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GOVT.

CHANDRA VIJAY COLLEGE


DINDORI
DISTT. DINDORI (M.P.)
Year : 2017-18

CHROMOSOME
Class- B.Sc. VI Sem.
Roll No. 15104947

Miss. Megha Paraste


Guest Lecturer
Submitted To Submitted By
Dr. G.K. Singh Mamta Patta
INDEX
 Introduction
 Chromosome Structure
 Chemical Composition of Chromosome
 Functions of Chromosome
INTRODUCTION -

dksf'kdk foHkktu ds le; dsUnzd esa


xgjh vfHkjaftr /kkxs ds leku lajpuk,¡ fn[kkbZ nsrh
gS] ftUgsa loZizFke izfl) oSKkfud MCY;w-okYMs;j
us xq.klw= uke ls iqdkjkA dksf'kdk foHkktu dh
e/;koLFkk ds dsUnzd esa xq.klw= Li"V fn[kkbZ
nsrs gSA vUrjkoLFkk esa ;g ØksesfVu ds ehu
/kkxksa ls cus tky ds :i esa fn[kkbZ nsrs gSA
xq.klw=ksa esa Lor% f}xq.ku dk xq.k ik;k tkrk gS
vkSj vusd foHkktuksa ds i'pkr~ Hkh budh
vkdkfjdh rFkk fØ;kvksa esa fo'ks"k xq.k fo|eku
jgrs gSA xq.klw= thUl ds okgd gksrs gSa ftuds
[CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE]
vkd`fr ,oa eki & ;g lh/ks
'kykdk tSlh dq.Mfyr vFkok
rUrqe; gksrs gSA laiw.kZ
xq.klw= dh yackbZ dh
eksVkbZ leku gksrh gSA
dqN xq.klw=ks esa
?kqf.M;ksa tSlh vfrfjDr
lajpuk,¡ ikbZ tkrh gS tks
lsVsykbV~l dgykrh gSA
,d lkekU; xq.klw= yEcs]
csyukdkj] NM+uqek jpuk ds
:i esa gksrk gS ftlesa nks
Hkqtk,¡ gksrh gSaA ;g
 isyhfdy (Pellicle) & ;g xq.klw= dk lcls ckgjh vkoj.k
gS tks eSfVªDl dks ifjlhfer djrk gSA ;g vR;kf/kd
eghu] thu jfgr inkFkZ dk cuk gksrk gSA
 eSfVªDl (Matrix) & isyhfdy ls c¡/kk gqvk xq.klw= dk
vk/kkj nzO; eSfVªDl dgykrk gSA ;g xq.klw= ds
vf/kdka'k Hkkx dks cukrk gSA ;g ,d lekax thu jfgr
inkFkZ dk cuk gksrk gSA ;g ØkseksfuesVk dks vius
vanj lqjf{kr j[krk gSA
 ØkseksfuesVk (Chromonemata) & izR;sd xq.klw=
vkarfjd :i esa rks leku] lfiZykdj :i esa dq.Mfyr
rUrqvksa dk cuk gksrk gS] ftUgsa o.kZlw= dgrs gSA
 Økseksfe;lZ (Chromomeres) & izksQst izkoLFkk esa
izR;sd o.kZlw= ij leku nwjh ij lw{e d.kksa vFkok
nkuksa ds leku jpuk,¡ mHkj vkrh gS] bUgsa
 ls.Vªksfe;j (Centromere) & e/;koLFkk rFkk i'pkoLFkk
ds xq.klw= esa ,d l¡djk ladh.kZu fn[kkbZ nsrk gS] ftls
izkFkfed ladh.kZu dgrs gSA
 f}rh;d ladh.kZu (Secondary Constriction) &
dHkh&dHkh dqN xq.klw=ksa esa izkFkfed ladh.kZu
ds vfrfjDr ,d vkSj ladh.kZu ik;k tkrk gS bls f}rh;d
ladh.kZu dgrs gSA
 lsSVsykbV (Satellite) & xq.klw= ds f}rh;d ladh.kZu ls
vkxs dk Hkkx lsVsykbV dgykrk gSA ;g xksy] yEck ;k
?kq.Mhnkj gksrk gSA
 Vhyksfe;j (Telomere) & ewyj us xq.klw=ks ds Lora=
fljksa ds Vhyksfe;j dgkA ;s fljs fØ;kRed fHkUurk ,oa
/kzork iznf'kZr djrs gSA
xq.klw= dk jklk;fud la?kVu
[Chemical Composition of Chromosome] &
xq.klw= ØksesfVu tkyd ls curk gSA
ØksesfVu inkFkZ U;wfDyvksizksVhu dk cuk gksrk gS]
tks eq[; :i ls U;wfDyd vEy rFkk izksVhUl ls feydj curk
gSA
 U;wfDyd ,flM [Nucleic Acids] & ;g nks izdkj ds
gksrs gS %
• Deoxyribonucleic Acid - DNA
• Ribonucleic acid - RNA
 izksVhUl [Proteins] & ;g nks izdkj dh gksrh gS %
• {kkjh; ;k fgLVksu izksVhUl & ;g de v.kqHkkj dh
{kkjh; izksVhUl gksrh gSA buesa {kkjh; vehuks
vEy Tsls&vkfTZuhu rFkk ykbflu dh ek=k vf/kd
xq.klw=ks ds dk;Z
[Functions of Chromosomes]
 buds }kjk tho/kkfj;ksa dh fofHkuu fØ;k,¡
fu;af=r gksrh gSA
 buds }kjk tho/kkfj;ksa ds vusd y{k.k rFkk
ifjo/kZu fu;fer gksrs gSA
 budk gsVsjksØksesfVu okyk Hkkx
dsfUnzdk cukrk gSA
 budh lajpuk ,oa la[;k esa ifjorZu ds
QyLo:i u, y{k.k mRiUu gksrs gSA