Sie sind auf Seite 1von 15


Leadership and leaders

 Effective leadership is an essential in
successful groups.
What is Leadership?

Michael Hackman and Craig Johnson define

leadership as human (symbolic) communication to
modify attitudes and behaviors of members to meet
group goals and needs.
There are implies three things in leadership that :-
1.Leadership is accomplished through
2. Leadership consists of those behaviors that help
the group achieve shared goals.
3. Group leader must be accept the changing
conditions of the group.
Sources Of Power And Influence
- Which use of interpersonal power to modify
the actions and attitudes of members.
- Influence is one of the important characteristic
of leadership.
- Bertram Raven and John French identified five
different sources of interpersonal power that
influence between leader and Follower:
Legitimate, Reward, Punishment, expert, and
Sources of Power

Legitimate Power
Reward or Punishment
Expert Power
Referent Power
Information Power
Ecological power
1. Legitimate power
 Influence based on a member’s title or position
in the group.
 Leader is elected or appointed; has a title (chair,

2. Reward/Punishment power
 Influence derived from someone’s ability to give
members what they want and need.
 Influence derived from someone’s ability to take
away what members want and value.
 Leader can give or take away items of value;
may be tangible (money, promotion, titles) or
intangible (praise, acceptance).
 Coercion is extreme of punishment that using
threats of force to make a member comply.

3. Expert
 Interpersonal influence that stems from
someone’s perceived knowledge or skill.
 Leader has information, knowledge, or skills
needed and value by the group.

4. Referent power
 Influence due to a person’s ability to be liked and
 Leader has information, knowledge/ skills needed
and valued by the group.
5. Information power
 Influence based on a person’s ability to control
 Leader has access to information and controls
distribution of information.

6. Ecological power
 Influence derived from a person’s ability to
manipulate the logistics of the task as well as the
physical environment of a group.
 Leader directs how a task is organized and can
alter a group’s working physical environment.
What Is A Leader?
 A leader is any person who exercises interpersonal
influence to help a group attain its goals.
 There are two types of leader.
1. Designated leader
 An appointed or elected leader whose title
(chair, president) identifies him or her as leader.
2. Emergent leader
• A person who starts out with the same status as
other members but gradually emerges as informal
leader in the eyes of the other members.
There is an ideal
leadership style,
no matter what
the situation
Leadership is a
Leaders get
personality trait
other people to
that individuals
do the work for
possess in
varying degress

Myths about Leadership
1. Leadership is a personality trait that individuals
possess in varying degrees.
 Leadership trait included intelligence,
attractiveness, psychological dominance,
group size.
 Communication traits such a communication
apprehension, verbal aggressiveness, and ability
to argue a position well/ argumentativeness.
2. There is an ideal leadership style, no
matter what the situation.
 Behaviors associated with leadership, including
the styles displayed by various leaders.
 Leaders must able to perform both task-oriented
and relationship-oriented behavior.
 There are six different kinds of leadership
• Characterized by decisions made solely by the
Autocratic leader, with little to no consultation with group
members and a primary focus on the task but not
Leadership relationships.

• Characterized by decisions made by leader in

Democratic consultation with group members and a
Leadership primary focus on both task and social
dimensions of the group equally.

• Characterized by a passive, hands-off attitude

that translates into behavior providing little
Laissez-Faire leadership; requires that others step in and
Leadership take over if the group is to succed.
• Characterized by the exchange of resources
Transactional between the leader and followers as a way to
Leadership influence members behavior.

• Characterized by a leader’s ability to inspire

Transformational followers to act toward a greater good
beyond their own self-interests.

• Characterized by a leader whose power is

Charismatic connected to his or her perceived
extraordinary qualities.
3. Leaders get other people to do the work
for them.
 If appointed to a leader positions, they assume
that their job is to tell other people what to do.