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SUSTANAIBLE PILING

ENGINEERING
Prof. Ing. Alessandro Mandolini, Ph.D.
SUSTAINABILITY

Sustainable development consists of balancing local and global


efforts to meet basic human needs (social, economic) without
destroying or degrading the natural environment.

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
SUSTAINABILITY FOR FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

It contributes to social growth by means of cost-effective and


environmentally-friendly foundation system for different
structures and infrastructures.

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
SUSTAINABILITY FOR FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

It contributes to social growth by means of cost-effective and


environmentally-friendly foundation system for different
structures and infrastructures.

When dealing with pile foundations, the more suitable foundation


system is that where piles are:

- EFFECTIVE
- PRACTICAL
- ECONOMIC

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
REQUIREMENTS FOR A GOOD PILE DESIGN

Effective, Practical, Economic

Piles must carry the loads that the supported structure imparts
to them, together with any additional forces that may result from
deformations of the soil mass in which they are embedded.

Piles must also be sound, durable and free from significant


defects.

Their design must recognize fully the properties of the ground and
the implications of groundwater movements so that deformations
or settlements will not cause unacceptable strains in the
supported or adjacent structures.

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
REQUIREMENTS FOR A GOOD PILE DESIGN

Effective, Practical, Economic

Piles must be of a type that will permit access for piling


equipment to the locations where they are required.

The design must recognize the limits of what is possible in current


practice with regard to the equipment available.

The method of construction must recognize and seek to minimize


difficulties related to ground conditions that could impede proper
construction.

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
REQUIREMENTS FOR A GOOD PILE DESIGN

Effective, Practical, Economic

Design should maximize the bearing capacity of each pile while


at the same time providing for an adequate margin of safety
against failure or excessive deformation of either individual piles
or pile groups.

The materials of the pile need also to be reasonably stressed and


not used wastefully.

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
EXAMPLE OF UNECONOMIC PILES

Schmertmann & Hayes (1997)

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
EXAMPLE OF UNECONOMIC PILES

Underestimated ultimate load


values lead to higher overall
costs for the foundation ......

Schmertmann & Hayes (1997)

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
EXAMPLE OF UNECONOMIC PILES

...... as well as wasted energy


for piling equipment
(not environmentally-friendly).

Schmertmann & Hayes (1997)

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
REQUIREMENTS FOR A GOOD PILE DESIGN

Effective, Practical, Economic

Design should maximize the bearing capacity of each pile while


at the same time providing for an adequate margin of safety
against failure or excessive displacement of either individual piles
or pile groups.

The materials of the pile need also to be reasonably stressed and


not used wastefully.

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
REQUIREMENTS FOR A GOOD PILE DESIGN

Effective, Practical, Economic

Design should maximize the bearing capacity of each pile while


at the same time providing for an adequate margin of safety
against failure or excessive displacement of either individual piles
or pile groups.

The materials of the pile need also to be reasonably stressed and


not used wastefully.

“Maximize” has not to be intended as “the maximum possible


bearing capacity” but as “the bearing capacity needed for a given
project with a minimum cost”.
At the same time, the settlement should not be as low as possible
but simply smaller than some acceptable value.

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
REQUIREMENTS FOR A GOOD PILE DESIGN

Effective, Practical, Economic

Design should maximize the bearing capacity of each pile while


at the same time providing for an adequate margin of safety
against failure or excessive displacement of either individual piles
or pile groups.

The materials of the pile need also to be reasonably stressed and


not used wastefully.

“bearing capacity”  RESISTANCE

“displacement”  STIFFNESS

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
SUGGESTIONS BY THEORY

Axial soil-pile resistance, Rlim

Rlim

R s ,lim  qs ,lim  2    ro  L

R b ,lim  qb ,lim    ro2


qs,lim
R lim  R s ,lim  R b ,lim

Vp  L    ro2  Wp   p  L    ro2

R lim  1   L 
  q
  b ,lim  2   qs ,lim 
qb,lim Wp   L
 p   ro 

Specific pile capacity = pile capacity per unit pile weight

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
SUGGESTIONS BY THEORY

Axial soil-pile resistance, Rlim

Rlim

R lim  1   L 
  q
  b ,lim  2   qs ,lim 
Wp   p  L   ro 
qs,lim

It can be shown that the ratio Rlim/Vp attains a


maximum when L/ro  0 or .

It implies that longer and/or slender piles are


qb,lim more effective in terms of specific capacity.

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
SUGGESTIONS BY THEORY

Axial soil-pile stiffness, K = Q/w

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
SUGGESTIONS BY THEORY

Axial soil-pile stiffness, K = Q/w Randolph & Wroth (1978); Fleming et al. (1992)

2 2     tanh  L  L
  
Q

1       L d
w  d  GL 1  8 tanh  L  L
 
    1       L d

Ratio of underream:   db d
Soil stiffness ratio at pile base:   GL Gb
Degree of soil stiffness homogeneity:   G GL
Pile-soil relative stiffness:   Ep GL
Radius of influence of pile: rm  0.25  2.5    1     0.25    L
Measure of radius of influence of pile:   ln2  rm d
Measure of pile compressibility:   L  2  2   L   L d
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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
SUGGESTIONS BY THEORY

Axial soil-pile stiffness, K = Q/w Randolph & Wroth (1978); Fleming et al. (1992)
Q/(wdGL)

Qb/Q
L/d L/d

There are combinations of slenderness ratio (L/d) and stiffness


ratio () beyond which very little load is transmitted to the pile
base.
Further increase in pile length yields no corresponding increase in
the load settlement ratio of the pile.
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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
SUGGESTIONS BY THEORY

Axial soil-pile stiffness, K = Q/w Randolph & Wroth (1978); Fleming et al. (1992)
Q/(wdGL)

Qb/Q
L/d L/d

A critical pile length Lc (or a critical slenderness ratio Lc/d) exists


beyond which extending pile is useless in practice if settlement
has to be reduced.
Lc
 1.25  
d
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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
SUGGESTIONS BY THEORY

Axial soil-pile stiffness, K = Q/w Randolph & Wroth (1978); Fleming et al. (1992)
Q/(wdGL)

Qb/Q
L/d L/d

Ep  30000 MPa L c Qb
   1 ,25    40   5%
GL  30 MPa  d Q

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
VALIDATION BY EXPERIMENTS
Non Displacement pile: CFA type (L = 24 m; d = 0,60 m)

3.0

Mandolini et al. (2002)

load [MN]
2.0

1.0

0.0
0 20 40 60 80
settlement, w [mm]

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
VALIDATION BY EXPERIMENTS
Non Displacement pile: CFA type (L = 24 m; d = 0,60 m)
Rlim = 3,2 MN
3.0

Mandolini et al. (2002)

load [MN]
2.0
Q = 1,2 MN
1.0 FS = 2.7
wlim = 10% d = 60 mm
0.0
0 20 40 60 80
settlement, w [mm]

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
VALIDATION BY EXPERIMENTS
Non Displacement pile: CFA type (L = 24 m; d = 0,60 m)
Rlim = 3,2 MN
3.0

Mandolini et al. (2002)

load [MN]
2.0
Q = 1,2 MN
1.0 FS = 2.7
wlim = 10% d = 60 mm
0.0
0 20 40 60 80
settlement, w [mm]
axial load, N [MN]
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0
0

Ep  26500 MPa L c
  1,25    32  L c  19 m
10
depth, z [m]

FS = 2,7 GL  40 MPa d

15

20 Lc

25

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
VALIDATION BY EXPERIMENTS
Non Displacement pile: CFA type (L = 24 m; d = 0,60 m)
Rlim = 3,2 MN
3.0

Mandolini et al. (2002)

load [MN]
2.0
Q = 1,2 MN
1.0 FS = 2.7
wlim = 10% d = 60 mm
0.0
0 20 40 60 80
settlement, w [mm]
axial load, N [MN] axial load, N [MN]
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0
0 0

5 5

10

depth, z [m]
depth, z [m]

10
FS = 2,7 FS = 1
15 15

20 Lc 20

Rs,lim
25 25

Rb,lim
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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
REMARKS

CONFLICTING NEEDS
Longer and/or slender piles
R lim  1   L 
    qb ,lim  2   qs ,lim  more effective in terms of
Wp   L
 p   ro  specific capacity.

2 2     tanh  L  L
   Shorter and/or stubby piles
Q

1       L d more effective in terms of
w  d  GL 1  8 tanh  L  L load-settlement ratio.
 
    1       L d

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
REMARKS

Fulfilling the opposite needs


becomes more and more
complicated if installation
effects are considered.

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
WORLD PILE MARKET
It offers a great number of pile types, forcing engineers to be
continuously updated about new available technologies.

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
WORLD PILE MARKET
It offers a great number of pile types, forcing engineers to be
continuously updated about new available technologies.

“SOME” PILE TYPE (source www.geoforum.com)


Alpha Pile, Atlas Pile, Bade System, Benoto System, Brechtl System, Button-
bottom Pile, Casagrande System, Compressol Pile, Continuous Flight Auger (CFA)
System, Daido SS Pile, Delta Pile, Drill-and-drive Pile, Franki Composite Pile,
Franki Excavated Pile, Franki Pile, Franki Pile with casing top driven, Franki VB
Pfahl, Fundex Pile, Held-Franke System, Hochstrasser-Weise System, Hollow
precast concrete pile with timber/steel core, Icos Veder System, Jointed Concrete
Pile, Lacor Pile, Large diameter bored pile, Lind-Calweld Pile, Lorenz Pile, Mast
System, Millgard Shell Pile, Mini pile, Monierbau Pile, Multiton Pile, MV-pile,
Omega Pile, Pieux Choc, Precast Concrete Pile, Precast Reinforced Concrete Pile,
Pressodrill, Prestcore, Prestressed Concrete Pile, Raymond Pile, Rolba Pile, Sheet
Pile, Simplex System, Small diameter bored pile, Soilex System, Starsol Pile, Steel
Box Pile, Steel pile, Steel Tube Pile, Steel-concrete (SC) Composite Pile, Steel-H
Pile, SVB Pile, SVV Pile, Timber Pile, Tubex Pile, Westpile Shell Pile, Vibrex Cast-
In-Situ Pile, Wolfholz System, X-pile, Zeissl System, …………

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
WORLD PILE MARKET
PILE CLASSIFICATION

Modified from Fleming et al., 2009

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
WORLD PILE MARKET
PILE CLASSIFICATION

Modified from Fleming et al., 2009

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
WORLD PILE MARKET
PILE CLASSIFICATION

Soil is laterally displaced Soil is removed and


during the insertion of pile, substituted by the pile,
increasing total stress into decreasing (at the best,
the surrounding soil leaving practically
unchanged) total stress into
the surrounding soil

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
WORLD PILE MARKET
PILE CLASSIFICATION

SANDY OR
GRAVELLY SOILS
(drained response)

DP tends to exhibit much greater resistance than NDP due


to the improvements into the surrounding soil (greater
effective stresses  lower porosity and greater strength)

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
WORLD PILE MARKET
PILE CLASSIFICATION

CLAYEY AND
SILTY SOILS
(undrained response)

DP and NDP tends to exhibit comparable resistance due to


limited changes in effective stresses and constant porosity
condition

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
LITERATURE REVIEW: SHAFT RESISTANCE
-method
qs,lim = v

Poulos et al. (2001)

Some “distilled”
suggestions!!!!

-method: qs,lim = cu

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
LITERATURE REVIEW: SHAFT RESISTANCE

-method

400%
 = 0.5k0v for ND piles in sand
 = 2.0k0v for D piles in sand

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
LITERATURE REVIEW: SHAFT RESISTANCE

-method

400%
 = 0.5k0v for ND piles in sand
 = 2.0k0v for D piles in sand

-method

D/ND = 1.4 piles in clay 40%

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
LITERATURE REVIEW: BASE RESISTANCE
Lee and Salgado, 1999: piles in sand

Test data:
qb,lim(D) = (2.43.0)qb,lim(ND) at w = 5%d
qb,lim(D) = (1.61.8)qb,lim(ND) at w = 10%d 160300%

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
LITERATURE REVIEW: BASE RESISTANCE
Lee and Salgado, 1999: piles in sand

Test data:
qb,lim(D) = (2.43.0)qb,lim(ND) at w = 5%d
qb,lim(D) = (1.61.8)qb,lim(ND) at w = 10%d 160300%
Any piles in fine grained soils: qb,lim = 9cu + vL

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
REMARKS

DP installed in coarse grained soils


(gravel/sand) are expected to have greater axial
resistance than NDP due to positive effects both
at the pile shaft and at the pile base.

Independently from the installation method,


piles embedded in fine grained soils (clay/silt)
are expected to have similar axial resistance.

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
REMARKS

DP installed in coarse grained soils


(gravel/sand) are expected to have greater axial
resistance than NDP due to positive effects both
at the pile shaft and at the pile base.

MORE ATTENTION ON PILE TECHNOLOGY

Independently from the installation method,


piles embedded in fine grained soils (clay/silt)
are expected to have similar axial resistance.

MORE ATTENTION TO SOIL PROPERTIES


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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE COLLECTED IN ITALY

VESUVIO
BAY OF NAPLES

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE COLLECTED IN ITALY
CENTRO DIREZIONALE DI NAPOLI

VESUVIO
BAY OF NAPLES

145 load tests on different piles installed in


rather uniform subsoil conditions (SANDY SOILS)

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE COLLECTED IN ITALY
CENTRO DIREZIONALE DI NAPOLI

VESUVIO
BAY OF NAPLES

20 load tests at failure (w  10%d) on trial piles


125 load tests on production piles

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE COLLECTED IN ITALY

20 load tests to failure on trial cast in situ piles (Mandolini et al., 2005)

Non Displacement type:


- bored (dry, bentonite, temporary steel casing) d = 0.35  2.00 m
- CFA L = 9.5  42.0 m
Displacement type: L/d = 16  61
- Franki

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE COLLECTED IN ITALY

20 load tests to failure on trial cast in situ piles (Mandolini et al., 2005)

Non Displacement type:


- bored (dry, bentonite, temporary steel casing) d = 0.35  2.00 m
- CFA L = 9.5  42.0 m
Displacement type: L/d = 16  61
- Franki

Pile type (Rlim/Wp)av COV(Rlim/Wp)

ND – Bored 12,1 (1) 0,26

Rlim as measured at w = 10%d

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE COLLECTED IN ITALY

20 load tests to failure on trial cast in situ piles (Mandolini et al., 2005)

Non Displacement type:


- bored (dry, bentonite, temporary steel casing) d = 0.35  2.00 m
- CFA L = 9.5  42.0 m
Displacement type: L/d = 16  61
- Franki

Pile type (Rlim/Wp)av COV(Rlim/Wp)

ND – Bored 12,1 (1) 0,26

ND – CFA 37,5 ( 3) 0,25

Rlim as measured at w = 10%d

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE COLLECTED IN ITALY

20 load tests to failure on trial cast in situ piles (Mandolini et al., 2005)

Non Displacement type:


- bored (dry, bentonite, temporary steel casing) d = 0.35  2.00 m
- CFA L = 9.5  42.0 m
Displacement type: L/d = 16  61
- Franki

Pile type (Rlim/Wp)av COV(Rlim/Wp)

ND – Bored 12,1 (1) 0,26

ND – CFA 37,5 ( 3) 0,25

D - Franki 73,1 ( 6) 0,08

Rlim as measured at w = 10%d

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
REMARKS

The method of installation


strongly affects pile response to
axial loading at failure due to
remarkable changes induced into
a thin soil volume close to the pile

In the quoted example, till to 6 times on the average !!

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
REMARKS

The method of installation


strongly affects pile response to
axial loading at failure due to
remarkable changes induced into
a thin soil volume close to the pile

IS IT STILL VALID FOR


AXIAL PILE STIFFNESS ?

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE COLLECTED IN ITALY
CENTRO DIREZIONALE DI NAPOLI

VESUVIO
BAY OF NAPLES

20 load tests at failure (w  10%d) on trial piles


125 load tests on production piles

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE COLLECTED IN ITALY

125 proof load tests on production cast in situ piles (Mandolini et al., 2005)

Non Displacement type:


- bored (dry, bentonite, temporary steel casing)
- CFA
Displacement type:
- Screw
-Franki

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE COLLECTED IN ITALY

125 proof load tests on production cast in situ piles (Mandolini et al., 2005)

Non Displacement type:


- bored (dry, bentonite, temporary steel casing)
- CFA
Displacement type:
- Screw
-Franki

The experimentally determined axial soil-pile stiffness K = Q/w


under working load was compared with that of an equivalent
column having a structural axial stiffness Kc = (EpAp)/Lc.

Critical length Lc was chosen in order to compare the stiffness of


the column with that of a pile having only that reduced length
over which it is transferring the applied load to the surrounding
soil.

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE COLLECTED IN ITALY
2,0
125 proof load tests on production cast in situ piles (Mandolini et al., 2005)
1,5
Non Displacement type:

K / KC
- bored (dry, bentonite, temporary steel
1,0casing)
- CFA
0,5
Displacement type:
- Screw 0,0
-Franki

DRIVEN
DRIVEN
BORED
CFA
CFA
CFA
CFA
CFA
CFA
CFA
Data grouped within homogeneous geotechnical area
2,0 80

COV(K / KC) [%]


1,5 60
K / KC

1,0 40

0,5 20

0,0 0
DRIVEN
DRIVEN
BORED

DRIVEN
DRIVEN
BORED
CFA
CFA
CFA
CFA
CFA
CFA
CFA

CFA
CFA
CFA
CFA
CFA
CFA
CFA
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EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE COLLECTED IN ITALY
2,0
125 proof load tests on production cast in situ piles (Mandolini et al., 2005)
1,5
Non Displacement type:

K / KC
- bored (dry, bentonite, temporary steel
1,0casing)
- CFA
0,5
Displacement type:
- Screw 0,0
-Franki

DRIVEN
DRIVEN
BORED
CFA
CFA
CFA
CFA
CFA
CFA
CFA
Data grouped within homogeneous geotechnical area
2,0 80

COV(K / KC) [%]


1,5 60
1,4
K / KC

1,0 40
35%
0,5 20

0,0 0
DRIVEN
DRIVEN
BORED

DRIVEN
DRIVEN
BORED
CFA
CFA
CFA
CFA
CFA
CFA
CFA

CFA
CFA
CFA
CFA
CFA
CFA
CFA
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EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE COLLECTED IN ITALY

125 proof load tests on production cast in situ piles (Mandolini et al., 2005)

Non Displacement type:


- bored (dry, bentonite, temporary steel casing)
- CFA
Displacement type:
- Screw
-Franki

Pile type (Q/w)av COV(Q/w)

ND – Bored 1,46 (1) 0,28

ND – CFA 1,44 ( 1) 0,46

D – Screw, Franki 1,29 ( 0.9) 0,42

Q/w measured at working load

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
REMARKS

The method of installation strongly affects pile


response to axial loading at failure due to
remarkable changes induced into a thin soil
volume close to the pile

IS IT STILL VALID FOR


AXIAL PILE STIFFNESS ?

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
REMARKS

The method of installation strongly affects pile


response to axial loading at failure due to
remarkable changes induced into a thin soil
volume close to the pile

IS IT STILL VALID FOR


AXIAL PILE STIFFNESS ?

AT MUCH LESSER EXTENT


More details, also substantiated by theory, are given in Mandolini et al. (2005)

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


57
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
A QUESTION

HOW TO GET THE BEST FOR A


GIVEN COMBINATION OF
PILE AND SOIL TYPE ?

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


58
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
A QUESTION

HOW TO GET THE BEST FOR A


GIVEN COMBINATION OF
PILE AND SOIL TYPE ?

Two examples: CFA and FDP

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59
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
CFA PILES – RESEARCH IN ITALY

SUN won a national competition for a research funding by Italian Government


(about 900.000 €)

Piling Contractor Partner: Società Italiana Fondazioni S.p.A.

4 experimental sites (n.c. and o.c clayey; loose and dense sandy soils)

For each experimental site: detailed geotechnical


investigations

5 load tests at failure on fully


instrumented trial piles installed
with a different set of installation
parameters

different concrete mix

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS: POGGIOMARINO SITE

Results of loading tests on two identical CFA piles (L = 24 m; d = 0,8 m) installed


by the same piling contractor with the same operator in the same subsoil at less
than 5 m ( 6d) distance V [ m /h ]
q [M Pa] c
 [ r .p .m .] P

GWL

250

500
10

20

30

10

20
0

0
Top soil 0

10

de pth [m ]
Alluvial
Soils
20

Base
formation 30

q c [M Pa]  [ r .p .m .] V P [ m /h ]

250

500
10

20

30

10

20
0

0
0

10
de pth [m ]

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015 20 61


Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS: POGGIOMARINO SITE

Results of loading tests on two identical CFA piles (L = 24 m; d = 0,8 m) installed


by the same piling contractor with the same operator in the same subsoil at less
than 5 m ( 6d) distance
5.30 MN
5,0 5,0
w > 10%d  failure
total load
4,0 4,0 3.94 MN shaft load
4.08 MN
load [MN]

load [MN]
base load
3,0 3,0
2.81 MN
2,0 2,0

1.55 MN1,0 1.36 MN


1,0
w << 10%d  no failure
0,0 0,0
0 20 40 60 80 0 20 40 60 80
settlement, w [mm] settlement, w [mm]

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


62
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS: POGGIOMARINO SITE

Results of loading tests on two identical CFA piles (L = 24 m; d = 0,8 m) installed


by the same piling contractor with the same operator in the same subsoil at less
than 5 m ( 6d) distance
5.30 MN
5,0 5,0
w > 10%d  failure

? ?
total load
4,0 4,0 3.94 MN shaft load
4.08 MN
load [MN]

load [MN]
base load
3,0 3,0
2.81 MN
2,0 2,0

1.55 MN1,0 1.36 MN


1,0
w << 10%d  no failure
0,0 0,0
0 20 40 60 80 0 20 40 60 80
settlement, w [mm] settlement, w [mm]

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
30
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS: POGGIOMARINO SITE

q c [M Pa]  q[ cr .p
[ M.m
P a.]] qVc P[[M
[ mP/h
r .p a
.m]] .]  [Vr P.p[.m
m /h
.] ] V P [ m /h ] q c [M Pa]

250

500

250

500
250

500

10

20

30
10

20

30

10

20

10

20

30

10

20
10

20

30

10

20

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0 0 0

10

de pth [m ]
10 10
de pth [m ]

20 de pth [m ] 20 20

30 30 30

5.30 MN
5,0 5,0
w > 10%d  failure
V P [ m /h ] V P [ m /h ] total load
q c [M Pa]  q[ rc .p
[ M.mP a
.]]  [ r .p .m .] q c [M Pa]
4,0 4,0 3.94 MN shaft load
4.08 MN
250

500

250

500

10

20

30
10

20

30

10

20
10

20

30

10

20
load [MN]

load [MN]

0
base load
0

00
0

0
3,0 3,0 0
0 2.81 MN
2,0 2,0

1.55 MN1,0 1.36 MN


1,0 10

de pth [m ]
10 w << 10%d  no failure
de pth [m ]

0,0 0,0
0 20 40 60 80 0 20 40 60 80
20 settlement, w [mm] settlement, w [mm] 20

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3Alessandro 30 64
0 Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
CFA PILES – RESEARCH IN ITALY

PENETRATION STAGE

Rate of penetration, vP
Rate of revolution, ωP

Viggiani (1989, 1993)


Concrete
Pump

Kinematic analysis: in order not to


decompress surrounding soils:

VP > VP,CR = P[1-(d0/dN)2]

 = pitch of the screw


d0 = outer diameter of the central hollow 65
stem
dN = overall diameter of the auger

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
CFA PILES – RESEARCH IN ITALY

“net” compressed
soil:
vP >  x 

“net”
decompressed soil:
Concrete

vP <  x 
Pump

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
30
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS: POGGIOMARINO SITE

q c [M Pa]  q[ cr .p
[ M.m
P a.]] qVc P[[M
[ mP/h
r .p a
.m]] .]  [Vr P.p[.m
m /h
.] ] V P [ m /h ]

Compensation along the entire pile shaft


250

500

250

500
250

500
10

20

30

10

20

10

20

30

10

20
10

20

30

10

20
0

0
0

0
0

and decompression at the pile base


0 0
along the entire
and at the pile base

10 10
de pth [m ]

20 de pth [m ] 20

30 30
Decompression

5.30 MN
5,0 5,0
w > 10%d  failure
pile shaft

V P [ m /h ] V P [ m /h ] total load
q c [M Pa]  q[ rc .p
[ M.mP a
.]]  [ r .p .m .]
4,0 4,0 3.94 MN shaft load
4.08 MN
250

500

250

500
10

20

30

10

20
10

20

30

10

20
load [MN]

load [MN]
base load
0

00
0

0
3,0 3,0
0 2.81 MN
2,0 2,0

1.55 MN1,0 1.36 MN


1,0
10 w << 10%d  no failure
de pth [m ]

0,0 0,0
0 20 40 60 80 0 20 40 60 80
20 settlement, w [mm] settlement, w [mm]

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3Alessandro 67
0 Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS: POGGIOMARINO SITE

qs,lim = s  qc,s
qb,lim = b  qc,b

s = 0,026 x (VP/VP,CR) + 0,004 b = 0,115 x (VP/VP,CR) + 0,153

0.04 0.25

S B
+40%
0.03 0.20
+50%

0.02 0.15
0.0 1.0 V /V 2.0 0.0 1.0 V /V 2.0
P P,CR P P,CR

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS: POGGIOMARINO SITE
0.25
qs,lim = s  qc,s
qb,lim = b  qc,b B

b = 0,115 x (VP/VP,CR) + 0,153 0.20

0.15
0.0 1.0 V /V 2.0
P P,CR

Lee and Salgado, 1999: piles in sand

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
CFA PILES – RESEARCH IN ITALY

Velocity index, IV = VP / VP,crit

Low values for IV determine a High values for IV determine a


net effect of soil decompression, net effect of soil compression,
thus CFA piles badly installed. thus CFA piles conveniently
installed.

It has to be expected, under It has to be expected, under


other same conditions, low shaft other same conditions, high
and base resistances shaft and base resistances

“ND pile” “D pile”

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
WORLD PILE MARKET (Source DFI, 2006)

CATEGORY TYPE PERCENTAGE TOTAL


SCREW 7
DP PREFABRICATED 33 51
DRIVEN CAST IN PLACE 11
BORED 26
NDP 49
CFA 23

Remarkable differences
countries by countries

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
WORLD PILE MARKET (Source DFI, 2006)

CATEGORY TYPE PERCENTAGE TOTAL


SCREW 7
DP PREFABRICATED 33 51
DRIVEN CAST IN PLACE 11
BORED 26
NDP 49
CFA 23

ITALIAN PILE MARKET non displ. piles


100 Trevisani, 1992
auger piles
displ. piles
80 “In the next future, auger
% of pile type

60 piles will probably gain the


market against the smaller
 30%
40 size (d = 80120 cm) of the
20 large diameter bored piles”

0
1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
WORLD PILE MARKET (Source DFI, 2006)

CATEGORY TYPE PERCENTAGE TOTAL


SCREW 7
DP PREFABRICATED 33 51
DRIVEN CAST IN PLACE 11
BORED 26
NDP 49
CFA 23

ITALIAN PILE MARKET non displ. piles


100 Trevisani, 1992 Mandolini, 2004 100
auger piles
80 displ. piles 80
% of pile type

 55%
60 60

40  30% 40

20 20

0 0
1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
REPERCUSSION IN OTHER PILE MARKET

PREFACE:

“CFA piles have been used in the U.S.


commercial market but have not been
used frequently for support of
transportation structures in the United
States. This underutilization of a viable
technology is a result of perceived
difficulties in quality control, and the
difficulties associated with incorporating
a rapidly developing (and often
proprietary) technology into the
traditional, prescriptive design-bid-build
concept……”

Report n. FHWA-HIF-07-03

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
REPERCUSSION IN OTHER PILE MARKET

+40%
+50%

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


75
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
REPERCUSSION IN OTHER PILE MARKET

Report n. FHWA-HIF-07-03

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


76
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
REPERCUSSION IN OTHER PILE MARKET

PREFACE:

“CFA piles have been used in the U.S.


commercial market but have not been
used frequently for support of
transportation structures in the United
States. This underutilization of a viable
technology is a result of perceived
difficulties in quality control, and the
difficulties associated with incorporating
a rapidly developing (and often
proprietary) technology into the
traditional, prescriptive design-bid-build
concept.
Recent advances in automated
Report n. FHWA-HIF-07-03 monitoring and recording devices will
alleviate concerns of quality control, as
well as provide an essential tool for a
performance-based contracting process.”

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77
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
A QUESTION

HOW TO GET THE BEST FOR A


GIVEN COMBINATION OF
PILE AND SOIL TYPE ?

Two examples: CFA and FDP

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


78
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
WORLD PILE MARKET (Source DFI, 2006)

CATEGORY TYPE PERCENTAGE TOTAL


SCREW 7
DP PREFABRICATED 33 51
DRIVEN CAST IN PLACE 11
BORED 26
NDP 49
CFA 23

FUNDEX OMEGA DISCREPILE FDP

Remarkable differences countries by countries

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


79
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
WORLD PILE MARKET (Source DFI, 2006)

CATEGORY TYPE PERCENTAGE TOTAL


SCREW 7
DP PREFABRICATED 33 51
DRIVEN CAST IN PLACE 11
BORED 26
NDP 49
CFA 23

FUNDEX OMEGA DISCREPILE FDP


Increasingly used in European (for instance,
Belgium over 60%) and Asian market
Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015
80
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
WORLD PILE MARKET (Source DFI, 2006)

CATEGORY TYPE PERCENTAGE TOTAL


SCREW 7
DP PREFABRICATED 33 51
DRIVEN CAST IN PLACE 11
BORED 26
NDP 49
CFA 23

FUNDEX OMEGA DISCREPILE FDP


vibration and noise free; no soil support;
no soil removal  no dumping
Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015
81
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
WORLD PILE MARKET (Source DFI, 2006)

CATEGORY TYPE PERCENTAGE TOTAL


SCREW 7
DP PREFABRICATED 33 51
DRIVEN CAST IN PLACE 11
BORED 26
NDP 49
CFA 23

FUNDEX OMEGA DISCREPILE FDP


MORE ENVIRONMENTALLY-FRIENDLY

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
WORLD PILE MARKET (Source DFI, 2006)

CATEGORY TYPE PERCENTAGE TOTAL


SCREW 7
DP PREFABRICATED 33 51
DRIVEN CAST IN PLACE 11
BORED 26
NDP 49
CFA 23

FUNDEX OMEGA DISCREPILE FDP


Lehane B. (2005): “It is only a matter of time before they
will dominate the market of medium scale bored piles”
Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015
83
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
FDP - RESEARCH IN ITALY
Valentino F (2014).
Analysis of installation and loading process for displacement piles by Discrete Element
Model
Ph.D. Thesis, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli.

Reseaarch Agreement between:

- SUN (Second University of Naples)


- ICOTEKNE S.p.A. (Piling Contractor)
- BAUER – ITALIA (Piling Equipment)

Particle Flow
Code 3D v. 3.00
Itasca

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84
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
FDP - RESEARCH IN ITALY

Jacked and Screw piles L = 8,45 m; D = 0,60 m

Horizontal stress changes at the end of insertion h,INS/h0

Compaction

Stabilisation

Compaction

Perforation

JACKED BAUER FDP

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
FDP - RESEARCH IN ITALY

Jacked pile L = 8,45 m; D = 0,60 m

Horizontal stress changes:


- at the end of insertion (INS)
- after removal of jacking load, i.e. End Of Construction (EOC)
- after loading (L) at w = 10%D

loose medium dense


Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015
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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
FDP - RESEARCH IN ITALY

Lesson learned from experiments and theoretical studies about D-


pile (jacked). On the overall:

 in medium to dense sand, the soil changes occurred during


the construction envisage the amount of available skin
friction during subsequent loading.

loose medium dense


Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015
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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
FDP - RESEARCH IN ITALY

Lesson learned from experiments and theoretical studies about D-


pile (jacked). On the overall,

 in loose sand, the increase of h during the pile insertion over
most of the pile length ......

loose medium dense


Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015
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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
FDP - RESEARCH IN ITALY

Lesson learned from experiments and theoretical studies about D-


pile (jacked). On the overall,

 ...... then reduces to values smaller than geostatic ......

loose medium dense


Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015
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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
FDP - RESEARCH IN ITALY

Lesson learned from experiments and theoretical studies about D-


pile (jacked). On the overall,

 ...... and partially recovered during loading stage, often


resulting in values which are close to geostatic (no significant
advantages vs ND-pile in terms of shaft capacity)

loose medium dense


Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015
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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
FDP - RESEARCH IN ITALY

Installation energy for jacked and screw piles

F v  T
E (Van Impe 1994)
Ab  v

F  v F
Jacked ( = 0): E 
Ab  v  Ab

F  v  T   F  v  T  
Screw FDP: E 
Ab  v  A  v b

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
FDP - RESEARCH IN ITALY

Specific Installation Energy (E/Qlim)

7.0

6.0 jacked
E / Qlim (kNm/m3 / kN)

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0
Infisso
1.0
FDP
0.0
0.40 0.41 0.42 0.43 0.44 0.45 0.46
porosity,
n (-) n (-)

For looser sandy soils (n), jacked piles are less effective (E/Qlim )

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Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
FDP - RESEARCH IN ITALY

Specific Installation Energy (E/Qlim)

7.0

6.0 jacked
E / Qlim (kNm/m3 / kN)

5.0

4.0

3.0
screw FDP
2.0
Infisso
1.0
FDP
0.0
0.40 0.41 0.42 0.43 0.44 0.45 0.46
porosity,
n (-) n (-)

For looser sandy soils (n), jacked piles are less effective (E/Qlim )

The contrary is true for screw FDP (E/Qlim)

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


93
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
REMARKS

Theoretical studies like those here presented can


greatly help piling industry in conceiving more
convenient installation procedure and design methods
(i.e., CFA piles) as well as more productive piling
equipment.

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


94
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
REMARKS

Theoretical studies like those here presented can


greatly help piling industry in conceiving more
convenient installation procedure and design methods
(i.e., CFA piles) as well as more productive piling
equipment.

Moreover, different shape and size of perforation tools


can be “explored” in advance instead of relying on trial
and error site procedure often managed by site
engineers (and not specialists) to solve a specific
problem on a specific type (not exportable
experience).

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


95
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
CONCLUDING REMARKS #1

Sustainable development consists of balancing local and global


efforts to meet basic human needs (social, economic) without
destroying or degrading the natural environment.

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


96
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
CONCLUDING REMARKS #1

Sustainable development consists of balancing local and global


efforts to meet basic human needs (social, economic) without
destroying or degrading the natural environment.

Scientific approaches to pile design have advanced enormously in


recent decades.

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


97
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
CONCLUDING REMARKS #1

Sustainable development consists of balancing local and global


efforts to meet basic human needs (social, economic) without
destroying or degrading the natural environment.

Scientific approaches to pile design have advanced enormously in


recent decades.

Significant improvements have been made in identifying the


mechanisms developing at soil-pile interface either during the
installation or during loading, allowing for selection of the pile also
on the basis of specific energy consumption  economic,
environmentally-friendly.

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


98
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
CONCLUDING REMARKS #1

Sustainable development consists of balancing local and global


efforts to meet basic human needs (social, economic) without
destroying or degrading the natural environment.

Scientific approaches to pile design have advanced enormously in


recent decades.

Significant improvements have been made in identifying the


mechanisms developing at soil-pile interface either during the
installation or during loading, allowing for selection of the pile also
on the basis of specific energy consumption  economic,
environmentally-friendly.

Design of piled foundation based on stiffness consideration is more


reliable because much less affected by technological and site-
construction aspects.

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


99
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
CONCLUDING REMARKS #2

Sustainable development consists of balancing local and global


efforts to meet basic human needs (social, economic) without
destroying or degrading the natural environment.

When favorable circumstances occur, the number of piles needed to


guarantee satisfactory response of the overall foundation system
significantly reduces (piled raft concept)  economic.

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


100
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
CONCLUDING REMARKS #2

Sustainable development consists of balancing local and global


efforts to meet basic human needs (social, economic) without
destroying or degrading the natural environment.

When favorable circumstances occur, the number of piles needed to


guarantee satisfactory response of the overall foundation system
significantly reduces (piled raft concept)  economic.

Less piles, strategically located beneath raft (3070% less)  even


more economic and environmentally-friendly design.

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


101
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
CONCLUDING REMARKS #2

Sustainable development consists of balancing local and global


efforts to meet basic human needs (social, economic) without
destroying or degrading the natural environment.

When favorable circumstances occur, the number of piles needed to


guarantee satisfactory response of the overall foundation system
significantly reduces (piled raft concept)  economic.

Less piles, strategically located beneath raft (3070% less)  even


more economic and environmentally-friendly design.

If properly selected, piles can ensure high specific capacities (pile


resistance/pile weight); a trend is observed where displacement
(screw) piles are gaining market due to high specific capacities and
low impact on environment.

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


102
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
CONCLUDING REMARKS #3

Sustainable development consists of balancing local and global


efforts to meet basic human needs (social, economic) without
destroying or degrading the natural environment.

Piles can also play an “active” role in reducing seismic demand or


producing energy satisfy needs  social, economic, environment.
SEISMIC DEMAND REDUCERS

ENERGY PRODUCERS
Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015
103
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
JOINING NOVELTIES

Full Displacement Screw


Piles conceived as a part of
piled raft in a seismic area
and equipped with
New Hospital in
geothermal pipes
Monselice, Italy

FOR A BETTER AND


SUSTANAIBLE
FUTURE

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


104
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
CONCLUDING REMARKS #4

Despite adverse comments by some of the Pioneers in


Soil Mechanics (and despite attitude of Civil Engineers
to not modify their daily practice), there is a significant
role for scientific methods in pile design.
(Randolph, 2003)
(Mandolini, now)

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


105
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
CONCLUDING REMARKS #4

Despite adverse comments by some of the Pioneers in


Soil Mechanics (and despite attitude of Civil Engineers
to not modify their daily practice), there is a significant
role for scientific methods in pile design.
(Randolph, 2003)
(Mandolini, now)

MORE “PURE” APPLIED SCIENCE



MORE SUSTANAIBILITY

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, May 2015


106
Alessandro Mandolini – Sustainable Piling Engineering
SUSTANAIBLE PILING
ENGINEERING
Prof. Ing. Alessandro Mandolini, Ph.D.