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Wire of a circuit are metal wires which are conductors.

Wires will have many electrons

that are free to move.

Lamp is the device which converts electrical energy into light energy. Metal filament in
the lamp also have free electrons.

Switch allows a circuit to be open or closed. When you open the switch the lamp goes
out. When you closed the switch electrons will flow and the lamp will glow.

Cell is a device which converts chemical energy into electrical energy. The chemical
reactions inside the cell makes the electrons leave the cell at the negative terminal when
the circuit is completed.
Current is the rate of flow of electrons in a circuit

Unit of current is amperes. (amps) symbol A.

1 Amp is equal to the flow of 6 million, million, million electrons passing any given point in the
wire in a second

Although current is the flow of electrons, conventionally the

direction of current is taken as opposite to the direction of

In a circuit Current flows from positive to negative of a cell.

A battery is made of two or more cells joined together
Resistance is the property of a material to control the electric current flows through it.

Material with high resistant allow small current to flow through it.
example: tungsten

Material with low resistance allow large current to flow through it.
example: silver

Resistance of a material increases with increase in length and decreases with

increase in thickness.
Resistors are circuit components which control the size of the electric current flowing in a circuit.

Resistors are components designed to introduce a particular resistance into a circuit.

Rheostats can be made in which a contact moves along the surface of a resistance wire
and brings different lengths of the wire into the circuit. In order to make it more
compact, the length of the wire is wound in a coil and the contact is made to move
freely across the to of the coil.

When the sliding contact moves from left to right the resistance of the rheostat will
increase because current flows through more of the wire.
A buzzer is an electrical device in which one part vibrates strongly when an electric current passes through it.
The vibrations produce the sound.
The heat energy developed in a circuit increases with the increase in the current flowing through it.

Fuse is a device containing a wire that melts when the current flowing through it reaches a certain value. When
the wire melts, it breaks and so also breaks the circuit and stop the current flowing.

Electrical appliances are designed to work in a particular current, if the current too large the appliances may be
damaged. fuses are using in order to protect appliances from the large current. Fuse is a safety device.
An unusually large current occur when the insulation in An unusually large current occur if too many appliances
a cable is worn and the wires in the cable touch each are plugged into one socket.

Circuit breaker
It is a switch that is sensitive to the size of the current flowing through it. If the current is too large switch opens and break the
circuit. This switch can be closed and reuse if the problem is solved.
Unit = volt (v)

Measured by voltmeter
In series circuit the
resistance of the lamps

Normal brightness less brightness

In series circuit the voltage is divided between the lamps. The current flow
will be same but the voltage across each lamp decreases when two lamps
connect in series.
In parallel circuit the
resistance of the lamps do
not add.

In parallel circuit, the current divides to both the lamps. Voltage will remain
same across all the apparatus connected in parallel
Series circuit Parallel cicuit
Components connected along a Components connected side by
single path. side.
Same current Current divides

Different voltage Same voltage

Cannot switch off /On separately. Can switch off /On separately

Resistance of the components Resistance of the components

add do not add
Electrical component in which the resistance varies with light.
Electrical component in which the current flows only in one
A diode in which light emits when current passes through it.
The colour of the light depends on the material of the LED.