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Earthquake Resistant

Design
Lecture 9
Lateral Load Resisting System
of Structures
Rigid Floor Diaphragm

Bachelor of Civil Engineering


Institute of Engineering
Horizontal Distribution of Lateral Shear
• Earthquake causes inertia forces at floors
• Transfer to vertical elements
• Transfer to ground
• Shear strength/ Stiffness is important because it determines
the way vertical elements share the seismic force.


Floor Diaphragms
• In - plane v/s out - of - plane flexibility
• In - plane is seismic
• Out - of - plane is gravity
• RC floors are infinitely rigid in its plane
• It moves as rigid body moves in its plane
X

 

Translations and rotations


Floor Diaphragms
Rigid Floor Diaphragm
A diaphragm may be considered rigid when its midpoint
displacement, under lateral load, is less than twice the
average displacements at its ends. Rigid diaphragm
distributes the horizontal forces to the vertical resisting
elements in direct proportion to the relative rigidities
Flexible Floor Diaphragm
A diaphragm is considered flexible, when the midpoint
displacement, under lateral load, exceeds twice the
average displacement of the end supports. For flexible
diaphragms, the loads should be distributed according to
the tributary area.
Comparison between flexible and rigid
diaphragm
Floor Diaphragms………………

• Rigid floors assumptions


• Diaphragm action
k 0.5k k

0.5k k
 b
EL

L L

k 0.5k k

Vertical load analogy


Floor Diaphragms………………
• Rigid diaphragm 

F1  F2  F3  F
k  0.5k  k  F
k 0.5k k
2.5k  F  k  0.4 F
• Forces are directly proportional to stiffness of vertical
elements.
• Flexible diaphragm
No moment capacity

k 0.5k k

0.25F 0.5F 0.25F

• Forces are directly proportional to tributary area


Centre of Mass
• Centre of Mass (CM)
• CM is point on floor through which the
resultant of the mass passes, and hence
through which the Earthquake Load passes.
• Centre of Rigidity (CR)
• CR is point on floor through which lateral
force should pass in order that floor
undergoes only rigid body translation
• No rotation
• Rigid body translations – force resultants
Centre of Mass………..

• For multi storied buildings several definitions,


two commonly used are:
• Commonly used working with storey shears.

This floor does not


CR rotate (others floors
may rotate)
Centre of Mass………………
• CRs are obtained as these points at which vertical seismic
load profile should be applied such that none of the floors
undergo any rotation.
• Location of CR depend on vertical load profile

CR3 F3

CR2 F2 F2

CR1 F1 F1
Torsionally Uncoupled Systems-Rigid Floors
 CR and CM coincide .
• Only transition.
• Distribution proportional to lateral stiffness.


k1 k2 k3
CR
CM
Torsionally Coupled Systems-Rigid Floors

• Force distribution to vertical elements


• Force at CR proportional to lateral stiffness.
• Moment = eE.

Ex Ex Ex
eyEx
CM  
ey Ex

CR eyEx
Ex CR

Force at CR and a twisting


moment eE
Torsionally Coupled Systems-Rigid Floors……….

ki  stiffness in its own plane. r1


5
ri  perpendicu lar distance from CR
4
 i  ri displacements in its own plane. 1
r5
3
CR
r4
Fi  ki ri
Restoring moment in i th element 2
r5
M i  ki ri 2
r3
Applied moment M t  eE
eE    ki ri 2
eE r1

 ki ri2 r2

 ki ri 
 Fi   eE 
 k r  2
 i i 