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Section 1


1.1 Introduction
• The gas turbine has developed since World War II to join the steam turbine and the
diesel engine as alternative prime movers for various shipboard applications .
• This is caused by the fact that the gas turbine inherently profits more than the other
two from component improvements and cycle improvements allowed by
aerodynamic, heat-transfer, and metallurgical advances. Also, the gas turbine is
attractive in that it is inherently subject to ' "package" construction and installation
and to automatic control. Therefore, it’s very numerous variations should be given
serious consideration in the selection of a prime mover for the main propulsion plant
and the larger auxiliary machinery.

All gas turbine cycles are outgrowths of the Brayton thermodynamic cycle. The Brayton cycle is
an ideal cycle in which the working fluid is a perfect gas (atmospheric air in most cases) which is
compressed isentropically by a compressor, heated at a constant elevated pressure in a
combustion chamber, then allowed to flow through a turbine expanding isentropically back to the
compressor suction pressure. The power produced by the turbine is greater than the power
required by the compressor. The excess power is used to drive the ship's propeller or some other

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Gas Turbines

Aero-derivative Engine Industrial Engine

It is an aircraft engine adapted to

marine service. This is done by It is used for industrial &
changing some components , or marine applications
even coating them to properly
function in the salty air of the
marine environment

General Electric LM 2500 General Electric GE MS

(Weight :34,000 lbs
(provides 20,000 hp but
provides one horse power weighs in at 200,000 lbs -
for every 1.5 pounds) 10 pounds for every hp)

• In gas turbines the efficiency of the components is extremely important

since the compressor power is very high compared to its counterpart in
competitive thermodynamic cycles.
• During stages of progressive development, the cycle efficiency has been
greatly improved by the following changes :
1 •Higher compressor pressure ratios
•Higher turbine inlet temperatures which were permitted by
metallurgical and cooling developments.
3 •Improved compressor and turbine stage efficiencies.
4 •Increased compressor pressure loading per stage. .
5 •Improved combustion efficiency.
6 •The introduction of intercooling in the process of compression.
7 •The introduction of reheating
8 •The introduction of regeneration
9 •Further waste-heat recovery
Introduction of

Introduction of
1-Improve Combustion Reheater
1-Higher Turbine
Inlet Temp.
High Pressure
Air Compressor High Pressure
1-Higher Compression Ratio Turbine
1-Improve Turbine Stage
2-Improve Compressor Efficiency
Stage Efficiency 2-increase pressure
3-increase pressure loading loading

Free Power
Low Pressure Turbine

Introduction of
cycle efficiency improvement

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1.2 Cycle Performance.

• The considerations involved in the selection of the

design pressures and temperatures and the various
components in the cycle are best illustrated by an
example which describes the cycle and its performance

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Simple Cycle
Cycle performance at specified conditions & for turbine inlet temperature of 1600 °F

Fuel rate High optimum specific air specific horse power

,lb/shp-hr compression ratio consumption shp /lb/sec. of air flow
0.45 15 to 1 100
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Regenerative Cycle

Cycle performance at specified conditions & for turbine inlet temperature of 1600 °F

Fuel rate High optimum specific air specific horse power

,lb/shp-hr compression ratio consumption shp /lb/sec. of air flow
0.41 6 to 1 85
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Regenerative Cycle
with Reheat

Cycle performance at specified conditions & for turbine inlet temperature of 1600 °F

Fuel rate High optimum specific air specific horse power

,lb/shp-hr compression ratio consumption shp /lb/sec. of air flow
0.43 7 to 1 Reduced 15% than 110
simple cycle
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Regenerative Cycle
with Intercooling
Cycle performance at specified conditions & for turbine inlet temperature of 1600 °F

Fuel rate High optimum specific air specific horse power

,lb/shp-hr compression ratio consumption shp /lb/sec. of air flow
0.38 7 to 1 Reduced 15% than 110
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Regenerative Cycle with

Reheat &Intercooling
Cycle performance at specified conditions & for turbine inlet temperature of 1600 °F

Fuel rate High optimum specific air specific horse power

,lb/shp-hr compression ratio consumption shp /lb/sec. of air flow
Reduced 20% than simple
0.38 8 to 1 cycle
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1.3 Changes in Performance Due to Ambient Conditions and

Duct Losses
• The output of a gas turbine is directly related to the weight flow of air
through it.
• Therefore , changes in barometric pressure directly affect the capacity of
the unit, but not the efficiency or specific fuel consumption.

• The ambient temperature (compressor inlet temperature) has a very

pronounced effect on a gas turbine's overall performance

• Both output and efficiency are very sensitive to pressure drops anywhere
in the cycle, but those in the inlet and exhaust system are the only ones
which the marine engineer can control

• The inlet pressure drop is the more critical one since it not only introduces
an efficiency loss into the cycle, but it also reduces the weight flow of air.
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• Figure 7 shows a typical ambient temperature correction curve

(generally valid for simple cycles and regenerative cycles)

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1.4 Combined Cycles.

• The gas turbine is a very flexible power plant and can be applied not only
alone but also in combination with other prime movers
• Some possible combinations( of two different sizes or types are combined in one plant
to give optimum performance over a very wide range of power and speed. ) include:

• 1- Combined Diesel And Gas turbine plants (CODAG).

• 2- Combined Steam And Gas turbine plants (COSAG).
• 3- Combined Gas turbine And Gas turbine plants (COGAG).

• In addition the following combinations (where one plant is a diesel or a small gas
turbine, respectively, for use at low or cruising powers, and the other a large gas turbine
which operates alone at high Powers)

• 1- Combined Diesel Or Gas turbine plants (CODOG)

• 2- Combined Gas Or Gas turbine plants (COGOG)
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1.5 Air Bleed.

• An interesting special application of a gas turbine is as a source of
compressed air
• The compressor of a gas turbine delivers large quantities of air at
pressures from 30 to 200 psig or more depending upon the cycle and
operating conditions.
• Only part of this air need pass through the turbine to generate enough power
to drive the compressor; the remainder can be bled off for other uses (auxiliary
power generation) with a corresponding reduction in useful shaft output.

1.6 Quick Starting.

• Having no large masses that require slow heating, the time required for a
gas turbine to reach full speed and accept load is limited
• Of prime importance in the starting is close and accurate control of the
fuel schedule, and adequate starting power under all conditions. Small
excesses of fuel can result in excessive temperatures and damage to the
machine while low starting power can result in a low air flow or high fuel
flow at some point. Ahmed Iraqi

1.7 Fuels and Fuel Treatment.

• The effect of some fuels on the life and corrosion rate of hot gas-path
parts is particularly a consideration
• one of the worst elements in the corrosive attack of gas turbine parts
is the sodium, which is always present in a marine environment
• Another element is vanadium, which is frequently present in petroleum oils,
particularly crudes and residuals.
1.8 Installation.
• It is an essentially complete, self-contained power plant and does have
some different or special requirements compared to other power plants.
• Shall consider :
• 1- pressure drop in the ducting system
• 2- suitable fuel supply
• 3- -Proper selection of the gas turbine rating
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1.9 Operation and Maintenance.

• A further feature of the gas turbine is its low manning requirements and
ready adaptability to automation.
• Marine units derived from aircraft engines usually have the gas generator
section, comprising the compressor and its turbine, arranged to be
removed and replaced as a unit.
• Maintenance on the power turbine, which usually has the smallest part of
the total maintenance requirements, is performed aboard ship

• Units designed specifically for marine use and those derived from industrial
gas turbines are usually designed for maintenance and overhaul in place.

• Since they are somewhat larger and heavier than the aviation-type units,
removal and replacement are not as readily accomplished. For this reason,
they usually have split casings and other provisions for easy access and
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Section 2


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2.1 General Arrangement

• In addition to the classification depending upon the choice of cycle, gas
turbines can be classified according to the mechanical arrangement.
Gas Turbines

units in which the compressor and turbine units in which the turbine is divided into sections, each with
are attached to a single shaft, which in turn is its own shaft which can run at different and variable speeds.
connected directly to the load Each compressor must be driven by a section of the turbine,
and the load can be driven by one of the sections or by its
own independent turbine
most commonly used for generator drives
It is normally used for main propulsion units

• "twin-spool" machine : Where the Compressor is divided into two

successive and coaxial sections with similar coaxial turbines in series

• "two-shaft” machine :When a single Compressor is used and the turbine is

divided into two sections, one of which drives the compressor and the
other the load at independent speeds
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• Single shaft

• Twin shaft

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2.2 Air Inlet Arrangements.

• For its important, the total system pressure drop must be held to a minimum.
• In addition, the actual configuration of the air inlet to the compressor is
important . Unequal air flow into the inlet annulus or flow into the annulus
at varying angles around the circumference (velocity and pressure
distortion) can ( reduce the efficiency, cause blade vibrations &lead to
early blade failure).
• A satisfactory arrangement is:
1- Air enters the passage radially from the inlet hood, which is large enough-
that is, has low enough velocities-to insure equal distribution and
essentially uniform radial velocities around the circumference.
2- The air is then turned in an axial direction, and accelerated by the
reduction in passage area, to the plane of the inlet guide vanes.
3- The squeeze and resulting acceleration suppress vortices and smooth the
flow at the inlet guide vanes.
4- Struts tie the two sides of the casing together.
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2.3 Exhaust Collectors or Hoods.
• The exhaust collector, or exhaust hood, is that part of the turbine casing that
collects the gases leaving the last-stage turbine wheel and conducts them to
the connection with the heat-recovery equipment or exhaust duct.

• To recover this velocity energy, some form of diffuser (straight or curved)

is employed. Since a good diffuser takes up considerable space, a
judicious compromise usually must be made between the space used and
the energy that can be recovered by the pressure rise in the diffuser.

• Materials for exhaust hoods are frequently stainless steels, particularly

for units with high exhaust temperatures. For large units, where
thicker stock is required to give adequate stiffness, carbon or low-alloy
steels can be used. In any case the exhaust system is usually
covered with some form of insulation (blanket, block, plastic, etc.) to
reduce the temperature of the exposed surface.

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2.4 Structural Arrangements.
• Structurally, the stationary gas turbine parts must withstand not only the internal
pressure forces but also the external forces imposed on the unit from its own
weight and the reactions from engine torque and external connections.
Rotor and stator weights must be considered, and the supports are frequently
located so as to minimize the bending moments in the structure.

• The calculation of the bearing housings and supports cannot be based upon
the weights of the rotors alone. To insure the integrity of the unit in the event of
a blade or bucket failure, they should be able to carry the centrifugal loads
imposed by the loss of some credible combination of bucket or blades
within the tensile strength of the members. The loss of two adjacent vane
sections or one complete bucket and dovetail is considered a reasonable

• Supports for gas turbines can take many forms. They must support the unit
and maintain it in line with the driven equipment, while allowing for the axial
and radial thermal growth of the unit from cold to normal operating
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2.5 Mounting In the Hull.

• In marine applications, the gas turbine usually cannot be mounted rigidly to

the ship's structure. Normal movement and distortions of the hull when
underway would cause distortions and misalignment in the turbine. This
could cause internal rubs or even bearing or structural failure.

• The turbine components can be mounted on a subbase which is built up of

structural sections of sufficient rigidity to maintain the gas turbine alignment
when properly supported by the ship's hull.

• A rigid structural subbase also provides a convenient mounting for

many of the gas turbine auxiliaries, particularly the lube oil tank and
other components of the lubrication system. When properly applied, a
three-point support of such a subbase will prevent ships' structural
distortions from misaligning the various components.

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2.6 Regenerators and Recuperators.
• The recovery of heat from the gas turbine exhaust and its return to the cycle to
improve the overall efficiency are accomplished with a Regenerator (to rotary heat
exchangers ) or Recuperator (for fixed-surface heat exchangers )

• Rotary regenerators have been built with the heat-exchange element (or matrix)
either in the form of a flat disk or as a hollow cylinder.

• Seal leakage and the "letdown" which occurs when a section of the rotary
matrix passes from the high-pressure region to the exhaust or low-pressure
region offset the high effectiveness that can be realized in the matrix, so that
the overall cycle efficiency is comparable to fixed-surface types. The matrix
itself can be metal or ceramic, in the form of wire, strip, plates, pebbles, etc.

• Fixed-surface recuperators were originally of conventional shell and tube


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2.7 Reduction Gearing and Reversing Considerations .

• The gas turbine is a high-speed machine with output shaft speeds ranging
from about 3600 rpm for large machines up to 100,000rpm for very small

• A gas turbine, in common with all turbine machinery , is not inherently


• Lacking an internal reversing method, marine gas turbine installations must

be reversed by an external means.
• Electric drives offer ready reversing but are usually ruled out on the basis of
weight, cost, and to some extent efficiency.
• Reversing gears have been used in some gas turbine applications.
• Controllable and Reversible Pitch (CRP) propellers are quite common in
smaller sizes, and are finding increasing applications in higher horsepower
gas turbine ships .
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Section 3


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3.1 Auxiliary Pumps and Drives.
• The gas turbine , while basically a Complete, self-contained power plant,
requires certain accessories for its operation . Fuel pumps and lube-oil
pumps are always needed. A positive fuel pressure must be supplied to the
engine during all operating conditions, including start-up. These pumps can
be independently driven by electric motors, but are usually driven through a
reduction gear from the main turbine shaft.

• The accessory gearing takes many forms; spur, bevel, worm , or spiral
gearing has been used depending upon the configuration .of the turbine
and installation requirements in the form of length or space limitations.

• The simplest gearing arrangement that will drive the required accessories
(these include governors , tachometer generators; speed switches, etc.,
as well as the fuel and lube oil pumps) is usually best. In any case, the
gearing must be designed for the duty and life required of the main

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3.2 Starting Devices .
• A gas turbine is not self-starting and external means must be utilized to bring
it up to the self-sustaining speed. This is the speed from which the
rotors can be accelerated by the addition of fuel alone and it is usually
about 30 to50 percent of the gas-producer's full speed.
• Starting devices in common use include electric motors, steam turbines, air
motors operating on stored compressed air, and small diesel engines, which
must have their own starting systems. Other starting systems include
hydraulic motors fed from high-pressure pumps or accumulator systems, and
special rotary-type starting motors fed from high-pressure air supplies.

• Since the starting device is normally required only upto about 50 percent
speed, it is usually connected to the turbine through some form of special
clutch which allows it to be disconnected during normal operation. The
simplest, and probably most satisfactory, form of clutch is a simple jaw clutch,
magnetically or pneumatically engaged and spring disengaged.

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3.3 Inlet Air filters.
• Gas turbines require clean air, as otherwise the compressor will
eventually become coated with a layer of dirt which reduces its capacity
and efficiency and results in a degradation of the entire engine or may even
cause a compressor blade failure due to stall. To insure clean air, In marine
applications the most important requirement is to keep salt particles and
water, whether in drops or as solid water, from entering the compressor.
• For this reason air inlets should be placed as high above the water as
possible and must be equipped with effective baffles or eliminators to
prevent the entry of solid water. Behind the eliminators a. demister should
be installed to intercept water droplets.
• The demister can consist of an inertial type separator or of pads of metal or
synthetic fibers of controlled size and spacing to effectively control the size
of droplets passed

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3-4 Inlet and Exhaust Silencers.
• .The gas turbine being a. high-speed machine, generates a relatively large
amount of noise
• The major sources of the noise radiated to the surroundings are the inlet openings,
exhaust openings, and gears. However, .the entire machine radiates noise; the sound
intensity is related to the casing thickness or more exactly, to the casing mass.
Noise radiated from the casings is usually confined to the engine room and its
effect can be reduced and controlled by appropriate sound treatment.
• The airborne noise can be attenuated to almost any required level by the use of
suitable silencers. In general the greater the decibel reduction in noise level
required, the more expensive the silencer and the greater its pressure drop., so a
noise reduction greater than necessary should not be used.
• Since the sound attenuation in the surroundings will be somewhat directional, the
configuration of the inlet and exhaust openings and their orientation should be
carefully chosen.
• Of course the sound levels required also depend upon the vessel’s service. (e.g. Cargo
passenger, or naval).

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Section 4


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4. 1 Control Functions.
•.The control system of a gas turbine must perform several
functions that are vital to its operation. It must control the
speed of the shafts that make up the complete unit, schedule
the fuel flow during starting and other transient conditions,
prevent over temperatures in the combustion and turbine
system, and prevent a dangerous over speed under any

• The control system to perform these functions is usually

made up of a number of separate devices combined into
various systems; but the trend is for all the functions to be
integrated into a single system usually of the solid-state
electronics type, that controls all the operations of the unit.

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4.2 Speed Measurement and Control.
• A non-integrated control System will consist of a speed governor, usually of
.the centrifugal or flyweight type, which through a hydraulic relay system
(i.e., a pilot valve and piston) operates the main fuel valve to regulate the
fuel flow and, thus, to control the power output and the corresponding
speed of the unit.

• For machines with two or more shafts, additional control usually must be
provided. With a two-shaft turbine having fixed nozzle areas, the speed
of the gas producer section is normally controlled by one speed governor
and the output is a function primarily of that speed. For machines with two
or more shafts, additional control usually must be provided. With a two-
shaft turbine having fixed nozzle areas, the speed of the gas producer
section is normally controlled by one speed governor and the output is a
function primarily of that speed.

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4.3 Power Control.
• In large marine installations, power control generally is more desirable
than speed control, particularly with two-shaft machines having a separate
.gas generator and power turbine.
• A topping governor and an over speed shutdown governor must be
provided as with the speed governing system.

4.4 Temperature Controls.

Temperature-sensing elements, thermocouples, thermistors, etc., small enough
to give adequate response are relatively fragile; and, being located in the gas
stream, any piece that breaks off will go through the rotating elements,
possibly damaging the blading. For this reason, most turbine
manufacturers have heretofore not used initial temperature measurement
as a means of temperature control. However, thermocouple assemblies have
been developed which promise to give accurate measurement and adequate life
under the conditions existing at the turbine inlet, and they have been adopted by
some builders.
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4.5 Fuel Control and Metering.
• .The speed governor power control and any modulating temperature
control system must act upon the fuel flow through the fuel control. In
addition, the fuel control must regulate the fuel flow during starting and
provide sufficient fuel to prevent flameout on sudden loss of load and
cutback by the governor.

• For marine units the fuel is normally fuel oil that is supplied to the machine at a
positive pressure (5 to 35 psig) and heated if necessary to maintain the required
viscosity. The. fuel boost-pump and heating and handling systems are
described in Section 8. Filters must be provided to remove water and
contaminants (down to a particle size not exceeding 5 to a maximum of 25 microns)
from the fuel. The latter size should only be used with residual fuels: Dirty fuel is
the cause of most fuel system troubles, and all parts of the system from the fuel
pump to the fuel injectors or nozzles in the combustion chambers are susceptible
to plugging or sticking due to foreign matter.

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4.6 Overspeed Protection.
• The governor and speed control normally control the shaft speeds within
prescribed limits. However, as with most turbine machinery, a backup
to prevent dangerous overspeeding must be provided in the form of an
overspeed shutdown. Such a device should be applied to every shaft. Upon
reaching a speed of about 110 percent of rated rpm, the overspeed trip
mechanism shuts off all fuel to the unit. In the case of two-shaft units, this
is in addition to a pre-emergency or topping governor driven from the load
turbine, which acts to limit fuel flow to that correspond- ing to about 102-
percent speed.

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Section 5


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5. Advantageous & disadvantageous

Advantageous of Gas Turbines

1. Its simplicity and light weight
2. It is a self-contained power plant in one package with a
minimum number of large supporting auxiliaries.
3. Automatic control (reduced maintenance requirements)
4. For the much reduced engine size and high power to weight,
it is used with controllable pitch propellers and electrical drives
(especially for high speed ferries)
5. To allow a reduction of emissions
Disadvantageous of Gas Turbines
1. Poor fuel consumption (poor thermal efficiency at low power
(cruising) output,)
2. High initial cost

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5. Advantageous & disadvantageous

The gas turbine gains popularity...

- The traditional customers of gas turbines had been
primarily the military.

- with the experience gained since the first gas turbines

in the 1940, and recent developments of fast ferries has
made ship owners realize that a fast vessel can be
profitable, and that consumers want it.

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