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Optical Transport Hierarchy (OTH) introduction

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TOP54048W
Issue 1.0
March 2010

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Objectives

By the end of the course, you will be able to:

• Explain the OTN network concept


• Describe the OTH layers and their
function
• Identify the parts of the OTH frame
• Explain the OTH multiplexing scheme
• Describe OTH features and
maintenance signals
Course outline

OTH
Introduction
* Optical Transport
Network
1 Optical Transport Network (OTN)

You will learn in this chapter…


… what the advantages of the OTN are
… what the basic concepts of OTN networks are
… what the different OTN layers are

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OTN evolution

PDH
Ethernet
ATM

DWDM
system

SONET/SDH SONET/SDH
NE
OTN evolution

OTH

Advantages
Functionality • Forward Error Correction (FEC)
• Transport / Multiplexing / Routing • More Levels of Tandem Connection
• Network and Service Management Monitoring (TCM)
• Supervision & Survivability • Transparent Transport of Client Signals
• Switching Scalability
ITU-T framework for OTN recommendations

Framework for OTN Terms and definitions


Network architecture
G.871 G.872, G.873
OTN
G.870

Jitter and Wander


performance
Structures and Physical layer G.8251
mapping characteristics
G.709 G.959.1, G.671, G.664
Error
performance
G.8201

Equipment functional Equipment


characteristics management
G.798 aspects G.874 Maintenance
M.2401

Management OTN linear protection


information model G.873.1
G.875
OTN layers

• End-to-end path
management
End-to-end
Optical Payload
Optical channelUnit • Connection
End-to-end
connectivity
path
Electro-optical
Electro-optical
OCh
OPU monitoring
for
across
optical
theclient
OTN
layer
layer signals
• Fault and error
monitoring
• Forward Error
correction

Optical
Optical Data Unit Networking
Connectionfunctionality
monitoring
OTN layers multiplex
ODU
section Detection
for multi-wavelength
of errors and
OMS optical signal
faults

• End-to-end
management for
optical signals
Optical
Optical • Transport in
Optical Transport Unit opticalofchannels
layer section
transmission Monitoring
Transmission of
bitoptical
errors
OTU
OTS Forward
signals via
error
• Defect optical
correction
fiber
monitoring
Regeneration classification

1 0 1 0
digital 1R 2R 3R
signal Re- Re-shaping Re-timing
Amplification
•1R
optical regeneration •1R
•Analogical regeneration
signal process •Applied to
optical signal •2R
•Applied to regeneration
optical signal •Digital
received processing •Complete
•Signal digital pulse
signal amplitude without clock
recovery regeneration
changes
•Noise •Optical-to-
Re-amplified suppression electrical
conversion
signal •Not
transparent
to line code

Re-shaped
signal

Re-timed
signal
OTN network example

CA OLA OLA X X OLA CA


3R

OTS OTS OTS OTS OTS OTS

OMS OMS OMS

OCh OCh

OTU OTU

ODU

OPU

Legend Optical cross connect/ADM


X (OMS termination)
Client access
CA (ODU OLA Optical Line Amplifier
Electrical ODU cross
termination) (OTS termination)
X connect (OTU termination)
3R with WDM interfaces and 3R
OTN: Quiz

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2 OTH signal structure

You will learn in this chapter…


… how the OTH multiplexing structure is made up
… of which parts the OTH frame consists
… how client signals are mapped into the OTH frame

Proprietary - Use pursuant to Company instructions - All Rights Reserved ©Alcatel-Lucent 2010
OTH multiplexing and mapping principle
SONET/SDH
Ethernet/IP OTN
ATM
Layer

OH OPU
Client signal OPU

OH TCM ODU
OPU ODU

OH OTU FEC OTU


Och OH

Och OH

Och OH

… OCh OCh OCh OCh OCh OCh OCh OCh

OPS
OMS OPS
OMS
OTM COMMs

OMS OH

OTS OH OTS OTS

OSC
Optical Transport Module (OTM)
SONET/SDH
kOTU OTU OTU OTU2.5 Ethernet/IP
OTU1 OTU
Gbit/s OTU STM-16/OC-48
ATM

OTU2 10 Gbit/s STM-64/OC-192


OPU
OCh OCh OCh OCh OCh OCh OCh
STM-256/OC-768
OTU3 40 Gbit/s 40GbEthernet
ODU

OTU4 OTU
100 Gbit/s
OTU 100GbEthernet

OTM-n.m
OCh OCh OCh OCh OCh OCh OCh
Supported bandwidth
Number of OCh
OTM-0.m Single optical channel, no OSC
OTM-nr.m Reduced functionality: no OSC
OTM-0.mvn Multi lane, no OSC
OTM structure examples

OTM-0.1
OTM-0.1 r.1
OTM-4r.1
OTM-4 n.1
OTM-n.1
OTM-n.1
OTM- v4
OTM-0.3v4
OTM-0.3v4
OTM-0.3
OTM-0.2
OTM-0.2 r.2
OTM-4r.2
OTM-4 n.2
OTM-n.2
OTM-n.2
OTM- v4
OTM-0.4v4
OTM-0.4v4
OTM-0.4
OTM-0.3
OTM-0.3 r.3
OTM-4r.3
OTM-4 n.3
OTM-n.3
OTM-n.3
OTM-
OTM-0.4
OTM-0.4 r.4
OTM-4r.4
OTM-4 n.4
OTM-n.4
OTM-n.4
OTM-
OTM-4 r.12
OTM-4r.12 n.12
OTM-n.12
OTM-n.12
OTM-
OTM-4 r.23
OTM-4r.23 n.23
OTM-n.23
OTM-n.23
OTM-
r.24
OTM-4r.24
OTM-4 n.24
OTM-n.24
OTM-n.24
OTM-
r.1234
OTM-4r.1234
OTM-4 n.1234 • OTU3 and OTU4
OTM-n.1234
OTM-n.1234
OTM-
• No support of WDM • 4 channels included
• One single OCh with specified • No generation of OSC
data rate m=1, 2, 3, 4
• No generation of OSC
• Reduced functionality • Support of WDM
• Support of WDM • OSC is generated
• 4 OCh with different bandwidth
• n ≥ 1allowed:
channels
e.g. OTM-4r.23 offers 10G and 40G channels
• Several combinations of Back to
data rates supported overview
OTM multiplexing structure

OTU-4 ODU4 OPU4

OTU-3 ODU3 OPU3

P
n OTU-2 ODU2 OPU2

P P 
osc
OTU-1 ODU1 OPU1
Full functionality

OCC OCh
l
 
i OCC OCh
OTM-n.m OTSn OMSn OCG-n.m j
k OCC OCh

P OCC OCh
osc


OSC OOS 1 ≤ i+j+k+l ≤ n
OTM multiplexing structure
x4
OTM-0.mvn OPSMn4 OTLCG OTLC OTL4.n
Reduced functionality

x4
OPSMn3 OTLCG OTLC OTL3.n
4x1/4

OTM-0.m OPS0 OCCr OCh 4x1/4

OCCr OCh
OTU-4 ODU4 OPU4
l
i OCCr OCh
j
OTM-nr.m k OTU-3 ODU3 OPU3
OPSn OCG-nr.m OCCr OCh

P
n OTU-2 ODU2 OPU2

P P 
osc
OTU-1 ODU1 OPU1
Full functionality

OCC OCh
l
 
i OCC OCh
OTM-n.m OTSn OMSn OCG-n.m j
OTH multiplexing
k OCC OCh and mapping principle

P Optical Transport Module


osc OCC OCh
OTM


OSC OOS 1 ≤ i+j+k+l ≤ n
OTU multiplexing structure

OTU-4 ODU4 100GbEthernet


x1

ODU4
x80 x40 xn x10 x10 x2 CBR40G
STM-256/OC-768
ODU3
OTU-3 x1
40GbEthernet

10GbEthernet
ODU3 ODU2e
x3 FC1200
x32 x16 xn x4

CBR10G
ODU2 STM-64/OC-192
OTU-2 x1

CBRx
ODUflex GFP data
ODU2
x8 x4 xn

CBR2G5
ODU1
STM-16/OC-48
OTU-1 x1

ODU0 1000BASE-X
ODU1
x2
OTH multiplexing
HO ODU/OTU LO ODU OTM multiplexing
OTN frame transmission
STS-48/STM-16
2.488 Gbit/s
0 125 time [μs]

SONET/SDH
STS-192, STM-64
9.953 Gbit/s

0 125 time [μs]

OPU1
2.488 Gbit/s
0 49 time [μs]

OPU2
9.953 Gbit/s

0 49 time [μs]
OTN

OPU3
39.813 Gbit/s

0 49 time [μs]
OTN frame

column

byte

1 7 8 14 15 16 17 3824 3825 4080


1 FA … OTUk OH
2 OPUk
ODUk OH
payload area OTUk FEC
3
OH
4

row
OTU OH
1 7 8 14 15 16 17 3824 3825 4080
1 FA OH OTUk OH

2 OPUk
ODUk OH
Client signal OTUk FEC
3 OH
1 7 8 14 15 16 17 3824 3825 4080
4
1 FA OH OTUk OH
2 OPUk
1 6 7 8 11 13 14
ODUk OH
Client signal OTUk FEC
3 RES
OH FAS SM GCC0
4
MFAS
8 9 10

TTI BIP-8
FAS Frame Alignment Signal SM Section Monitoring
MFAS MultiFrame Alignment1 Signal GCC0 General5 Communication
6 8
Channel
Frame: 0 some overhead signal span multi between OTU termination points
BEI SAPI
Backward Error IndicationOTUk/ODUk frames, for BEI/BIAE
example, BDI for IAE RES
TTI and PSI are overhead signals; RES Reserved future standardization
BIAE 16
Backward Incoming Alignment Error
range: 0…255 TTI Trail Trace Identifier
BDI DAPI
Backward Defect Indication BIP-8 Parity Checksum
IAE 32
Incoming Alignment Error SAPI Source Access Point Identifier
Operator
RES Reserved for futureSpecific
standardization DAPI Destination Access Point Identifier
Back to
63 overview
ODU OH
1 34 5 7 8 10 11 13 14

FA OH OTUk OH RES DM TCM


ACT TCM6 TCM5 TCM4 RES

TCM3
OPUk TCM2 TCM1 PM EXP
ODUk OH
Client signal OTUk FEC
TCM
GCC1 GCC2 APS/PCC APS/PCC
7OH
1 ACT
8 14 15 16 17 3824 3825 4080
1 FA OH OTUk OH
5 6 7 8
2 Prot Requested Bridged Reserved
APS Automatic ProtectionOPUk
Switching
RES Type
ODUk Communication SignalClient
OH Control channel
signal
Signal OTUk FEC
PCC
3 Protection
RES OH for future standardization
Reserved
APS Automatic Protection Switching
4
DM Delay Measurements for ODUk path or tandem coordination channel; 8 APS channel
PM&TCM1-6
connection available for ODUk path and section
and 6 TCM level monitoring
TCMACT TTI BIP-8control channel
Activation/deactivation
TCM Tandem Connection Monitoring TTI Trail Trace Identifier
PM Path Monitoring 1 5 8
BIP-8 Parity Checksum
Frame:
EXP 0 Experimental
SAPI BEI/BIAE BDI STAT
GCC General Communication Channel (clear channel)
16 BEI Backward Error Indication
DAPI
BIAE Backward Incoming Alignment Error
32
Operator SAPI
BDI Backward Defect Indication
Source Access Point Identifier
63 Specific DAPI
STAT Path Monitoring Status, indicates
Destination Access Point
theIdentifier
presence of a maintenance
signal Back to
overview
OPU OH
1 7 8 14 15 16 17 3824 3825 4080
1 FA OH OTUk OH

2 OPUk
ODUk OH
Client signal OTUk FEC
3 OH
1 7 8 14 15 16 17 3824 3825 4080
4
1 FA OH OTUk OH
2 OPUk
ODUk OH
Client signal OTUk FEC
3
OH Mapping
4 specific

PSI

PSI Payload Structure Identifier 0 PT


1 CSF
2
PT Payload Type
Mapping and
CSF Client Fail Signal
concatenation
specific
255 Back to
overview
OTH signal structure: Quiz

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3 You will learn in this chapter…
OTH features

… what the function of Tandem Connection Monitoring (TCM) is


… how Forward Error Correction (FEC) works

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Tandem Connection Monitoring (TCM)

Network Network Network


operator A/1 operator B operator A/2
Client 1
Client 2
working

protecting

Protection Supervision
(TCM4)
NNI-NNI connection monitoring (TCM3/4)
UNI-UNI connection monitoring (TCM2)
verify QoS connection monitoring (TCM1)
end-to-end TCM layers monitoring
path connection

layer6 layer6 layer6 layer6 layer6


layer5 layer5 layer5 layer5 layer5
layer4 TCM4
layer4 layer4 TCM4
layer4 layer4
layer3 TCM3
layer3 TCM3
layer3 TCM3
layer3 layer3
layer2 TCM2
layer2 TCM2
layer2 TCM2
layer2 layer2
TCM1
layer1 TCM1
layer1 TCM1
layer1 TCM1
layer1 TCM1
layer1
Forward Error Correction (FEC)

1 7 8 14 15 16 17 3824 3825 4080


1 FA OH OTUk OH
2 OPUk
ODUk OH
Client signal OTUk FEC
3
OH
4

FEC functions FEC benefits


•Reed-Solomon RS •Reduction of 3R regenerators
•Identify transmission errors •Using higher bandwidth
•Correct transmission errors •Gain in power level
•Up to 32 bit errors correctable •Early warning tool
FEC details
1 7 8 14 15 16 17 3824 3825 4080
1

2
OH Client signal FEC
3

4 OH FEC

1 16 17 32 3824 3825 4080


1

1 239 255
OH FEC 1st sub-row

1 239 255
OH FEC 2nd sub-row

1 239 255
OH FEC 16th sub-row
Back to
overview
OTH features: Quiz

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4 OTH defects and
maintenance signals

You will learn in this chapter…


… which defects and maintenance signals are defined
in the electrical and optical layers
… how the maintenance signals are assembled
… how alarms are propagated in the OTN

Proprietary - Use pursuant to Company instructions - All Rights Reserved ©Alcatel-Lucent 2010
Maintenance signals and defects overview

Maintenance
Defects
signals
optical layer electrical layer

ODU AIS, OCI, LCK TIM, DEG, PLM, BDI

OTU AIS TIM, DEG, LOF/LOM, BDI, OCI, LCK, IAE/BIAE

OCh FDI-P, FDI-O, OCI LOS-P, OCI

OMS FDI-P, FDI-O, PMI LOS-P, BDI-P, BDI-O, PMI

OTS PMI LOS-P, LOS-O, TIM, BDI-P, BDI-O, PMI

Example ! LOS-P, LOS-O


FDI-P, FDI-O
OTS OTS

BDI-P, BDI-O
OTS OTS

! BDI-P, BDI-O
AIS: Alarm indication signal ODU OTU

upstream defect
defect
OTU OTU
ODUk-AIS X
BDI-P ODU
OTU OTU

1 7 8 14 15 16 17 3824 3825 4080


1 FA OH OTUk OH
ODUk AIS
FTFL

2
OTUk FEC
3
All-1s pattern
4

1 7 8 14 15 16 17 3824 3825 4080


1

2
OTUk AIS
3
Repeating PN-11 sequence
4
Back to
overview
BDI: Backward defect indication ODU OTU OMS OTS

ODU/OTU: BDI ! AIS


defect
ODUk-AIS
OTU OTU

BDI
OTU OTU

! BDI

OMS/OTS: BDI-P, BDI-O ! LOS-P, LOS-O


defect
FDI-P, FDI-O
OTS OTS

BDI-P, BDI-O
OTS OTS

! BDI-P, BDI-O

Back to
overview
DEG: Degenerated defect ODU OTU

1 7 8 14 1516 17 3824
1 BIP8
2
OPUk
3

4
BIP8

Insertion
2nd following frame Extraction: BIP8
Computation: BIP8

Comparison

ODU/OTU: DEG bit errors ! DEG


bursty distribution
OTU OTU

BEI
OTU OTU

Back to
overview
FDI: Forward defect indication OCh OMS

! LOS-P ! FDI-P ! FDI-P


defect ! LOS-O ! FDI-O ! FDI-O
AIS
OTS OMS OMS OCh
FDI-P
FDI-O
X
OCh
OTS OMS OMS OCh
BDI-P BDI-P
BDI-O BDI-O

Back to
overview
IAE / BIAE: (Backward) Incoming alignment error ODU OTU

ODU/OTU: IAE / BIAE

Performance monitoring: Performance monitoring:


Near-/far-end counter Near-/far-end counter
suppressed by IAE suppressed by IAE

frame slip ! IAE


detection
Frame IAE
slip OTU OTU

OTU OTU

! BIAE BIAE

Performance monitoring:
Far-end counter
suppressed by BIAE

Back to
overview
LCK: Locked ODU OTU

ODU/OTU: LCK

OTUk-LCK
signal generation

! LCK
LCK LCK AIS
OTU OTU ODU
X
ODU BDI
OTU OTU ODU

! BDI

Back to
overview
LOF / LOM: Loss of frame / loss of multiframe OTU

1 7 8 14 15 16 17 3824 3825 4080


1 FA OH OTUk OH

2 OPUk
ODUk Client signal OTUk FEC
OH
3 OH
4

1 6 7
FAS

MFAS

ODU: LOF ODU: LOM


! LOF ! LOM
OOF OOM
AIS AIS
OTU OTU

BDI BDI
OTU OTU

Back to
overview
LOS: Loss of signal OCh OMS OTS

OTS: LOS ! LOS-P


defect ! LOS-O
osc
OTS
FDI-P
FDI-O
OTS
BDI-P
BDI-O

OMS: LOS-P OCh: LOS-P


! LOS-P ! LOS-P
defect defect

OMS OCh
FDI-P AIS

OMS OCh
BDI-P BDI-P

Back to
overview
OCI: Open connection indication OCh ODU

No cross-connection
switched

LOS-P Suppresses
OCI LOS-P

OCh OCh
X OCI
OCh
OCh OCh
OCI
Supresses LOS-P
LOS-P OCI

1 7 8 14 15 16 17 3824
1 FA OH OTUk OH

2
ODUk OCI
3
Repeating “0110” pattern
4

Back to
overview
PLM: Payload mismatch ODU

ODU: PLM Different mapping


type

! PLM

ATM mapping
CBR mapping

ODU ODU
AIS

ATM mapping
CBR mapping

ODU ODU
AIS

! PLM

Back to
overview
PMI: Payload missing indication OMS OTS

Example

! PMI
Missing LOS-P suppress
payload signal detection LOS-P related actions

OTS OTS
PMI

OTS OTS

Back to
overview
TIM: Trail trace identifier mismatch ODU OTU OTS

ODU/OTU/OTS: TIM
Operator provided
trail trace identifier
TTI
Comparison
Extracted TTI
Operator provided
trail trace identifier
TTI

Miss-wired ! TIM
cross-connection
OTS OTS
AIS
BDI
OTS OTS

Back to
overview
Alarm propagation example
OTS: OMS: OCh: ODU:
LOS-P FDI-P FDI-P AIS
LOS-O FDI-O FDI-O
OMS: OCh: ODU:
FDI-P FDI-P AIS
FDI-O FDI-O

SDH CA OLA OLA X X OLA CA SDH


3R

OTS:
BDI-P
BDI-O
OMS: OMS:
BDI-P BDI-P
BDI-O BDI-O
OTU: OTU:
BDI BDI
ODU: ODU:
BDI BDI

OTS OTS OTS OTS OTS OTS


OMS OMS OMS
OTU/OCh OTU/OCh
ODU
OTH alarm and maintenance signals: Quiz

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5 Navigation
Summary

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What I should know: Layers
What I should know:
Layers

* Electrical layers:
OPU/ODU

OTM MUX
OTU
* Optical layers:

OTH frame
OCh
OMS
OTS

FEC & TCM


Defects
What I should know: OTM MUX
What I should know: * OTM-n.m
Layers

n: number of channels
m: bandwidth
OTM MUX

* OTM-0.m
single optical channel

OTH frame
no OSC
* OTM-nr.m

FEC & TCM


reduced functionality
no OSC
* OTM-0.mvn

Defects
multilane, no OSC
What I should know: OTH frame
What I should know:
Layers

* 4x4080 byte
* Frame Alignment
OTM MUX

(FA)
* OTUk OH
OTH frame

* OTUk FEC
* OPUk OH
* Payload area

FEC & TCM


Defects
What I should know: FEC & TCM
What I should know:
Layers

* TCM:
connection monitoring
OTM MUX

6 TCM layers
nested, overlapping
OTH frame

* FEC:
identify bit errors
TCM & FEC

correct up to 32 bit
errors per frame

Defects
What I should know: Defects & maintenance signals
What I should know:
Layers

* Defects
BDI, DEG, IAE,
OTM MUX

BIAE, LCK, LOF,


LOM, LOS, OCI,
OTH frame

PMI, TIM
* Maintenance signals:
AIS, FDI, LCK,
FEC & TCM

OCI, PMI
Defects
6 Instructions
Assessment

 To complete this course successfully you will have to answer


at least 80% of the questions correctly.

 You have three attempts.

 Select the Continue button below to start.

Proprietary - Use pursuant to Company instructions - All Rights Reserved ©Alcatel-Lucent 2010
PROPERTIES
On passing, 'Finish' button: Goes to Next Slide
On failing, 'Finish' button: Goes to Next Slide
Allow user to leave quiz: After user has completed quiz
User may view slides after quiz: At any time
User may attempt quiz: 3 times
Optical Transport Module (OTM)

OTU OTU OTU OTU OTU OTU OTU

OCh OCh OCh OCh OCh OCh OCh

OTM-n.m
Supported bandwidth
Number of OCh
OTM-0.m Single optical channel, no OSC
OTM-nr.m Reduced functionality: no OSC
OTM-0.mvn Multi lane, no OSC
OTM multiplexing structure
x4
OTM-0.mvn OPSMn4 OTLCG OTLC OTL4.n
Reduced functionality

x4
OPSMn3 OTLCG OTLC OTL3.n
4x1/4

OTM-0.m OPS0 OCCr OCh 4x1/4

OCCr OCh
OTU-4 ODU4 OPU4
l
i OCCr OCh
j
k OTU-3 ODU3 OPU3
OTM-nr.m OPSn OCG-nr.m OCCr OCh

P
n OTU-2 ODU2 OPU2

P P 
osc
OTU-1 ODU1 OPU1
Full functionality

OCC OCh
l
 
i OCC OCh
OTM-n.m OTSn OMSn OCG-n.m j
OTH multiplexing
k OCC OCh and mapping principle

P Optical Transport Module


osc OCC OCh
OTM


OSC OOS 1 ≤ i+j+k+l ≤ n
OTH multiplexing and mapping principle
SONET/SDH
Ethernet/IP OTN
ATM
Layer

OH Client signal OPU

OH TCM OPU ODU

OH OTU FEC OTU


Och OH

Och OH

Och OH

… OCh OCh OCh OCh OCh OCh OCh OCh

OMS OMS
OTM COMMs

OMS OH

OTS OH OTS OTS

OSC
Back to
OTM MUX
Optical Transport Module (OTM)

OTU OTU OTU OTU OTU OTU OTU

OCh OCh OCh OCh OCh OCh OCh

OTM-n.m
Supported bandwidth
Number of OCh
OTM-0.m Single optical channel, no OSC
OTM-nr.m Reduced functionality: no OSC
OTM-0.mvn Multi lane, no OSC

Back to
OTM MUX
OTU multiplexing structure
ODU client
signals
OTU-4 ODU4 100GbEthernet
x1

ODU4
x80 x40 xn x10 x10 x2 CBR40G
STM-256/OC-768
ODU3
OTU-3 x1
40GbEthernet

10GbEthernet
ODU3 ODU2e
x3 FC1200
x32 x16 xn x4

CBR10G
ODU2 STM-64/OC-192
OTU-2 x1

CBRx
ODUflex GFP data
ODU2
x8 x4 xn

CBR2G5
ODU1
STM-16/OC-48
OTU-1 x1

ODU0 1000BASE-X
ODU1
x2
OTH multiplexing
HO ODU/OTU LO ODU OTM multiplexing
OTM multiplexing structure
x4
OTM-0.mvn OPSMn4 OTLCG OTLC OTL4.n
Reduced functionality

x4
OPSMn3 OTLCG OTLC OTL3.n
4x1/4

OTM-0.m OPS0 OCCr OCh 4x1/4

OCCr OCh
OTU-4 ODU4 OPU4
l
i OCCr OCh
j
k OTU-3 ODU3 OPU3
OTM-nr.m OPSn OCG-nr.m OCCr OCh

P
n OTU-2 ODU2 OPU2

P P 
osc
OTU-1 ODU1 OPU1
Full functionality

OCC OCh
l
 
i OCC OCh
OTM-n.m OTSn OMSn OCG-n.m j
k OCC OCh
1 ≤ i+j+k+l ≤ n
P OCC OCh
osc


Back to
OSC OOS OTU MUX
OTH multiplexing and mapping principle
SONET/SDH
Ethernet/IP OTN
ATM
Layer

OH Client signal OPU

OH TCM OPU ODU

OH OTU FEC OTU


Och OH

Och OH

Och OH

… OCh OCh OCh OCh OCh OCh OCh OCh

OMS OMS
OTM COMMs

OMS OH

OTS OH OTS OTS

OSC
Back to
OTU MUX
OTN frame

1 7 8 14 15 16 17 3824 3825 4080


1 FA OTUk OH
2 OPUk
ODUk OH
payload area OTUk FEC
3
OH
4
Forward error correction (FEC)

1 7 8 14 15 16 17 3824 3825 4080


1 FA OH OTUk OH
2 OPUk
ODUk OH
Client signal OTUk FEC
3
OH
4

FEC functions FEC benefits


•Reed-Solomon RS •Reduction of 3R regenerators
•Identify transmission errors •Using higher bandwidth
•Correct transmission errors •Gain in power level
•Up to 32 bit errors correctable •Early warning tool
Maintenance signals and defects overview
Maintenance
Defects
signals
optical layer electrical layer

ODU AIS, OCI, LCK TIM, DEG, PLM, BDI

OTU AIS TIM, DEG, LOF/LOM, BDI, OCI, LCK, IAE/BIAE

OCh FDI-P, FDI-O, OCI LOS-P, OCI

OMS FDI-P, FDI-O, PMI LOS-P, BDI-P, BDI-O, PMI

OTS PMI LOS-P, LOS-O, TIM, BDI-P, BDI-O, PMI

Example ! LOS-P, LOS-O


FDI-P, FDI-O
OTS OTS

BDI-P, BDI-O
OTS OTS

! BDI-P, BDI-O
Congratulations you have finished the training
Congratulations
OTH introduction!
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