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# LITERATURE REVIEW

ON

## THE ALGORITHM USED FOR A

LINE FOLLOWING ROBOTs
BRIEF INTRODUCTION

## • A line follower is a self operating robot that

detects and follows a line drawn on the floor.
• The path consists of a black line on a white
surface (or it may be reverse of that).
• The control system used must sense a line and
manoeuvre the robot to stay on course.
BASIC COMPONENTS

IR sensor and
A micro-controller
its working

Geared DC motor

Motor driver
LITERATURE SURVEY

## • There are two ways in which a line following

robot can be programmed:

## – The OPEN LOOP SYSTEM where the bot moves

according to the black line irrespective of its
current position.

## – The CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM where the robot gives

its feedback back to the controller system
evaluating the error to minimize it in the minimum
time possible.
BASIC ALGORITHM
PID CONTROL SYSTEM (PROPORTIONAL –INTEGRAL-DERIVATIVE CONTROLLER)
• Feedback control system.
• The robot can make adjustment on its own.
• A reference value/set point is set which is the
desired output or the ultimate goal.
• Error is estimated which is the difference of
Robot’s current value and the reference value.
• This error is then converted into a command
to send back to the controller as an input .
• The controller is designed in such a way that
the error is minimised with time.
PROPORTIONAL
INTEGRAL Describes how the error term is
handled.

DERIVATIVE
KP
CONTROLLER
ERROR OUTPUT
KI . 1/S
Where
ERROR = CURRENT VALUE – REFERENCE VALUE
KD . S

## These 3 modes are used in different combinations:

● P – Sometimes used
● PI - Most often used
● PID – Sometimes used
● PD – Very rare, useful for controlling servomotors.
PI CONTROL

SET
POINT

CONTROLLER OUTPUT =
PROCESS
VARIABLE
Kp.e + Ki.ʃ(e dT)
PID CONTROL – Best of Everything

## •The proportional corrects instances of error

•The integral corrects accumulation of error
•The derivative corrects present error versus error the last
time it was checked.
Biblography
1. Development and Applications of Line Following Robot Based Health Care
Management System Punetha, Neeraj Kumar, Vartika Mehta
2. Bajestani, S.E.M., Vosoughinia, A., “Technical Report of Building a Line Follower
Robot” International Conference on Electronics and Information Engineering (ICEIE
2010), vol 1,pp v1-1 v1-5,2010.
3. Colak, I., Yildirim, D.,"Evolving a Line Following Robot to use in shopping centers
for entertainment",Industrial Electronics, 2009. IECON '09. 35th Annual
Conference of IEEE,pp.3803 - 3807,3-5 Nov. 2009
4. https://circuitdigest.com/microcontroller-projects/line-follower-robot-using-
arduino
5. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UR0hOmjaHp0 PID Control - A brief
introduction
6. https://drbit.nl/2014/10/pid-algorithm-implemented-line-following-robot/
7. https://www.robotshop.com/letsmakerobots/pid-tutorials-line-following-0
8. Intorduction to PID control, Robotics club,IITk
9. Line follower robot, robotics workshop, EEE department, NIT trichy