You are on page 1of 19

2)PARENT-CHILD INTERACTION THEORY

KATHRYN E. BARNARD, R.N., PH.D.

Presented by,
Rahmatullah Vinjhar
MSN ( First Semester) PNS LUMHS Jamshoro.
1
Facilitator: Ms.Almas Ghaffar
OBJECTIVES
At the end of the session the learner will be to:
 Describe the credentials and back ground of Theorist.

 Explain the theories and model of the theorist.

 Understand the theory’s concepts of Metaparadigms of nursing.

 Describe the implication of theory in nursing practice, education and research


of theories/Model.
 Discuss strength and weakness of the theories/Models.

 CompareCulture Care Theory of Diversity and Universality. & Parent Child


interaction model

2
CREDENTIALS AND BACK GROUND OF THEORIST.

 Born in April, 16, 1938 at Omaha Nebraska


 Graduated from the University of Nebraska

 Head nurse on a pediatric unit right after graduation

 Finished Master’s degree at Boston University

 PhD in the ecology of early childhood development.

 Professor of nursing at the University of Washington

 Adjunct professor of psychology at the University of Washington

 Focused research on interaction of children with their environment


(Kathryn, 2014)

3
OCCUPATION/EMPLOYMENT
 Emeritus Professor of Nursing,
 Professor of Psychology;
 Founding Director, Center on Infant Mental Health and
Development, University of Washington, Seattle.

 Awards 1969 and 1993 she also received 15 major awards,


including the Lucille Petry Leone Award for Teaching; the M. Scott
Award for Contributions to Nursing Science, Education and
Service; the Martha May Eliot Award for Leadership in Maternal-
Child Health; and the Nurse Scientist of the Year Award.
4
THEORIES FOCUS: (RESEARCH)
 Premature babies
 Abused or neglected children

 Infant mental health

 Improving support systems for families with small children

 Main goal of Dr. Barnard, to translate research into practice


(Huber, 1991).
 Developed NCAST (Nursing Child Assessment Satellite

Training)
 PCI (Parent-Child Interaction Model)

5
6
PARENT-CHILD INTERACTION MODEL
 Primary focus- Relationship between the parent, child, and
environment
 Believes parent-infant system is influenced by individual
characteristics of each member.
 Both, the parent and the child are influenced and affected by each
other (Fine, 2002).
 Characteristics can be altered or modified to meet the needs (Fine,
2002)
 Interactions evolve over time (Salonen, 2010).
7
 Environmental factors are critical to a child’s metal well being
FIVE ACTIVITIES OF THE PCI
1. Infant’s clarity in sending cues
2. Infants responsiveness to the parent
3. Parents sensitivity to the child’s cues
4. Parent’s ability to recognize and alleviate the infant’s distress
5. Parent’s social , emotional, and cognitive growth-fostering
activities (Huber, 1991)

8
VARIABLES EXCLUSIVE TO THE PCI MODEL
A. Identification of problems before they develop
B. Social-environmental factors are important in determining child
health outcomes
C. Brief observations can provide a valid sample
D. Caregivers are unique
E. Caregiver and child, both are influenced by each other( Fine,
2002)

9
VARIABLES EXCLUSIVE TO THE PCI MODEL
F. The process of adaptation is more modifiable than the foundation
G. Child-initiated behaviors are important learning opportunities
H. Nurturing relationships are valuable
I. The child’s social environment is important to assess.
J. Physical environment is also important (Fine, 2002).

10
NURSING THEORIES ARE ROOTED IN FOUR META-
PARADIGMS

 Tourville and Ingalls (2003) express that these meta-paradigms serve


as boundaries for exploring various subject matter within the
discipline of nursing.
 These meta-paradigms are represented in Dr. Barnard’s Nursing PCI
Model. First, Dr. Barnard defines
1.Nursing,2. Person, 3.Health, and 4. Environment.
1.Nursing as “the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to
health problems”
2.Person is defined as an individual who can take part in an interaction
in which both parties bring value to the interaction.
11
3.Health is the third meta-paradigm and encompasses well-beingand illness.
Barnard believes that heredity and environment play a significant role in
where a person falls on the health-illness continuum

4. The environment is defined as any experience that the individual


encounters, including those that affect the caregiver, such as home and
financial variables

12
IMPLICATION OF MODEL
 PCI model facilitates the prevention of problem before it happens.
 Facilitates a change in the environment thus improving conditions
to promote growth and development (Masters, 2012)
 Facilitates patient advocacy and early intervention
 Nurses provide support to the mother’s sensitivity and responses to
the infant cues.
 Turns nurses mind toward orienting on the patient rather than the
procedure (Melmed, 2009).
 Helps to evaluate mothers for the Early Head Start program

13
STRENGTHS
 Short amount of administration time
 Simplicity of use
 Ability to be conducted around a child’s normal activities of eating and/ or
playing without requiring interruption of his or her daily pattern (Huber,
1991).
 May be used in children up to 3 years of age
 Barnard’s model can also be applied by many other healthcare professionals

14
LIMITATIONS
 Health, nursing therapeutics, and client transitions are not well
defined (Wojnar, 2008)
 Model remains population specific (Masters, 2012).
 Limited, or too specific, to meet the needs of a wide range of nurses
and the patients they care for (Chinn & Kramer, 1995)
 The nurse gives support to the mother’s sensitivity and response to
her infant’s cues rather than trying to change her mothering
characteristics or parenting style.

15
FUTURE OF NURSING PRACTICE
 Barnard’s models have been used since the 1970’s.
 Her knowledge will continue to be used in practice and research
pertaining to the parent-child interaction.
 Barnard’s models provide a foundation for future nursing research
and practice.

16
COMPARE CULTURE CARE THEORY OF DIVERSITY AND UNIVERSALITY. & PARENT CHILD
INTERACTION MODEL

Marilyn R. McFarland Leininger. Kathryn E. Barnard,

 Focus on transcultural nursing and human  Focused research on interaction of


care theory. children with their environment.
 She hold a PhD in cultural and social  PhD in the ecology of early childhood
anthropology. development.
 Middle-range theories  Middle-range theories
 She developed the “SUNRISE MODEL”  This led to the development of the
as a basis for assessment, research and PCI model and the NCAST model.
standard in Transcultural Nursing Theory.  PCI model can help facilitate positive
 Model ( using the Sunrise) Cultural parent-child interactions as early as
assessment and Nursing judgments, possible.
decisions and actions. 17
REFERENCES

Alligood, M .R. & Tomey, A. M. (2010). Nursing Theorists and their Work. Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby,
Elsevier

Haag-Heitman, B. (1999). Clinical practice development using novice to expert theory. Gaithersburg, MD:
Aspen.

Chinn, P. L., & Kramer, M. K. (1995). Theory and Nursing (4th ed.). St. Louuis, MO: Mosby-Year
Book.
Fine, J. M. (2002). Parent-child interaction model. In A. M. Tomey, & M. R. Alligood, Nursing
Theorists and Their Work (pp. 484-495). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

wwwhttps://prezi.com/_zdmhyvtaezz/copy-of-parent-child-interaction-theory/

18
19