network
1 Gbps LAN
 total delay = Internet delay + access
delay + LAN delay
= 2 sec + minutes + usecs
Cost: increased access link speed (not cheap!)
Application Layer 2-40
Caching example: install local cache
 avg object size: 100K bits origin
 avg request rate from browsers to servers
origin servers:15/sec public
 avg data rate to browsers: 1.50 Mbps Internet
 RTT from institutional router to any
origin server: 2 sec
 access link rate: 1.54 Mbps 1.54 Mbps
consequences: access link

 LAN utilization: 15% institutional

access link utilization = 100% network
 ? 1 Gbps LAN
 total delay = Internet
? delay + access
delay + LAN delay local web
How to compute link
= 2 sec + minutes + usecs cache
utilization, delay?
Cost: web cache (cheap!)
Application Layer 2-41
Caching example: install local cache
Calculating access link
utilization, delay with cache: origin
 suppose cache hit rate is 0.4 servers
 40% requests satisfied at cache, public
60% requests satisfied at origin
 access link utilization:
 60% of requests use access link
 data rate to browsers over access link 1.54 Mbps
= 0.6*1.50 Mbps = .9 Mbps access link
 utilization = 0.9/1.54 = .58 institutional
 total delay network
1 Gbps LAN
 = 0.6 * (delay from origin servers) +0.4
* (delay when satisfied at cache) local web
 = 0.6 (2.01) + 0.4 (~msecs) cache
 = ~ 1.2 secs
 less than with 154 Mbps link (and
cheaper too!)
Application Layer 2-42
Conditional GET
client server
 Goal: don’t send object if
cache has up-to-date
cached version HTTP request msg
If-modified-since: <date>
 no object transmission not
delay modified
 lower link utilization HTTP response
 cache: specify date of 304 Not Modified
cached copy in HTTP
<date> HTTP request msg
 server: response contains If-modified-since: <date> object
no object if cached copy after
HTTP response
is up-to-date: HTTP/1.0 200 OK <date>
HTTP/1.0 304 Not <data>
Application Layer 2-43
Chapter 2: outline
2.1 principles of network 2.6 P2P applications
applications 2.7 socket programming
 app architectures with UDP and TCP
 app requirements
2.2 Web and HTTP
2.3 FTP
2.4 electronic mail
2.5 DNS

Application Layer 2-44

FTP: the file transfer protocol
file transfer
user client server
at host remote file
local file system

 transfer file to/from remote host

 client/server model
 client: side that initiates transfer (either to/from remote)
 server: remote host
 ftp: RFC 959
 ftp server: port 21
Application Layer 2-45
FTP: separate control, data connections

 FTP client contacts FTP server TCP control connection,

server port 21
at port 21, using TCP
 client authorized over control TCP data connection,
connection FTP server port 20 FTP
client server
 client browses remote
directory, sends commands
over control connection  server opens another TCP
data connection to transfer
 when server receives file another file
transfer command, server
opens 2nd TCP data  control connection: “out of
connection (for file) to client band”
 after transferring one file,  FTP server maintains
server closes data connection “state”: current directory,
earlier authentication

Application Layer 2-46

FTP commands, responses
sample commands: sample return codes
 sent as ASCII text over  status code and phrase (as
control channel in HTTP)
 USER username  331 Username OK,
 PASS password password required
 LIST return list of file in  125 data
current directory connection
already open;
 RETR filename transfer starting
retrieves (gets) file  425 Can’t open
 STOR filename stores data connection
(puts) file onto remote  452 Error writing
host file

Application Layer 2-47

Chapter 2: outline
2.1 principles of network 2.6 P2P applications
applications 2.7 socket programming
 app architectures with UDP and TCP
 app requirements
2.2 Web and HTTP
2.3 FTP
2.4 electronic mail
2.5 DNS

Application Layer 2-48

Electronic mail outgoing
message queue
user mailbox
Three major components: user
 user agents
 mail servers mail user
server agent
 simple mail transfer
protocol: SMTP SMTP mail user
server agent

User Agent SMTP

 a.k.a. “mail reader” SMTP user
 composing, editing, reading mail
mail messages user
 e.g., Outlook, Thunderbird, agent
iPhone mail client user
 outgoing, incoming
messages stored on server
Application Layer 2-49
Electronic mail: mail servers
mail servers: user
 mailbox contains incoming
messages for user mail user
 message queue of outgoing agent

(to be sent) mail messages SMTP mail user

 SMTP protocol between server agent
mail servers to send email SMTP
messages user
 client: sending mail SMTP
server server
 “server”: receiving mail user

Application Layer 2-50

Electronic Mail: SMTP [RFC 2821]
 uses TCP to reliably transfer email message from
client to server, port 25
 direct transfer: sending server to receiving
 three phases of transfer
 handshaking (greeting)
 transfer of messages
 closure
 command/response interaction (like HTTP, FTP)
 commands: ASCII text
 response: status code and phrase
 messages must be in 7-bit ASCI
Application Layer 2-51
Scenario: Alice sends message to Bob
1) Alice uses UA to compose 4) SMTP client sends Alice’s
message “to” message over the TCP connection
2) Alice’s UA sends message 5) Bob’s mail server places the
to her mail server; message message in Bob’s mailbox
placed in message queue 6) Bob invokes his user agent
3) client side of SMTP opens to read message
TCP connection with Bob’s
mail server

1 user mail user

mail agent
agent server server
2 3 6
Alice’s mail server Bob’s mail server
Application Layer 2-52
Sample SMTP interaction
S: 220
S: 250 Hello, pleased to meet you
S: 250 Sender ok
C: RCPT TO: <>
S: 250 ... Recipient ok
S: 354 Enter mail, end with "." on a line by itself
C: Do you like ketchup?
C: How about pickles?
C: .
S: 250 Message accepted for delivery
S: 221 closing connection

Application Layer 2-53

Try SMTP interaction for yourself:
 telnet servername 25
 see 220 reply from server

above lets you send email without using email client (reader)

Application Layer 2-54

SMTP: final words
 SMTP uses persistent comparison with HTTP:
 HTTP: pull
 SMTP requires message
(header & body) to be in  SMTP: push
7-bit ASCII  both have ASCII
 SMTP server uses command/response
CRLF.CRLF to interaction, status codes
determine end of message
 HTTP: each object
encapsulated in its own
response msg
 SMTP: multiple objects
sent in multipart msg

Application Layer 2-55

Mail message format

SMTP: protocol for

exchanging email msgs header
RFC 822: standard for text line
message format:
 header lines, e.g.,
 To: body
 From:
 Subject:
different from SMTP MAIL
 Body: the “message”
 ASCII characters only

Application Layer 2-56

Mail access protocols
mail access user
SMTP SMTP protocol
agent agent
(e.g., POP,

sender’s mail receiver’s mail

server server

 SMTP: delivery/storage to receiver’s server

 mail access protocol: retrieval from server
 POP: Post Office Protocol [RFC 1939]: authorization,
 IMAP: Internet Mail Access Protocol [RFC 1730]: more
features, including manipulation of stored msgs on
 HTTP: gmail, Hotmail, Yahoo! Mail, etc.

Application Layer 2-57

POP3 protocol
S: +OK POP3 server ready
C: user bob
authorization phase S:
pass hungry
 client commands: S: +OK user successfully logged on
 user: declare username
 pass: password C: list
S: 1 498
 server responses
S: 2 912
 +OK S: .
 -ERR C: retr 1
transaction phase, client: S:
<message 1 contents>
 list: list message numbers C: dele 1
 retr: retrieve message by C: retr 2
number S: <message 1 contents>
 dele: delete S: .
 quit C: dele 2
C: quit
S: +OK POP3 server signing off
Application Layer 2-58
POP3 (more) and IMAP
more about POP3 IMAP
 previous example uses  keeps all messages in one
POP3 “download and place: at server
delete” mode  allows user to organize
 Bob cannot re-read e- messages in folders
mail if he changes  keeps user state across
client sessions:
 POP3 “download-and-  names of folders and
keep”: copies of messages mappings between
on different clients message IDs and folder
 POP3 is stateless across name

Application Layer 2-59

Chapter 2: outline
2.1 principles of network 2.6 P2P applications
applications 2.7 socket programming
 app architectures with UDP and TCP
 app requirements
2.2 Web and HTTP
2.3 FTP
2.4 electronic mail
2.5 DNS

Application Layer 2-60

DNS: domain name system
people: many identifiers: Domain Name System:
 SSN, name, passport #  distributed database
Internet hosts, routers: implemented in hierarchy of
 IP address (32 bit) - many name servers
used for addressing  application-layer protocol: hosts,
datagrams name servers communicate to
 “name”, e.g., resolve names (address/name - translation)
used by humans  note: core Internet function,
Q: how to map between IP implemented as application-
layer protocol
address and name, and
vice versa ?  complexity at network’s

Application Layer 2-61

DNS: services, structure
DNS services why not centralize DNS?
 hostname to IP address  single point of failure
translation  traffic volume
 host aliasing  distant centralized database
 canonical, alias names  maintenance
 mail server aliasing
 load distribution A: doesn’t scale!
 replicated Web
servers: many IP
addresses correspond
to one name

Application Layer 2-62

DNS: a distributed, hierarchical database
Root DNS Servers

… …

com DNS servers org DNS servers edu DNS servers
DNS servers DNS serversDNS servers
DNS servers DNS servers

client wants IP for; 1st approx:

 client queries root server to find com DNS server
 client queries .com DNS server to get DNS server
 client queries DNS server to get IP address for

Application Layer 2-63

DNS: root name servers
 contacted by local name server that can not resolve name
 root name server:
 contacts authoritative name server if name mapping not known
 gets mapping
 returns mapping to local name server

c. Cogent, Herndon, VA (5 other sites)

d. U Maryland College Park, MD k. RIPE London (17 other sites)
h. ARL Aberdeen, MD
j. Verisign, Dulles VA (69 other sites ) i. Netnod, Stockholm (37 other sites)

e. NASA Mt View, CA m. WIDE Tokyo

f. Internet Software C. (5 other sites)
Palo Alto, CA (and 48 other

a. Verisign, Los Angeles CA 13 root name

(5 other sites)
b. USC-ISI Marina del Rey, CA
l. ICANN Los Angeles, CA worldwide
(41 other sites)
g. US DoD Columbus,
OH (5 other sites)

Application Layer 2-64

TLD, authoritative servers
top-level domain (TLD) servers:
 responsible for com, org, net, edu, aero, jobs, museums,
and all top-level country domains, e.g.: uk, fr, ca, jp
 Network Solutions maintains servers for .com TLD
 Educause for .edu TLD
authoritative DNS servers:
 organization’s own DNS server(s), providing
authoritative hostname to IP mappings for organization’s
named hosts
 can be maintained by organization or service provider

Application Layer 2-65

Local DNS name server
 does not strictly belong to hierarchy
 each ISP (residential ISP, company, university) has
 also called “default name server”
 when host makes DNS query, query is sent to its
local DNS server
 has local cache of recent name-to-address translation
pairs (but may be out of date!)
 acts as proxy, forwards query into hierarchy

Application Layer 2-66

DNS name root DNS server
resolution example
 host at 3
TLD DNS server
wants IP address for 4

iterated query: local DNS server
 contacted server 7 6
1 8
replies with name of
server to contact
authoritative DNS server
 “I don’t know this
name, but ask this requesting host

Application Layer 2-67

DNS name root DNS server
resolution example
2 3
recursive query: 7
 puts burden of name TLD DNS
resolution on
contacted name local DNS server
server 5 4

 heavy load at upper 1 8

levels of hierarchy?
authoritative DNS server
requesting host

Application Layer 2-68

DNS: caching, updating records
 once (any) name server learns mapping, it caches
 cache entries timeout (disappear) after some time (TTL)
 TLD servers typically cached in local name servers
• thus root name servers not often visited
 cached entries may be out-of-date (best effort
name-to-address translation!)
 if name host changes IP address, may not be known
Internet-wide until all TTLs expire
 update/notify mechanisms proposed IETF standard
 RFC 2136

Application Layer 2-69

DNS records
DNS: distributed db storing resource records (RR)
RR format: (name, value, type, ttl)

type=A type=CNAME
 name is hostname  name is alias name for some
 value is IP address “canonical” (the real) name
type=NS  is really
 name is domain (e.g.,  value is canonical name
 value is hostname of
authoritative name type=MX
server for this domain  value is name of mailserver
associated with name

Application Layer 2-70

DNS protocol, messages
 query and reply messages, both with same message
format 2 bytes 2 bytes

msg header identification flags

 identification: 16 bit # for # questions # answer RRs

query, reply to query uses
# authority RRs # additional RRs
same #
 flags: questions (variable # of questions)
 query or reply
 recursion desired answers (variable # of RRs)
 recursion available
 reply is authoritative authority (variable # of RRs)

additional info (variable # of RRs)

Application Layer 2-71

DNS protocol, messages

2 bytes 2 bytes

identification flags

# questions # answer RRs

# authority RRs # additional RRs

name, type fields

questions (variable # of questions)
for a query
RRs in response answers (variable # of RRs)
to query
records for
authority (variable # of RRs)
authoritative servers
additional “helpful” additional info (variable # of RRs)
info that may be used
Application Layer 2-72
Inserting records into DNS
 example: new startup “Network Utopia”
 register name at DNS registrar
(e.g., Network Solutions)
 provide names, IP addresses of authoritative name server
(primary and secondary)
 registrar inserts two RRs into .com TLD server:
(,, NS)
(,, A)
 create authoritative server type A record for; type MX record for

Application Layer 2-73

Attacking DNS
DDoS attacks Redirect attacks
 Bombard root servers  Man-in-middle
with traffic  Intercept queries
 Not successful to date  DNS poisoning
 Traffic Filtering  Send bogus relies to
 Local DNS servers DNS server, which
cache IPs of TLD caches
servers, allowing root Exploit DNS for DDoS
server bypass
 Send queries with
 Bombard TLD servers
spoofed source
 Potentially more
dangerous address: target IP
 Requires amplification
Application Layer 2-74
Chapter 2: outline
2.1 principles of network 2.6 P2P applications
applications 2.7 socket programming
 app architectures with UDP and TCP
 app requirements
2.2 Web and HTTP
2.3 FTP
2.4 electronic mail
2.5 DNS

Application Layer 2-75

Pure P2P architecture
 no always-on server
 arbitrary end systems
directly communicate
 peers are intermittently
connected and change IP
 file distribution
 Streaming (KanKan)
 VoIP (Skype)

Application Layer 2-76

File distribution: client-server vs P2P
Question: how much time to distribute file (size F) from
one server to N peers?
 peer upload/download capacity is limited resource

us: server upload


di: peer i download

file, size F u1 d1 capacity
us u2 d2
uN network (with abundant
bandwidth) ui
ui: peer i upload

Application Layer 2-77

File distribution time: client-server
 server transmission: must
sequentially send (upload) N F
file copies:
 time to send one copy: F/us
 time to send N copies: NF/us ui

 client: each client must

download file copy
 dmin = min client download rate
 min client download time: F/dmin

time to distribute F
to N clients using Dc-s > max{NF/us,,F/dmin}
client-server approach

increases linearly in N
Application Layer 2-78
File distribution time: P2P
 server transmission: must
upload at least one copy F
 time to send one copy: F/us
 client: each client must network
download file copy ui
 min client download time: F/dmin
 clients: as aggregate must download NF bits
 max upload rate (limting max download rate) is us + Sui

time to distribute F
to N clients using DP2P > max{F/us,,F/dmin,,NF/(us + Sui)}
P2P approach

increases linearly in N …
… but so does this, as each peer brings service capacity
Application Layer 2-79
Client-server vs. P2P: example
client upload rate = u, F/u = 1 hour, us = 10u, dmin ≥ us

Minimum Distribution Time




0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

Application Layer 2-80
P2P file distribution: BitTorrent
 file divided into 256Kb chunks
 peers in torrent send/receive file chunks

tracker: tracks peers torrent: group of peers

participating in torrent exchanging chunks of a file

Alice arrives …
… obtains list
of peers from tracker
… and begins exchanging
file chunks with peers in torrent

Application Layer 2-81

P2P file distribution: BitTorrent
 peer joining torrent:
 has no chunks, but will
accumulate them over time
from other peers
 registers with tracker to get
list of peers, connects to
subset of peers
 while downloading, peer uploads chunks to other peers
 peer may change peers with whom it exchanges chunks
 churn: peers may come and go
 once peer has entire file, it may (selfishly) leave or
(altruistically) remain in torrent

Application Layer 2-82

BitTorrent: requesting, sending file chunks

requesting chunks: sending chunks: tit-for-tat

 at any given time, different  Alice sends chunks to those
peers have different subsets four peers currently sending her
of file chunks chunks at highest rate
 periodically, Alice asks each  other peers are choked by Alice
peer for list of chunks that (do not receive chunks from her)
they have  re-evaluate top 4 every10 secs
 Alice requests missing  every 30 secs: randomly select
chunks from peers, rarest another peer, starts sending
first chunks
 “optimistically unchoke” this peer
 newly chosen peer may join top 4

Application Layer 2-83

BitTorrent: tit-for-tat
(1) Alice “optimistically unchokes” Bob
(2) Alice becomes one of Bob’s top-four providers; Bob reciprocates
(3) Bob becomes one of Alice’s top-four providers

higher upload rate: find better

trading partners, get file faster !

Application Layer 2-84

Distributed Hash Table (DHT)
 Hash table

 DHT paradigm

 Circular DHT and overlay networks

 Peer churn
Simple Database
Simple database with(key, value) pairs:
• key: human name; value: social security #
Key Value
John Washington 132-54-3570
Diana Louise Jones 761-55-3791
Xiaoming Liu 385-41-0902
Rakesh Gopal 441-89-1956
Linda Cohen 217-66-5609
……. ………
Lisa Kobayashi 177-23-0199

• key: movie title; value: IP address

Hash Table
• More convenient to store and search on
numerical representation of key
• key = hash(original key)
Original Key Key Value
John Washington 8962458 132-54-3570
Diana Louise Jones 7800356 761-55-3791
Xiaoming Liu 1567109 385-41-0902
Rakesh Gopal 2360012 441-89-1956
Linda Cohen 5430938 217-66-5609
……. ………
Lisa Kobayashi 9290124 177-23-0199
Distributed Hash Table (DHT)
 Distribute (key, value) pairs over millions of peers
 pairs are evenly distributed over peers
 Any peer can query database with a key
 database returns value for the key
 To resolve query, small number of messages exchanged among
 Each peer only knows about a small number of other
 Robust to peers coming and going (churn)
Assign key-value pairs to peers
 rule: assign key-value pair to the peer that has the
closest ID.
 convention: closest is the immediate successor of
the key.
 e.g., ID space {0,1,2,3,…,63}
 suppose 8 peers: 1,12,13,25,32,40,48,60
 If key = 51, then assigned to peer 60
 If key = 60, then assigned to peer 60
 If key = 61, then assigned to peer 1
Circular DHT
• each peer only aware of
immediate successor and


32 “overlay network”
Resolving a query

1 What is the value

associated with key 53 ?
value 12


O(N) messages 25
on avgerage to resolve
query, when there 40
are N peers
Circular DHT with shortcuts
1 What is the value for
key 53

• each peer keeps track of IP addresses of predecessor,
successor, short cuts.
• reduced from 6 to 3 messages.
• possible to design shortcuts with O(log N) neighbors, O(log N)
messages in query
Peer churn handling peer churn:
peers may come and go (churn)
each peer knows address of its
3 two successors
each peer periodically pings its
4 two successors to check aliveness
if immediate successor leaves,
5 choose next successor as new
immediate successor
example: peer 5 abruptly leaves
Peer churn handling peer churn:
peers may come and go (churn)
each peer knows address of its
3 two successors
each peer periodically pings its
4 two successors to check aliveness
if immediate successor leaves,
choose next successor as new
immediate successor
example: peer 5 abruptly leaves
peer 4 detects peer 5’s departure; makes 8 its immediate
 4 asks 8 who its immediate successor is; makes 8’s
immediate successor its second successor.
Chapter 2: outline
2.1 principles of network 2.6 P2P applications
applications 2.7 socket programming
 app architectures with UDP and TCP
 app requirements
2.2 Web and HTTP
2.3 FTP
2.4 electronic mail
2.5 DNS

Application Layer 2-95

Socket programming
goal: learn how to build client/server applications that
communicate using sockets
socket: door between application process and end-
end-transport protocol

application application
socket controlled by
process process app developer

transport transport
network network controlled
link by OS
link Internet
physical physical

Application Layer 2-96

Socket programming
Two socket types for two transport services:
 UDP: unreliable datagram
 TCP: reliable, byte stream-oriented

Application Example:
1. Client reads a line of characters (data) from its
keyboard and sends the data to the server.
2. The server receives the data and converts
characters to uppercase.
3. The server sends the modified data to the client.
4. The client receives the modified data and displays
the line on its screen.
Application Layer 2-97
Socket programming with UDP
UDP: no “connection” between client & server
 no handshaking before sending data
 sender explicitly attaches IP destination address and
port # to each packet
 rcvr extracts sender IP address and port# from
received packet
UDP: transmitted data may be lost or received
Application viewpoint:
 UDP provides unreliable transfer of groups of bytes
(“datagrams”) between client and server

Application Layer 2-98

Client/server socket interaction: UDP

server (running on serverIP) client

create socket:
create socket, port= x: clientSocket =
serverSocket = socket(AF_INET,SOCK_DGRAM)
Create datagram with server IP and
port=x; send datagram via
read datagram from clientSocket

write reply to
serverSocket read datagram from
specifying clientSocket
client address,
port number close

Application 2-99
Example app: UDP client
Python UDPClient
include Python’s socket
from socket import *
serverName = ‘hostname’
serverPort = 12000
create UDP socket for clientSocket = socket(socket.AF_INET,

get user keyboard

input message = raw_input(’Input lowercase sentence:’)
Attach server name, port to
message; send into socket clientSocket.sendto(message,(serverName, serverPort))
read reply characters from modifiedMessage, serverAddress =
socket into string
print out received string print modifiedMessage
and close socket

Application Layer 2-100

Example app: UDP server
Python UDPServer
from socket import *
serverPort = 12000
create UDP socket serverSocket = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM)
bind socket to local port
number 12000
serverSocket.bind(('', serverPort))
print “The server is ready to receive”
loop forever while 1:
Read from UDP socket into message, clientAddress = serverSocket.recvfrom(2048)
message, getting client’s
address (client IP and port) modifiedMessage = message.upper()
send upper case string serverSocket.sendto(modifiedMessage, clientAddress)
back to this client

Application Layer 2-101

Socket programming with TCP
client must contact server  when contacted by client,
 server process must first be server TCP creates new socket
running for server process to
 server must have created communicate with that
socket (door) that particular client
welcomes client’s contact  allows server to talk with
multiple clients
client contacts server by:  source port numbers used
 Creating TCP socket, to distinguish clients
specifying IP address, port (more in Chap 3)
number of server process
 when client creates socket: application viewpoint:
client TCP establishes TCP provides reliable, in-order
connection to server TCP byte-stream transfer (“pipe”)
between client and server

Application Layer 2-102

Client/server socket interaction: TCP
server (running on hostid) client
create socket,
port=x, for incoming
serverSocket = socket()

wait for incoming create socket,

connection request
TCP connect to hostid, port=x
connectionSocket = connection setup clientSocket = socket()

send request using

read request from clientSocket

write reply to
connectionSocket read reply from
connectionSocket close

Application Layer 2-103

Example app: TCP client
Python TCPClient
from socket import *
serverName = ’servername’
create TCP socket for
serverPort = 12000
server, remote port 12000
clientSocket = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM)
sentence = raw_input(‘Input lowercase sentence:’)
No need to attach server clientSocket.send(sentence)
name, port
modifiedSentence = clientSocket.recv(1024)
print ‘From Server:’, modifiedSentence

Application Layer 2-104

Example app: TCP server
Python TCPServer
from socket import *
create TCP welcoming serverPort = 12000
socket serverSocket = socket(AF_INET,SOCK_STREAM)
server begins listening for
incoming TCP requests serverSocket.listen(1)
print ‘The server is ready to receive’
loop forever
while 1:
server waits on accept()
for incoming requests, new
connectionSocket, addr = serverSocket.accept()
socket created on return

sentence = connectionSocket.recv(1024)
read bytes from socket (but
not address as in UDP) capitalizedSentence = sentence.upper()
close connection to this connectionSocket.send(capitalizedSentence)
client (but not welcoming
socket) connectionSocket.close()
Application Layer 2-105
Chapter 2: summary
our study of network apps now complete!
 application architectures  specific protocols:
 client-server  HTTP
 P2P  FTP
 application service
requirements:  SMTP, POP, IMAP
 reliability, bandwidth, delay  DNS
 Internet transport service  P2P: BitTorrent, DHT
model  socket programming: TCP,
 connection-oriented, UDP sockets
reliable: TCP
 unreliable, datagrams: UDP

Application Layer 2-106

Chapter 2: summary
most importantly: learned about protocols!

 typical request/reply important themes:

message exchange:
 control vs. data msgs
 client requests info or
service  in-band, out-of-band
 server responds with  centralized vs. decentralized
data, status code
 stateless vs. stateful
 message formats:
 reliable vs. unreliable msg
 headers: fields giving
info about data transfer
 data: info being  “complexity at network
communicated edge”

Application Layer 2-107