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GAS TURBINES

IN
MARINE PLANTS
SUBMITTED BY,

GROUP 3(11-15)
METHODS of improvement of THERMAL
EFFICIENCY and WORK RATIO of gas
turbine plants

• WORK RATIO:- ratio of the net work output to the total


work developed in the turbine.

• THERMAL EFFICIENCY:- it is the percentage of total


energy input appearing as net work output of the cycle.
 METHODS:

 1. Intercooling

 2. Reheating

 3. Regeneration
1.INTERCOOLING

The compressor utilizes the major


percentage of power developed by
the gas turbine. The work required
by the compressor can be reduced
by compressing the air in two stages
and incorporation a intercooler
between the two.
 Work ratio is increased.

 Thermal efficiency increases at


high pressure ratio.
2.REHEATING

 The output of gas turbine can be


increased by expanding the gases
in two stages with a reheater
between the two.

 The HP turbine drives the


compressor and the LP
turbine provides useful power
output.
Produces about 35% more shaft
output power

Net work output increases.

 Thermal Efficiency increases.


3.REGENERATION
 The exhaust gases from the
turbine carry a large quantity
of heat with them since their
temperature is far above the
ambient temperature.

 They can be used to heat air


coming from the compressor
there by reducing the mass
of fuel supplied in the
combustion chamber.
 Regenerative cycle has more
efficiency than simple cycle
at lower pressure ratio.

 Above certain pressure ratio


limit the efficiency of cycle drops
since in that case regenerator
will cool the compressed air
instead of heating it.
C-B-T-H CYCLE
 It is an ideal cycle in which the working fluid undergoes a closed loop
.It is made of four internally reversible processes:

 1-2 Isentropic compression (compressor)


 2-3 Constant-pressure heat addition
 3-4 Isentropic expansion (turbine)
 4-1 Constant-pressure heat rejection
P-V AND T-S DIAGRAMS OF C-B-T-H CYCLE
 In the closed cycle gas turbine compressed air leaves the compressor and
passes via the heat exchanger through the air heater.
 In the air heater there are tubes through which the compressed air passes.
The air is therefore further heated in the heater. This hot high pressure air
then passes through the blade rings.
 Whilst passing over the rotor blades, the air is continuously expanding,
its pressure energy being converted into kinetic energy, which in turn,
is absorbed by the turbine rotor.

 The hot air on leaving the turbine passes through the heat exchanger.
As the air is still at a high temperature, it is cooled in a pre-cooler
before entering the compressor.

 The turbine is started by an electric motor.


COMPLEX CYCLES
REHEAT CYCLE
 If wet gas flows through the turbine, there is reduction in the
internal relative efficiency of the power plant.

 It is because the hydrodynamic condition for the turbine blades


and nozzles deteriorate sharply.

 Superheating helps to reduce the wetness of the air.


 After the flow of gas, performing work in turbine, it is directed
to flow into an additional combustion chamber.

 The gas temperature rises and flows back to the turbine and
expands.
INTERCOOLED CYCLE
 The compression is split.

 Intercooling is introduced between a low pressure compressor and a


high pressure compressor.

 The efficiency is more than that of simple cycle.

 Intercooling between the compression reduces the work required.


INTERCOOLED CYCLE
T-S DIAGRAM
REGENERATIVE CYCLE
 The efficiency of Brayton cycle can be improved by regeneration.

 Temperature of the exhaust gas leaving the turbine is high.

 The exhaust gas is used to heat the high pressure gases coming from
the compressor.
• A counter-flow heat exchanger is used for this purpose. It is also
known as recuperator.

• High pressure gases flows inside the tubes.

• This reduces the heat input required for the same net work output.
A gas turbine engine with recuperator
INTERCOOLED REHEAT CYCLE
 The efficiency of the intercooled cycle can be improved by adding a
reheat arrangement.

 There is intercooling between the compressors.

 After the flow of gas through the turbine, it is directed to flow through
an additional combustion chamber.
Closed cycle
Gas turbines
 A closed cycle gas turbine is a turbine in which the air is circulated
continuously within the turbine.

 The components of this turbine are: compressor, heating chamber,


gas turbine which drives the generator and compressor, and a cooling
chamber.
COMPONENTS
1. Compressor: It is used to compress the gas.

2. Heating chamber: The heating of the compressed


gas is takes place in the heating chamber.

3. Gas turbine: it is used to produce the useful work


which is used by the generator to generate
electricity.
4. Generator: It generates the electricity with the help of
the gas turbine.

5. Cooling chamber: Cooling of the gas after passing from


the turbine takes place in the cooling chamber.
WORKING
 The closed cycle gas turbine works on the principle of Joule’s or Brayton’s
cycle.

 In this arrangement, the gas is compressed isentropically and then passed


into the heating chamber.

 The compressor generally used is of rotary type.


 The compressed air is heated with the help of some external source
and then made to flow over the turbine blades.

 The turbine used here is of reaction type.

 The gas while flowing over the blades of the turbine, gets expanded.
 From the turbine the gas is passed to the cooling chamber. Here the gas
is cooled at constant pressure with the help of circulating water.

 Now the gas is again made to flow through the compressor to repeat
the process.

 Here the same gas is circulated again and again in the working of a
closed cycle gas turbine.
closed cycle gas turbine
MERITS DEMERITS
 High thermal efficiency  Complexity
 Reduced size  Large amount of cooling water is
 No contamination required.
 Improved heat transmission  Dependent system
 Lesser fluid friction  Not economical for moving vehicles as
 No loss in working medium
weight/kW developed is high
 Requires use of large air heater.
 Greater output
 Inexpensive fuel
STAGNATION CONDITIONS
 Stagnation point is a point in a flow field where the local velocity of the
fluid is zero.
 The Bernoulli equation shows that the static pressure is highest when the
velocity is zero and hence static pressure is at its maximum value at
stagnation points. This static pressure is called the stagnation pressure.
 Kinetic energy of the flowing fluid is converted into pressure as a
consequence of the fluid being brought to rest.
THANK YOU