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Introduction to Digital Map Data

Aim: to provide site support staff


with basic knowledge of digital map
data concepts and references to
further information
Session Objectives
• To provide an overview of spatial data concepts
• To introduce spatial data terminology
• To introduce GIS concepts and applications
• To provide pointers to resources and
information about spatial data
Structure
1. Spatial data overview
2. Data entry
3. Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
4. Sources of help and assistance
Digital map data

“…map detail held in the form of


national grid coordinate values
and codes which can be stored
and manipulated on computer”

Source: www.ordsvy.gov.uk (now www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk)


1. Spatial data overview
Are these
spatial data?

Source: www.esri.com
Yes!

Spatial reference Attributes

Source: www.esri.com
Are these
spatial data?
Yes!

Spatial reference Attribute


Spatial data
• Spatial data:
– “data that have some form of spatial or geographic
reference that enables them to be located in two-
or three- dimensional space” (Heywood et al.,
1998)
– ‘where’ (spatial component) and ‘what’ (attribute)

• Spatial referencing:
– 55o 45’ N 36o 0’ E latitude/longitude
– SE 366 923 grid reference
– AB14 5UA address/postcode
Spatial data - examples
• Digital map data
– e.g. Ordnance Survey, Bartholomew
• Aerial photographs
• Field data
– GPS readings, field surveys
• Remotely sensed images
– e.g. Landsat, SPOT
• Paper maps and plans
– AA road maps,
• Socio-economic data
– e.g. census data, marketing surveys
Spatial data - analogue vs. digital
• Analogue • Digital
– paper maps – digital data files
– printed aerial – remotely sensed
photographs images
– tables of statistics – GPS output files
• Fixed scale • Scale ‘free’/flexible
• Need to be converted to • File format
digital format predetermined
• Download or copy
2. Data entry
Getting spatial data into the computer
• Analogue to digital conversion
– keyboard entry
– scanning
– manual digitising
– automatic digitising

• Attributes may have to be coded separately


Preparing data for use
Sources of error
• Data collection
– misreading GPS
• Data encoding
• Data exchange

Checking for errors


• Visual inspection
• Impossible values
– crags in the sea
• Extreme data values
– Australian ozone levels
3. Geographic Information
System (GIS)
What is GIS?

“A system for capturing, storing, checking, integrating,


manipulating analysing and displaying data which are
spatially referenced to the Earth”
(DoE, 1987)

“GIS rests on the assumption that different kinds of spatial


data have common structure, and are processed in
similar ways, and that there is consequently value in
creating common spatial data handling and processing
systems”
(Goodchild, 1995)
What is GIS?
• Components of GIS
– computer system
– spatial data
– people
How does GIS work?
• The layer approach • The object approach

Superclass
Building
Communication Attributes
Behaviour
Landuse
Conservation
Subclass Subclass Subclass
Historic sites
Factory Residential Retail
Behaviour Behaviour Behaviour
Attributes Attributes Attributes
Common referencing framework
Rasters and Vectors

Source: edina.ac.uk/digimap
Digimap vector data

How to make the data into something useful…

© Crown copyright
Vector data - points, lines and areas

Points - x,y co-ordinates [x1,y1]


representing individual points
e.g. trees Point
Line
Lines - sets of points
[x1,y1]
[x3,y3]

representing linear features [x5,y5]

e.g. roads, rivers [x2,y2]


[x4,y4]
[x6,y6]

Areas - closed set of lines


[x1,y1]
[x2,y2]

such as woodlands or a city Area


boundary [x3,y3]
Raster model
Raster model - Pixels and
resolution

10 m

Resolution - the size of the smallest recording unit or the


smallest feature that can be mapped and measured
(Heywood et al. 1998)
What can GIS do?

Measurement Interpolation
• distance, area, perimeter • prediction
Query Surface analysis
• spatial, attribute • slope, aspect, viewsheds
Buffering Network analysis
• inside, outside • routes
• supply and demand
Neighbourhood operations
• reclassification Overlay

Also includes functions for modelling, data


storage and retrieval, and data presentation
Measurement

Distance

Area

Perimeter
Query

Spatial
- where is 127 New
Bridge Street?

Attribute
- what is the use of this
building?

© Crown copyright
Buffering
Point
- specified distance from
road junction

Area
- specified distance from
building

Line
- specified distance from
road centreline
© Crown copyright
Neighbourhood operations

Reclassification
- reclassify river Tyne to 1,
everything else to 0

© Crown copyright
Interpolation

X 18m X 20m
Creating isolines
X 15m
X 35m
Creating DTMs X 5m

Source: www.mapmaker.com
Network analysis

A Shortest routes

Supply and demand

B
Overlay

Visual
e.g. landscape data
over surface model

Integrative
e.g. landscape data
over surface data to
calculate average
height of forestry
plantations

Source: www.mapmaker.com
GIS output
• Maps
• Surface visualisations
• Tables
• Lists
• Multimedia
• Animated map sequences

“Know what you want to get out”


Tomlinson R (1999)
The bigger picture

80% of data used in business has a geographical


component

“MapQuest has nearly 4 million unique visitors per month


and is the 39th most visited Web site on the Internet”
(Novak I, 1999)
Digimap service uses
Water vole distribution
Religious houses in the 13th Century
Norse place-names in Scotland

Identifying EU structural and regional fund boundaries

Aircraft and noise pollution in Newcastle

Terrain modelling for air flow/large bird interaction

Housing study Seal behaviour

Design for the Scottish Parliament


Clinical medicine
Agricultural land use Beach hazards

Wind energy
Graphics and visualisation
4. Sources of help and assistance
Resources
• Digimap and Go-Geo!
http://edina.ac.uk/digimap
http://www.gogeo.ac.uk
• Ordnance Survey
http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk
• ESRI Virtual Campus
http://www.esri.com
• Magazines
GINews
GeoConnexion
• Association for Geographical Information
www.agi.org.uk
• Books, journals etc.