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Course Title: Machine Tools

Course No.: IPE 3607


Feed Gear Box

Feed gearboxes work at low velocities and do not pose serious vibration
problems.
Required:
1. Larger speed reduction
2. Larger number of feed steps

Types of Feed Gearboxes:


1. Feed gearbox with slip gears
2. Feed gearbox with slip gear quadrants
3. Feed gearboxes with sliding gears
4. Feed gearboxes with sliding key
5. Norton Gearbox (Tumbler Gearbox)
6. Meander Gearbox

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Feed gearbox with slip gears (change gear)

1. Speeds are changed by changing the gears of a group transmission


between adjacent shafts with constant centre distance.

2. Change gears are used where different operations are performed


in mass or lot production.

3. Used where accuracy is not critical.

4. The principle drawback of the gearbox is that a great deal of time


is lost in changing gears.

Example special type machine tools

Condition:
T1+T2=T3+T4=T5+T6

Fig: Change gears


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Feed gearbox with slip gear quadrants

1. Between the fixed axes of the driving shaft I and the driven shaft III,
an intermediate shaft II is placed on a carrier (quadrant).

2. The intermediate shaft can be adjusted by it linear displacement along


the slot in the quadrant and or swiveling it round axis III.

3. The change gears can be changed easily.

Fig: Slip gear quadrant


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Feed gearboxes with sliding gears

1. These gearboxes are widely used in general purpose machine tools.


2. Feeds can be changed frequently.
3. It can operate at high speed and transmit high torque.
4. Feed is powered by separate electric motor for heavy or high speed
machine tools.
5. Centre distance is constant and therefore is number of teeth for each
transmission groups.
6. But noisy and complex transmission.

Video

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Meander Gearbox

1. It consists of three shafts, a series of identical double cluster gear and a


sliding carrier with a tumbler gear.
2. All the cluster gears rotate continuously in mesh, though only of them
carry the load.
3. Only the first gear block on the driving shaft is rigidly mounted, the rest
of the gear blocks on shafts I and II are mounted freely.
4. Transmission to the driven shaft III takes place through a tumbler gear.
5. Tumbler gear is mounted on a pin in the arm that can rotate about shaft
III and can slide axially along its spilines.
6. it follows geometric progression series.
7. Drawbacks are insufficient accuracy and rigidity of meshing.
8. Used generally in thread cutting lathe.

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Meander Gearbox

Let assume that


Z1/Zd=C; where, C is the constant term.
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Infinitely variable drives in machine tools

Speed can be changed continuously

Advantage:
Optimum cutting condition

Speed can be changed without stopping the machine

Tool life is improved for carbide and ceramic tools, which are susceptible
to cutting speed variation.

The surface produced has more uniform quality of finish.

Easy and smooth changing and no resonance vibration

Simple, compact and less costly

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Types of Infinitely variable drives

Infinitely Variable drives

Mechanical EE drives Hydraulic Combined

Friction Form drive


drives (PIV)

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Frictional Drives

Advantage:
The transmission ratio can be zero, even negative
It is simple, hence reliable and trouble free and can be used where the
speed is changed often.
The cost is low.
Slip may have.

Fig: Single disc drive Fig: Double disc friction drive

Fig: Friction drive using cones

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Heynau drive

Working Principle of Heynau drive:


The drive consists of two twin cones and an intermediate link between the
twin cones.
The link is a hardened ground ring.
Two halves are moved apart, other two then move closer in such a way
that ring is always in tight contact.
Therefore, this ensures the continuous transmission of motion

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PIV Drives

The drawback is that the belt is unable to take higher loads and is prone to
slipping. To overcome the drawback, PIV drive is used (torque transmission
is positive, i.e. there is no slip in this drive system).

The chain is placed between two pairs of wheels. The wheels are grooved
radially .

Biting of the lamellae in the groove

The gap between a pair of wheels is adjustable by the Control Screw.

Video

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Hydraulic Drives

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Hydraulic System

The enclosed fluids can be used as prime movers to provide controlled


motion (linear and Rotary) and force to the objects or substances.

This kind of enclosed fluid based systems using pressurized


incompressible liquids as transmission media are called as hydraulic
systems.

A hydraulic transmission system consists of:


1. Pumps
2. Cylinders
3. Direction Control Valves
4. Pressure Valves
5. Throttles (flow control valve)

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Advantage of Hydraulic System

1. The hydraulic system uses incompressible fluid which results in higher


efficiency .
2. It delivers consistent power output which is difficult in pneumatic or
mechanical drive systems.
3. Hydraulic systems employ high density incompressible fluid. Possibility
of leakage is less in hydraulic system as compared to that in
pneumatic system.
4. The maintenance cost is less.
5. These systems perform well in hot environment conditions.
6. Automatic protection against overload

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Disadvantage of Hydraulic System

1. The material of storage tank, piping, cylinder and piston can be


corroded with the hydraulic fluid.
2. The structural weight and size of the system is more which makes it
unsuitable for the smaller instruments.
3. The small impurities in the hydraulic fluid can permanently damage the
complete system.
4. The leakage of hydraulic fluid is also a critical issue and suitable
prevention method and seals must be adopted.
5. The fluids viscosity varies with temperature and may cause fluctuations
in feed and speed rates.

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Hydraulic Pump

The combined pumping and driving motor unit is known as hydraulic pump.
The hydraulic pump takes hydraulic fluid (mostly some oil) from the storage
tank and delivers it to the rest of the hydraulic circuit.

Classification:
1. On the basis of the volume of outlet:
1.1 Constant delivery
-Gear pump
-Screw pump
1.2 Variable Delivery
-Axial Arrangement (Axial piston pump)
-Radial Arrangement (Vane pump; Radial piston pump)
2. On the basis of the movement of moving parts
2.1 Rotary pump
2.2 Reciprocating pump

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Gear Pump (external type)
1. The direction of delivery depends upon
the rotation of the gears.
2. The oil from the suction side fills up the
tooth gap and is carried by the rotation
of the gears.
3. The tooth gap squeeze the oils and
pumps to the delivery side.
4. The amount of fluid discharge is
determined by the number of gear
teeth, the volume of fluid between each
pair of teeth and the speed of rotation.
5. The important drawback of external
gear pump is the unbalanced side load
on its bearings. It is caused due to high
pressure at the outlet and low pressure
at the inlet which results in slower
speeds and lower pressure ratings in
addition to reducing the bearing life.

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Lobe Pump

1. Lobe pumps work on the similar principle of


working as that of external gear pumps.
2. the lobes rotate to create expanding
volume at the inlet and the fluid flows into
the cavity and is trapped by the lobes.
3. Finally, the meshing of the lobes forces
liquid to pass through the outlet port.
4. Lobe pumps are frequently used in food
applications because they handle solids
without damaging the product.
5. Large sized particles can be pumped much
effectively than in other positive
displacement types.
6. Applications in pulp and paper, chemical,
food, beverage, pharmaceutical and
biotechnology industries.

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Axial Piston Pump (axial arrangement)

Axial piston pumps are positive displacement pumps which converts rotary
motion of the input shaft into an axial reciprocating motion of the pistons.

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Vane Pump (Radial arrangement)

1. Rectangular vane (Radial slot)


2. Rotor
3. House
4. Inlet
5. Space between two successive Vanes
6. Outlet

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Direction Control Valves

1. Directional control valves are used to control the distribution of energy in


a fluid power system.
2. They provide the direction to the fluid and allow the flow in a particular
direction.
3. These valves are used to control the start, stop and change in direction
of the fluid flow.

Classification:
1. Type of construction
1.1 Poppet valves
1.2 Spool valves

2. Number of ports
2.1 Two - way valves
2.2 Three – way valves
2.3 Four - way valves
2.4 Multi-way valves.

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Poppet valves

Check Valves:

1. These are unidirectional valves and permit the free flow in one direction only.
2. These valves have two ports: one for the entry of fluid and the other for the
discharge.
3. They are consists of a housing bore in which ball or poppet is held by a small
spring force. The valve having ball as a closing member is known as ball check
valve.
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Spool Valve

1. It consists of a shaft sliding in a bore which has large groove around the
circumference. This type of construction makes it look like a spool.
2. The grooves guide the fluid flow by interconnecting or blocking the
holes (ports).
3. The spool valves are categorized according to the number of operating
positions and the way hydraulic lines interconnections. One of the
simplest two way spool valve is shown in Figure.

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Three-way valves

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Four-way valves

1. It is generally used to operate the cylinders and fluid motors in both the
directions.
2. The four ways are: pump port P, tank port T, and two working ports A
and B connected to the actuator.
3. The primary function of a four way valve is to pressurize and exhaust
two working ports A and B alternatively.

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Flow Control Valves
1. The speed of actuator is very
important in terms of the desired
output and needs to be controlled.
2. The speed of actuator can be
controlled by regulating the fluid
flow.
3. A flow control valve can regulate the
flow or pressure of the fluid.
4. The fluid flow is controlled by varying
area of the valve opening through
which fluid passes.
5. The fluid flow can be decreased by
reducing the area of the valve
opening and it can be increased by
increasing the area of the valve
opening.
6. A very common example to the fluid
flow control valve is the household
tap.
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Flow control valve

Fig: Ball valve

Fig: Plug/glove valve

Fig: Butterfly valve


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Pressure Relief Valve

1. The pressure relief valves are used


to protect the hydraulic components
from excessive pressure.
2. Its primary function is to limit the
system pressure within a specified
range.
3. It is normally a closed type and it
opens when the pressure exceeds a
specified maximum value by
diverting pump flow back to the
tank.

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Hydraulic Driver for …………

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Spindle and bearing
Demands on Machine tool Spindle:
The accuracy, the surface finish and the form of a job are influenced
significantly by the spindle.

Therefore, position should remain undisturbed under different


operating conditions.

1. Should have radial and axial rigidity to locate and centre the cutting tool or
workpiece.
2. Should have strong torsional rigidity to rotate the workpiece or cutting tool.
3. Due to trend of product miniaturization, overall size should be smaller.
4. Simple to assembly and disassembly
5. Long life
6. Bearing surface of the spindle should have high wear resistance.
7. Temperature change should have little effect on it.
8. Cost economy

The spindle should not only be strong but also be placed in bearing is
such a way that the above mentioned objectives are achieved.

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Spindle and bearing
Demands on bearing:

The machine tool spindle s are mostly placed in anti-friction


bearings.

1. It should be able to take both axial and radial load.


2. It should have sufficient self-alignment capacity.
3. The bearing elements should take the load uniformly.
4. Sufficient long service life and comparatively easy to maintain
5. Small overall size
6. Easy to manufacture
7. Its assembly and disassembly should be easy and convenient.
8. Minimum play under the working load.

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Terminology of Bearing

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Bearing

It permits a relative
motion between the
contact surfaces of
members while carrying
loads.

Bearings are designed to


reduce friction
carry loads
guide moving parts

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Bearing Load

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Rolling Elements

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Bearing

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Bearing

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Misalignment

Misalignments
1. produce additional stresses
2. shorten bearing life
3. increase seal wear
4. increase vibration
5. increase noise
6. increase energy consumption
which will be avoided by proper
shaft alignment or the use of a
self-aligning bearing

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Ball Bearing

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Anti-frictional Bearings

1. Ball Bearing
1.1 Deep groove ball bearing

Widely used type of bearing


Balls are placed concentrically and are kept in position by a separator
Maximum misalignment should not exceed 0.5 degree
Can take relatively high radial load and axial load
Used at high speed

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Anti-frictional Bearings

1. Ball Bearing
1.2 Filling Slot type ball bearing

Have more balls than deep groove ball bearings


A slot permits the assembly of more balls, resulting in a large load capacity
of bearing
Basically used for radial loads

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Anti-frictional Bearings

1. Ball Bearing
1.3 Angular Contact ball bearing
An angular contact ball bearing uses
axially asymmetric races.
This means that these bearings are
designed to accommodate combined
loads, i.e. simultaneously acting radial
and axial loads .
Force carrying capacity increases with the
increase of angle.

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Anti-frictional Bearings

1. Ball Bearing
1.4 Double row angular contact ball bearing

They can take high redial forces as well as axial forces in both
direction.

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Ball Bearing

1. Ball Bearing
1.6 Self aligned ball bearing

The outer ring has a spherical shape, which permits compensation of


angular misalignment.
Recommended for radial loads and moderate axial loads.
A self-aligning bearing is recommended when the alignment of the shaft
and housing are difficult or when the shaft may bend during operations.
Excellent high-speed performance

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1. Ball Bearing
1.7 thrust Ball bearing

This type comprises a row of balls running between two flat groove
washers. It is specially designed for pure axial load.
It is not suitable for higher speed.

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Roller, Needle and taper bearing

1. Cylindrical roller bearing

=Are specially used for carrying higher Radial load


=load carrying capacity is higher than ball bearing
=Easy to assemble and disassemble
=retainers keep the roller parallel
=If roller skewed frictional force increases enormously.
=widely used in bigger shaft size

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Roller, Needle and taper bearing

Needle Bearing
Don’t have any retainers
Rollers have 17-150 mm diameter
Recommended where the speed and the load are not high.

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Roller, Needle and taper bearing

Self Aligning roller bearing


Can carry heavy radial and thrust load

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Roller, Needle and taper bearing

Assignment:
1. Taper roller bearing
2. Trust roller bearing

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Hydrodynamic Bearing

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