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Human Resources Planning
 Human Resources Planning (HRP)
– Process of anticipating and making provision
for the movement (flow) of people into,
within, and out of an organization.
– HRP’s purpose is the the effective
deployment of human resources through:
 Anticipating organizational labor supply and
 Providing expanded employment opportunities
for women, minorities, and the disabled.
 Guiding the development and training the
Human Resource Planning & IS 3

Effective HR Planning ensures that:

 the available talent is correctly allocated

 labour costs are controlled

 employee numbers are appropriate

 productivity is improved

 talented employees are retained

Human Resource Planning & IS 4

Action Decisions in HR Planning
Job Analysis: the process of collecting &
analyzing information about jobs to write:
Job Description: a document that identifies the
tasks & duties performed by a job
Job Specification: a document that identifies the
qualifications required by a job
Most organizations combine the Job
Description & the Job Specification into a
single document for each job
Usually simply called a “Job Description”
Job Analysis: A Basic Human Resource Management Tool

Human Resource
Tasks Responsibilities Duties Planning
Training and
Job Performance Appraisal
Analysis Job Compensation and
Specifications Benefits
Safety and Health
Employee and Labor
Knowledge Skills Abilities Legal Considerations
Job Analysis for Teams
Job Description and Job Specification in
Job Analysis

Methods of Collecting Job Data

 Those activities in Human Resource
Management which are undertaken in
order to attract sufficient job candidates
who have the necessary potential,
competencies and traits to fill job needs
and to assist the organization in
achieving its objectives.
 Aimed at attracting and retaining the
interest of the best suitable applicants.
Internal recruitment
•Advantages •Disadvantages
Increases morale of Unhealthy competition
employees among employees
Knowledge of personnel No new ideas
More problem for those
Chain effect of promotion who are not promoted
Only need to hire at entry Strong management
level development
Usually faster, less expensive
Minimum paperwork
External recruitment

•Advantages •Disadvantages
Applicant pool is greater Can destroy employee
morale and organization
New ideas, fresh talent
Reduces internal conflict
The employees’ ability to
fit in with the rest of the
organization is unknown
Usually more expensive
Do not know who and
what you are getting
Internal Recruiting

 Job Posting
• Skills inventories can be used to identify internal
applicants for job vacancies
• It is hard to identify everyone who might be
interested in the opening, so firms use job posting
and bidding
• Today, postings are computerized and easily
accessible to employees via the company’s intranet
• Software allows employees to match an available job
with their skills and experience
• It may also highlight where gaps exist
Internal Recruiting

 Inside Moonlighting and Employees’

• Before going outside to recruit, many organizations
ask employees to encourage friends and relatives to
• Some offer “finders fees” for successful referrals
• Employee referrals should be used cautiously,
especially if the workforce is already racially or
culturally imbalanced
External Recruiting
 Walk-ins are an important source of
• As labor shortages increase, however, organizations
must become more proactive in their recruiting
 External recruiting can be done through:
• Media advertising
• E-recruiting
• Employment agencies
• Executive search firms
• Special-events recruiting
• Internships
Media Advertising

 Media include:
 Newspapers
 Trade/professional
 Billboards
 Subway and bus cards
 Radio
 Telephone
 Television
Special Events Recruiting

 Job fairs:
• Can reduce recruiting costs by up to 80 percent
• May be scheduled on holidays or weekends to reach
college students and the currently employed
• Are especially useful for smaller, less well known
• Appeal to job seekers who wish to locate in a
particular area and those wanting to minimize
travel and interview time
Summer Internships

 Internship programs have a number of

• Allows organizations to get specific projects done
• Exposes organizations to talented, potential
employees who may become “recruiters” at school
• Provides trial-run employment
• Can attract the best people where there are labor
• Can improve diversity
Cost-Benefit Analysis of Recruiting

 Many aspects of recruitment can be

• Recruiters can be assigned goals by type of
• Sources of recruits can be evaluated by dividing the
number of job acceptances by the number of
campus interviews
• Methods of recruiting can be evaluated along
various dimensions, such as the cost of the method
divided by the number of job offer acceptances
 Selection is picking up right people for right jobs
 Selection is the process by which
an organization chooses the person(s)
who best meets the selection criteria
for the position available
 Selection programs try to identify applicants with the
best chance of meeting or exceeding the organization’s
standards of performance
 Selection is significant because

 it determines work performance

 heavy costs are incurred
Selection: “An exercise in prediction”

 Selection Process
 The process of screening job applicants to ensure that
the most appropriate candidates are hired.
 What is Selection?
 An exercise in predicting which applicants, if hired, will
be (or will not be) successful in performing well on the
criteria the organization uses to evaluate performance.
 Selection errors:
 Reject errors for potentially successful applicants
 Accept errors for ultimately poor performers
Recruitment Vs Selection

• Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for

employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the
organization WHEREAS selection involves the series of steps
by which the candidates are screened for choosing the most
suitable persons for vacant posts.

• The basic purpose of recruitments is to create a talent pool of

candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the
organization, by attracting more and more employees to apply in
the organization WHEREAS the basic purpose of selection
process is to choose the right candidate to fill the various
positions in the organization.
Recruitment Vs Selection
 Recruitment is a positive process i.e. encouraging more and
more employees to apply WHEREAS selection is a negative
process as it involves rejection of the unsuitable candidates.

 Recruitment is concerned with tapping the sources of human

resources WHEREAS selection is concerned with selecting the
most suitable candidate through various interviews and tests.

 There is no contract of recruitment established in recruitment

WHEREAS selection results in a contract of service between the
employer and the selected employee.
Categories of Criteria
 Criteria for making selection decisions
fall into these broad categories:
 Education
 Experience
 Physical characteristics
 Other personal characteristics
Step 1: Preliminary Screening
 The first step in most selection processes involves
completing an application form
 Application blanks vary in length and sophistication
 Nearly all ask for enough information to determine
minimal qualifications
 The application eliminates the need for interviewers to
gather basic information
 Application blanks are subject to the same legal
standards as any other selection method
 They generally limit questions that imply something
about the applicant’s physical health
Sample Application Blank
Name: _________________________________________________________________________
A dd r es s : _______________________________________________________________________
Phone Number (Res): _______________________
College/University Attended: ____________ Highest Degree (a) BA/BSc/MA/MSc/MBA/MCom
(b) BE/BTech/ MTech
(c) Any other
High School Attended: _____________________________
Work Experience (List most recent jobs first)
Name of the Organisation:
Gross Salary: ______________ (annual; be sure to include any bonuses or commission earned)
Job Title: ________________________________________________________
Name of Last Supervisor: __________________________________________
May we contact this supervisor? Yes / No
Reason(s) for Leaving: ____________________________________________________________

Name of Organisation: ____________________ Date of Employment: _______ from to ____

Gross Salary: ___________ (annual; be sure to include any bonuses or commission earned)
Job Title: ________________________________________________________
Name of Last Supervisor: __________________________________________
May we contact this supervisor? Yes / No
Reason(s) for Leaving: ____________________________________________________________

Name of Organisation: ____________________ Date of Employment: _______ from to ____

Gross Salary: ___________ (annual; be sure to include any bonuses or commission earned)
Job Title: ________________________________________________________
Name of Last Supervisor: __________________________________________
May we contact this supervisor? Yes / No
Reason(s) for Leaving: ____________________________________________________________

Work skills
1. List any job-related languages you are able to speak or write: _________________________
2. List any job-related clerical (e.g., typing) or technical skills (e.g., computer programming) that you
ha ve:
A. ___________________________________ B. ___________________________________
C. ___________________________________
Additional Information
In case of an emergency, please contact.
Name: __________________________________________
A dd r es s : _______________________________________
Telephone: ______________________________________

I understand that falsification of information is grounds for dismissal.

I understand that my employment at the company may be discontinued at any time for any reason
either by myself or by the company.
I agree to submit to a drug and/or alcohol test as a condition of employment.

Signature Date
Step 2: Employment Tests
 An employment test attempts to measure certain
characteristics, such as:
 Aptitudes
 Manual dexterity
 Intelligence
 Personality
 It can be expensive to develop an employment test,
so many employers purchase existing tests
Step 3: Employment Interview

• Formal , in-depth conversation conducted to evaluate

applicant’s acceptability for the job in consideration.
• an important source of information about job
• Several types of interviews are used , depending on the
nature and importance of the position to be filled
within an organization.
Types Of Selection Interviews
• The nondirective interview: the recruiter asks questions as
they come to mind
• The directive or structured interview: the recruiter uses a
predetermined set of Questions that are clearly job-related
• The situational interview: the recruiter presents a
hypothetical incident and asks The candidate to respond
• The behavioral interview: the focus here is on actual work
related incidents and The applicant is supposed to reveal what he
or she did in a given situation
• Stress interview: the recruiter attempts to find how applicants
would respond to aggressive, embarrassing, rule and insulting (at
times) questions
• The panel interview: three or four interviewers pose questions
to the applicant and Examine the suitability of the candidate
Step 4: Reference Checks
 When applying for a job, you may be asked for a list of
 Rarely does someone knowingly include the name of a
reference who will give a negative impression
 This built-in bias is why references are criticized
 Equally important are concerns over the legality of
asking for, and providing, such information
 Giving out confidential information could be a violation of
the employee’s right to privacy
 Giving a negative recommendation opens the reference up
to a defamation lawsuit
Step 5: Physical Examinations

• After the selection decision and before the

job offer is made, the candidate is required
to undergo a physical fitness test.
• A job offer is contingent upon the candidate
being declared fit after the physical
Step 6 :Making the Job Offer

• Offer Guidelines
– Formalize the offer with a letter to the applicant
clearly stating the terms and conditions of
– Avoid vague, general statements and promises.
– Require return of a signed acceptance of the