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68 Ansichten46 SeitenCourse No: ME 4017
Course Name: Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
Course Teacher: Dr. Mihir Ranjan Halder

Apr 25, 2018

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Course No: ME 4017
Course Name: Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
Course Teacher: Dr. Mihir Ranjan Halder

© All Rights Reserved

Als PPTX, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

68 Ansichten

00 positive Bewertungen00 negative Bewertungen

Course No: ME 4017
Course Name: Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
Course Teacher: Dr. Mihir Ranjan Halder

© All Rights Reserved

Als PPTX, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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Version 1 ME, KUET

The specific objectives of this lecture are to:

1. Introduction to psychrometric processes and their representation (Section 2.1)

2. Important psychrometric processes namely, sensible and latent cooling and heating,

cooling and dehumidification, cooling and humidification, heating and humidification, heating

and dehumidification, chemical dehumidification and mixing of air streams (Section 2.2)

3. Representation of the above processes on psychrometric chart and equations for heat and

mass transfer rates (Section 2.2)

4. Concept of Sensible Heat Factor, By-pass Factor and Apparatus dew point temperature of

cooling coils (Section 2.2.)

5. Principle of air washers and various psychrometric processes that can be performed using

air washers (Section 2.3)

6. Purpose of psychrometric calculations (Section 2.4.1)

7. Analysis of summer air conditioning system (Section 2. 4.2)

8. Selection guidelines for supply air conditions (Section 2.4.3)

At the end of the lecture, the student should be able to:

1. Represent various psychrometric processes on psychrometric chart

2. Perform calculations for various psychrometric processes using the psychrometric charts

and equations

3. Define sensible heat factor, by-pass factor, contact factor and apparatus dew point

temperature

4. Describe the principle of an air washer and its practical use

5. Estimate the load on the cooling coil and fix the supply conditions for various summer

conditioning systems, namely:

a) Systems with 100% re-circulation b) Systems with outdoor air for ventilation with zero by-

pass factor c) Systems with outdoor air for ventilation with non-zero by-pass factor d) Systems

with reheat for high latent cooling load applications

2.1. Introduction:

In the design and analysis of air conditioning plants, the fundamental requirement is to identify the

various processes being performed on air. Once identified, the processes can be analyzed by

applying the laws of conservation of mass and energy. All these processes can be plotted easily on a

psychrometric chart. This is very useful for quick visualization and also for identifying the changes

taking place in important properties such as temperature, humidity ratio, enthalpy etc. The

important processes that air undergoes in a typical air conditioning plant are discussed below.

2.2. Psychrometric processes:

Basic Psychrometric processes:

1. Sensible cooling, 2. Sensible heating, 3. Latent cooling, 4. Latent heating, 5. Heating and

humidification, 6. Heating and dehumidification, 7. Cooling and humidification, 8. Cooling and

dehumidification processes.

a) Sensible cooling (process O-A):

During this process, the moisture content of air remains constant but its temperature

decreases as it flows over a cooling coil. For moisture content to remain constant, the surface

of the cooling coil should be dry and its surface temperature should be greater than the dew

point temperature of air. If the cooling coil is 100% effective, then the exit temperature of air

will be equal to the coil temperature. However, in practice, the exit air temperature will be

higher than the cooling coil temperature. Fig. 2.1 shows the sensible cooling process O-A on a

psychrometric chart. The heat transfer rate during this process is given by:

Qs = ma(ho – hA ) = ma cp (To – TA) ……………………………………….. (2.1)

b) Sensible heating (Process O-B):

During this process, the moisture content of air remains constant and its temperature

increases as it flows over a heating coil. The heat transfer rate during this process is given by:

Qs = ma(hB – ho ) = ma cp (TB – To )…………………………………………. (2.2)

= ma cpa (TB – To ) + maω cpv (TB – To ) = ma (1.005 + 1.88ω) (TB – To )

where cp is the humid specific heat (≈1.0216 kJ/kg dry air) and ma is the mass flow rate of dry

air kg/sec

ma = ρQv = ρ.cmm/60 kg d.a./sec

For the purpose of air conditioning calculation, standard air is considered at 20oC and 50% RH.

Density for standard air is 1.2 kg/m3d.a. and humid specific heat is 1.0216 kJ/kg d.a. K

Qs = (cmm)(1.2)(1.0216). ΔT/60 = 0.0204(cmm) ΔT kW……………(2.3)

c) Latent Heating or Cooling processes:

QL = ma(hB – ho) = ma{(cpTB + hfgoωB) - (cpTo + hfgoωo)} = mahfgo(ωB –ωo)

or, QL = (cmm)(1.2)(2500) Δω/60 as latent heat of vaporization hfgo = 2500 kJ/kg d.a. for

standard air

= 50(cmm) Δω kW……………………………………………………..(2.4)

c) Cooling and dehumidification (Process O-C):

When moist air is cooled below its dew-point by bringing it in contact with a cold surface as shown

in Fig.2.3, some of the water vapor in the air condenses and leaves the air stream as liquid, as a

result both the temperature and humidity ratio of air decreases as shown. This is the process air

undergoes in a typical air conditioning system. Although the actual process path will vary

depending upon the type of cold surface, the surface temperature, and flow conditions, for

simplicity the process line is assumed to be a straight line. The heat and mass transfer rates can be

expressed in terms of the initial and final conditions by applying the conservation of mass and

conservation of energy equations as given below:

By applying mass balance for the water:

ma.ωo = ma. ωc + mw ……………………………………………………… (2.3)

By applying energy balance:

ma.ho = Qt + mw.hw + ma.hc …………………………………………………(2.4)

from the above two equations, the load on the cooling coil, Qt is given by:

Qt = ma (ho – hc) - ma (ωo – ωc )hw ………………………………….. (2.5)

The 2nd term on the RHS of the above equation is normally small compared to the other term,

so it can be neglected. Hence,

Qt = ma(ho – hc) ……………………………………………………..……… (2.6)

It can be observed that the cooling and de-humidification process involves both latent and

sensible heat transfer processes, hence, the total, latent, and sensible heat transfer rates (Qt,

Ql and Qs) can be written as:

Q t = Ql + Q S

where Ql = ma (ho – hw) = ma. hfg (ωo – ωc )

Qs = ma (hw – hc) = ma .cp(To – Tc)………………………………. (2.7)

By separating the total heat transfer rate from the cooling coil into sensible and latent heat

transfer rates, a useful parameter called Sensible Heat Factor (SHF) is defined. SHF is defined

as the ratio of sensible to total heat transfer rate, i.e.,

SHF = Qs /Qt = Qs /(Qs + Ql )…………………………………….. (2.8)

From the above equation, one can deduce that a SHF of 1.0 corresponds to no latent heat

transfer and a SHF of 0 corresponds to no sensible heat transfer. A SHF of 0.75 to 0.80 is quite

common in air conditioning systems in a normal dry-climate.

A lower value of SHF, say 0.6, implies a high latent heat load such as that occurs in a humid

climate.

tan c = Δω/ΔT = 1/2451{(1 – SHF)/SHF}………………………………..(2.9)

As (1 – SHF)/SHF=Ql/Qs= 2501x Δω/1.0216x ΔT=2451(Δω/ ΔT)

It may be observed from Fig. that point B divides the total enthalpy change (ho – hc) in the

ratio of SHF and (1 – SHF). The sensible heat transfer taking place along CB is proportional to

SHF and the latent heat transfer along BO is proportional to (1 – SHF). The process line OC or

CO is called sensible heat factor or process or condition line.

We can see that the slope of the cooling and de-humidification or heating and humidification

line is purely a function of the sensible heat factor, SHF. Hence, we can draw the cooling and

dehumidification or heating and humidification line on psychrometric chart if the initial state

and the SHF are known. In some standard psychrometric charts, a protractor with different

values of SHF is provided. The process line is drawn through the initial state point and in

parallel to the given SHF line from the protractor as shown in Fig. 2.4.

In Fig.2.3, the temperature Ts is the effective surface temperature of the cooling coil, and is

known as apparatus dew-point (ADP) temperature. In an ideal situation, when all the air

comes in perfect contact with the cooling coil surface, then the exit temperature of air will be

same as ADP of the coil. However, in actual case the exit temperature of air will always be

greater than the apparatus dew-point temperature due to boundary layer development as air

flows over the cooling coil surface and also due to temperature variation along the fins etc.

Hence, we can define a by-pass factor (BPF) as:

BPF = ( TC – TS)/(TO – TS) similarly it may also be expressed as

= (hC –hS)/(hO – hS) = (ωC – ωS)/(ωO – ωS)

It can be easily seen that, higher the by-pass factor larger will be the difference between air outlet

temperature and the cooling coil temperature. When BPF is 1.0, all the air by-passes the coil and

there will not be any cooling or de-humidification. In practice, the by-pass factor can be increased by

increasing the number of rows in a cooling coil or by decreasing the air velocity or by reducing the

fin pitch.

Coversely, a contact factor(CF) can be defined which is given by: CF = (1 - BPF)

d) Heating and Humidification (Process O-D):

During winter it is essential to heat and humidify the room air for comfort. As shown in Fig.2.5, this

is normally done by first sensibly heating the air and then adding water vapour to the air stream

through steam nozzles as shown in the figure.

Mass balance of water vapor for the control volume yields the rate at which steam has to be

added, i.e., mw:

mw = ma (ωD – ωO) where, ma is the mass flow rate of dry air

From energy balance, Qh= ma (hD – hO) – mwhw

where, Qh is the heat supplied through the heating coil and hw is the enthalpy of steam.

Since this process also involves simultaneous heat and mass transfer, we can define a sensible

heat factor for the process in a way similar to that of a cooling and dehumidification process.

e) Cooling & humidification (Process O-E):

As the name implies, during this process, the air temperature drops and its humidity

increases. This process is shown in Fig.2.6, this can be achieved by spraying cool water in the

air stream. The temperature of water should be lower than the dry-bulb temperature of air

but higher than its dew-point temperature to avoid condensation.

It can be seen that during this process there is sensible heat transfer from air to water and

latent heat transfer from water to air. Hence, the total heat transfer depends upon the water

temperature. If the temperature of the water sprayed is equal to the wet bulb temperature of

air, then the net transfer rate will be zero as the sensible heat transfer from air to water will

be equal to latent heat transfer from water to air.

If the water temperature is greater than WBT, then there will be a net heat transfer from

water to air. If the water temperature is less than WBT, then the net heat transfer will be from

air to water. Under a special case when the spray water is entirely recirculated and is neither

heated nor cooled, the system is perfectly insulated and the make-up water is supplied at

WBT, then at steady-state, the air undergoes an adiabatic saturation process, during which its

WBT remains constant. This is the process of adiabatic saturation discussed in Lecture 1b. The

process of cooling and humidification is encountered in a wide variety of devices such as

evaporative coolers, cooling towers etc.

f) Heating and de-humidification or Chemical dehumidification (Process O-F):

This process can be achieved by using a hygroscopic material, which absorbs or adsorbs the

water vapor/moisture from the air. If this process is thermally isolated, then the enthalpy of

air remains constant, as a result the temperature of air increases as its moisture content

decreases as shown in Fig.2.7 This hygroscopic material can be a solid or a liquid. In general,

the absorption of water by the hygroscopic material is an exothermic reaction, as a result heat

is released during this process, which is transferred to air and the enthalpy of air increases.

g) Mixing of air streams:

Mixing of air streams at different states is commonly encountered in many processes,

including in air conditioning. Depending upon the state of the individual streams, the mixing

process can take place with or without condensation of moisture.

i) Without condensation: Fig.2.8 shows an adiabatic mixing of two moist air streams during which

no condensation of moisture takes place. As shown in the figure, when two air streams at state

points 1 and 2 mix, the resulting mixture condition 3 can be obtained from mass and energy

balance.

From the mass balance of dry air and water vapor:

ma,3 ω3 = (ma,1 ω1 + ma,2 ω2)

or, ω3 = (ma,1 ω1 + ma,2 ω2)/ma,3

From the above equations, it can be observed that the final enthalpy and humidity ratio of mixture

are weighted averages of inlet enthalpies and humidity ratios. A generally valid approximation is that

the final temperature of the mixture is the weighted average of the inlet temperatures. With this

approximation, the point on the psychrometric chart representing the mixture lies on a straight line

connecting the two inlet states. Hence, the ratio of distances on the line, i.e., (1-3)/(2-3) is equal to

the ratio of flow rates ma,2 /ma,1. The resulting error (due to the assumption that the humid specific

heats being constant) is usually less than 1 percent.

ii) Mixing with condensation:

As shown in Fig.2.9, when very cold and dry air mixes with warm air at high relative humidity, the

resulting mixture condition may lie in the two-phase region, as a result there will be condensation of

water vapor and some amount of water will leave the system as liquid water.

Due to this, the humidity ratio of the resulting mixture (point 3) will be less than that at point

4. Corresponding to this will be an increase in temperature of air due to the release of latent

heat of condensation. This process rarely occurs in an air conditioning system, but this is the

phenomenon which results in the formation of fog or frost (if the mixture temperature is

below 0o C). This happens in winter when the cold air near the earth mixes with the humid and

warm air, which develops towards the evening or after rains.

2.3. Air Washers:

An air washer is a device for conditioning air. As shown in Fig.2.10, in an air washer air comes in

direct contact with a spray of water and there will be an exchange of heat and mass (water vapour)

between air and water. The outlet condition of air depends upon the temperature of water sprayed

in the air washer. Hence, by controlling the water temperature externally, it is possible to control the

outlet conditions of air, which then can be used for air conditioning purposes. In the air washer, the

mean temperature of water droplets in contact with air decides the direction of heat and mass

transfer. As a consequence of the 2nd law, the heat transfer between air and water droplets will be in

the direction of decreasing temperature gradient. Similarly, the mass transfer will be in the direction

of decreasing vapor pressure gradient. For example,

a) Cooling and dehumidification: Tw < TDPT. Since the exit enthalpy of air is less than its inlet

value, from energy balance it can be shown that there is a transfer of total energy from air to

water. Hence to continue the process, water has to be externally cooled. Here both latent and

sensible heat transfers are from air to water. This is shown by Process O-A in Fig.2.11.

b) Adiabatic saturation: Tw = TWBT. Here the sensible heat transfer from air to water is exactly

equal to latent heat transfer from water to air. Hence, no external cooling or heating of water

is required. That is this is a case of pure water recirculation. This is shown by Process O-B in

Fig.2.11. This is the process that takes place in a perfectly insulated evaporative cooler.

c) Cooling and humidification: TDPT < Tw < TWBT. Here the sensible heat transfer is from air to

water and latent heat transfer is from water to air, but the total heat transfer is from air to

water, hence, water has to be cooled externally. This is shown by Process O-C in Fig.2.11.

d) Cooling and humidification: TWBT < Tw < TDBT. Here the sensible heat transfer is from air to

water and latent heat transfer is from water to air, but the total heat transfer is from water to

air, hence, water has to be heated externally. This is shown by Process O-D in Fig.2.11. This is

the process that takes place in a cooling tower. The air stream extracts heat from the hot water

coming from the condenser, and the cooled water is sent back to the condenser.

e) Heating and humidification: Tw > TDBT. Here both sensible and latent heat transfers are from

water to air, hence, water has to be heated externally. This is shown by Process O-E in Fig.2.11.

Thus, it can be seen that an air washer works as a year-round air conditioning system. Though

air washer is an extremely useful simple device, it is not commonly used for comfort air

conditioning applications due to concerns about health resulting from bacterial or fungal

growth on the wetted surfaces. However, it can be used in industrial applications.

2.4.1. Introduction:

Generally from the building specifications, inside and outside design conditions; the latent

and sensible cooling or heating loads on a building can be estimated. Normally, depending on

the ventilation requirements of the building, the required outdoor air (fresh air) is specified.

The topic of load estimation will be discussed in a later chapter. From known loads on the

building and design inside and outside conditions, psychrometric calculations are performed to

find:

1. Supply air conditions (air flow rate, DBT, humidity ratio & enthalpy)

2. Coil specifications (Latent and sensible loads on coil, coil ADP & BPF)

In this chapter fixing of supply air conditions and coil specifications for summer air

conditioning systems are discussed. Since the procedure is similar for winter air conditioning

system, the winter air conditioning systems are not discussed here.

2.4.2. Summer air conditioning systems:

2.4.2.1. Simple system with 100 % re-circulated air:

In this simple system, there is no outside air and the same air is recirculated as shown in

Fig.2.12 & Fig. 2.13 also shows the process on a psychrometric chart. It can be seen that cold

and dry air is supplied to the room and the air that leaves the condition space is assumed to be

at the same conditions as that of the conditioned space.

The supply air condition should be such that as it flows through the conditioned space it can

counteract the sensible and latent heat transfers taking place from the outside to the

conditioned space, so that the space can be maintained at required low temperature and

humidity. Assuming no heat gains in the supply and return ducts and no energy addition due

to fans, and applying energy balance across the room; the Room Sensible Cooling load (Qs,r),

Room Latent Cooling Load (Ql,r) and Room Total Cooling load (Qt,r) are given by:

Qs,r = ms cpm (Ti - Ts ) ……………………………………………..(2.10)

Ql,r = ms hfg (ωi – ωs ) ……………………………………………..(2.11)

Qt,r = Qs,r + Ql,r = ms ( hi + hs ) ……………………………………..(2.12)

From cooling load calculations, the sensible, latent and total cooling loads on the room are

obtained. Hence one can find the Room Sensible Heat Factor (RSHF) from the equation:

𝑄𝑠,𝑟 𝑄𝑠,𝑟

𝑅𝑆𝐻𝐹 = =

𝑄𝑙,𝑟+ 𝑄𝑠,𝑟 𝑄𝑡,𝑟

From the RSHF value one can calculate the slope of the process undergone by the air as it

flows through the conditioned space (process s-i) as:

1 1−𝑅𝑆𝐻𝐹

𝑆𝑙𝑜𝑝𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑠 − 𝑖 , 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃 = ……. (2.13) from eqn. 2.9

2451 𝑅𝑆𝐻𝐹

Since the condition i is known say, from thermal comfort criteria, knowing the slope, one can

draw the process line s-i through i. The intersection of this line with the saturation curve gives

the ADP of the cooling coil as shown in Fig.2.12. It should be noted that for the given room

sensible and latent cooling loads, the supply condition must always lie on this line so that it

can extract the sensible and latent loads on the conditioned space in the required

proportions.

Since the case being considered is one of 100 % re-circulation, the process that the air

undergoes as it flows through the cooling coil (i.e. process i-s) will be exactly opposite to the

process undergone by air as it flows through the room (process s-i). Thus, the temperature

and humidity ratio of air decrease as it flows through the cooling coil and temperature and

humidity ratio increase as air flows through the conditioned space. Assuming no heat transfer

due to the ducts and fans, the sensible and latent heat transfer rates at the cooling coil are

exactly equal to the sensible and latent heat transfer rates to the conditioned space; i.e.,

Qs,r = Q s,c & Q l,r = Q l,c ………………………………………… (2.14)

The supply condition has to be fixed using Eqns.(2.9) to (2.11). However, since there are 4

unknowns (ms, Ts , ωs, and hs ) and 3 equations, (Eqns.(2.9) to (2.11), one parameter has to be

fixed to find the other three unknown parameters from the three equations.

If the by-pass factor (X) of the cooling coil is known, then, from room conditions, coil ADP and

by-pass factor, the supply air temperature Ts is obtained using the definition of by-pass factor

as:

𝑇𝑠 − 𝑇𝐴𝐷𝑃

𝑋= 𝑇𝑖 −𝑇𝐴𝐷𝑃

Once the supply temperature Ts is known, then the mass flow rate of supply air is obtained

from Eqn.(2.9) as:

𝑄𝑠,𝑟 𝑄𝑠,𝑟

𝑚𝑠 = = …………… (2.16)

𝐶𝑝𝑚 𝑇𝑖 − 𝑇𝑠 𝐶𝑝𝑚 𝑇𝑖 − 𝑇𝐴𝐷𝑃 1−𝑋

From the mass flow rate of air and condition i, the supply air humidity ratio and enthalpy are

obtained using Eqns.(2.10) and (2.11) as:

𝑄𝑙,𝑟

𝜔𝑠 = 𝜔𝑖 − ……………………………………………..(2.17)

𝑚𝑠 ℎ𝑓𝑔

𝑄𝑡,𝑟

ℎ𝑠 = ℎ𝑖 − ………………………………………………….(2.18)

𝑚𝑠

From Eqn.(2.16), it is clear that the required mass flow rate of supply air decreases as the by-

pass factor X decreases. In the limiting case when the by-pass factor is zero, the minimum

amount of supply air flow rate required is:

𝑄𝑠,𝑟

𝑚𝑠,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝐶 ……………………………………(2.19)

𝑝𝑚 𝑇𝑖 − 𝑇𝐴𝐷𝑃

Thus with 100 % re-circulated air, the room ADP is equal to coil ADP and the load on the coil is

equal to the load on the room.

2.4.2.2 System with outdoor air for ventilation:

In actual air conditioning systems, some amount of outdoor (fresh) air is added to take care

of the ventilation requirements. Normally, the required outdoor air for ventilation purposes is

known from the occupancy data and the type of the building (e.g. operation theatres require

100% outdoor air). Normally either the quantity of outdoor air required is specified in

absolute values or it is specified as a fraction of the re-circulated air.

Fixing of supply condition:

Case i) By-pass factor of the cooling coil is zero:

Fig.2.13 shows the schematic diagram of the summer air conditioning system with outdoor air

and the corresponding process on psychrometric chart, when the by-pass factor X is zero.

Since the sensible and latent cooling loads on the conditioned space are assumed to be

known from cooling load calculations, similar to the earlier case, one can draw the process

line s-i, from the RSHF and state i. The intersection of this line with the saturation curve gives

the room ADP. As shown on the psychrometric chart, when the by-pass factor is zero, the

room ADP is equal to coil ADP, which in turn is equal to the temperature of the supply air.

Hence from the supply temperature one can calculate the required supply air mass flow rate

(which is the minimum required as X is zero) using the equation:

𝑄𝑠,𝑟 𝑄𝑠,𝑟

𝑚𝑠 = = …………………………………………(2.20)

𝐶𝑝𝑚 𝑇𝑖 −𝑇𝑠 𝐶𝑝𝑚 𝑇𝑖 −𝑇𝐴𝐷𝑃

From the supply mass flow rate, one can find the supply air humidity ratio and enthalpy using

Eqns.(2.17) and (2.18).

ms = mrc + mo ……………………………………………………….(2.21)

where mrc is the re-circulated air mass flow rate and mo is the outdoor air mass flow rate.

Since either mo or the ratio mo: mrc are specified, one can calculate the amount of

recirculated air from Eqn.(2.21).

Calculation of Coil Loads:

From energy balance across the cooling coil; the sensible, latent and total heat transfer rates,

Qs,c , Ql,c and Qt,c at the cooling coil are given by:

Qs,c = msCpm(Tm – Ts)

Ql,c = mshfg(ωm – ωs)

Qt,c = Qs,c + Ql,c = ms(hm – hs) …………………………………….(2.22)

Where ‘m’ refers to the mixing condition which is a result of the mixing of the recirculated air

with outdoor air. Applying mass and energy balance to the mixing process one can obtain the

state of the mixed air from the equation:

𝑚𝑜 𝜔𝑚 − 𝜔𝑖 ℎ𝑚 − ℎ𝑖 𝑇𝑚 − 𝑇𝑖

= = ≈ ……………………………(2.23)

𝑚𝑠 𝜔𝑜 −𝜔𝑖 ℎ𝑜 − ℎ𝑖 𝑇𝑜 − 𝑇𝑖

Since (mo/ms) > 0, from the above eqn. it is clear that ωm > ωi , hm > hi and tm > Ti. This implies

that ms(hm - hs) > ms(hi - hs), or the load on the cooling coil is greater than the load on the

conditioned space. This is of course due to the fact that during mixing, some amount of hot

and humid air is added and the same amount of relative cool and dry air is exhausted (mo =

me).

From Eqn.(2.10) to (2.12) and (2.22), the difference between the cooling load on the coil and

cooling load on the conditioned space can be shown to be equal to:

Qs,c – Qs,r = mo cpm (To - Ti )

Ql,c – Ql,r = mo hfg(ωo – ωi)

QT,c – QT,r = mo (ho – hi ) ……………………………………….. (2.24)

From the above equation it is clear that the difference between cooling coil and conditioned

space increases as the amount of outdoor air (mo) increases and/or the outdoor air becomes

hotter and more humid.

The line joining the mixed condition ‘m’ with the coil ADP is the process line undergone by the

air as it flows through the cooling coil. The slope of this line depends on the Coil Sensible Heat

Factor (CSHF) given by:

𝑄𝑠𝑐 𝑄𝑠𝑐

𝐶𝑆𝐻𝐹 = = ……………………………..(2.25)

𝑄𝑠𝑐 + 𝑄𝑙𝑐 𝑄𝑇𝑐

For actual cooling coils, the by-pass factor will be greater than zero, as a result the air

temperature at the exit of the cooling coil will be higher than that of the coil ADP. This is

shown in Fig.2.14 along with the process on psychrometric chart. It can be seen from the

figure that when X > 0, the room ADP will be different from the coil ADP. The system shown in

Fig.2.14 is adequate when the RSHF is high ( > 0.75).

Normally in actual systems, either the supply temperature (Ts) or the temperature rise of air

as it flows through the conditioned space (Ti-Ts) will be specified. Then the step-wise

procedure for finding the supply air conditions and the coil loads are as follows:

i. Since the supply temperature is specified one can calculate the required supply air flow rate

and supply conditions using Eqns. (2.16) to (2.18).

ii. Since conditions ‘i’, supply air temperature Ts and RSHF are known, one can draw the line i-

s. The intersection of this line with the saturation curve gives the room ADP.

iii. Condition of air after mixing (point ‘m’) is obtained from known values of ms and mo using

Eqn.(2.23).

iv. Now joining points ‘m’ and ‘s’ gives the process line of air as it flows through the cooling

coil. The intersection of this line with the saturation curve gives the coil ADP. It can be seen

that the coil ADP is lower than the room ADP.

v. The capacity of the cooling coil is obtained from Eqn.(2.22).

vi. From points ‘m’, ‘s’ and coil ADP, the by-pass factor of the cooling coil can be calculated.

If the coil ADP and coil by-pass factor are given instead of the supply air temperature, then a

trial-and-error method has to be employed to obtain the supply air condition.

2.4.2.3. High latent cooling load applications (low RSHF):

When the latent load on the building is high due to either too high outside humidity or due to

large ventilation requirements (e.g. hospitals) or due to high internal latent loads (e.g.

presence of kitchen or laundry), then the simple system discussed above leads to very low coil

ADP. A low coil ADP indicates operation of the refrigeration system at low evaporator

temperatures. Operating the system at low evaporator temperatures decreases the COP of the

refrigeration system leading to higher costs. Hence a reheat coil is sometimes used so that the

cooling coil can be operated at relatively high ADP, and at the same time the high latent load

can also be taken care of. Fig.2.15 shows an air conditioning system with reheat coil along with

the psychrometric representation of the process. As shown in the figure, in a system with

reheat coil, air is first cooled and dehumidified from point ‘m’ to point ’c’ in the cooling coil

and is then reheated sensibly to the required supply temperature ts using the reheat coil. If

the supply temperature is specified, then the mass flow rate and state of the supply air and

condition of the air after mixing can be obtained using equations given above. Since the

heating process in the reheat coil is sensible, the process line c-s will be horizontal. Thus if the

coil ADP is known, then one can draw the coil condition line and the intersection of this line

with the horizontal line drawn from supply state ‘s’ gives the condition of the air at the exit of

the cooling coil. From this condition, one can calculate the load on the cooling coil using the

supply mass flow rate and state of air after mixing. The capacity of the reheat coil is then

obtained from energy balance across it.

Advantages and disadvantages of reheat coil:

a) Refrigeration system can be operated at reasonably high evaporator temperatures leading to

high COP and low running cost.

b) However, mass flow rate of supply air increases due to reduced temperature rise (Ti-Ts ) across

the conditioned space.

c) Wasteful use of energy as air is first cooled to a lower temperature and then heated. Energy is

required for both cooling as well as reheating coils. However, this can be partially offset by using

waste heat such as heat rejected at the condenser for reheating of air.

Thus the actual benefit of reheat coil may vary from system to system.

4.3. Guidelines for selection of supply state and cooling coil state:

i. As much as possible the supply air quantity should be minimized so that smaller ducts and fans can be used

leading savings in cost of space, material and power. However, the minimum amount should be sufficient to

prevent the feeling of stagnation. If the required air flow rate through the cooling coil is insufficient, then it is

possible to mix some amount of re-circulated air with this air so that amount of air supplied to the conditioned

space increases. This merely increases the supply air flow rate, but does not affect sensible and cooling loads on

the conditioned space. Generally, the temperature rise (Ti-Ts) will be in the range of 8 to 15oC.

ii. The cooling coil should have 2 to 6 rows for moderate climate and 6 to 8 rows in hot and humid climate. The

by-pass factor of the coil varies from 0.05 to 0.2. The bypass factor decreases as the number of rows increases

and vice versa. The fin pitch and air velocity should be suitable.

iii. If chilled water is used for cooling and dehumidification, then the coil ADP will be higher than about 4oC.

Prob.1. What is the required wattage of an electrical heater that heats 0.1 m3/s of air from

15o C and 80% RH to 55o C? The barometric pressure is 101.325 kPa.

Soln. Air undergoes sensible heating as it flows through the electrical heater

From energy balance, the required heater wattage (W) is given by:

W = ma(he−hi) ≈ (Va /νa).cpm(Te−Ti)

Where Va is the volumetric flow rate of air in m3/s and νa is the specific volume of dry air. Te

and Ti are the exit and inlet temperatures of air and cpm is the average specific heat of moist

air (≈1021.6 J/kg.K).

Using perfect gas model, the specific volume of dry air is found to be:

νa = (Ra.T/pa) = (Ra.T/( pt −pv)) At 15oC and 80% RH, the vapour pressure pv is found to be 1.364

kPa using psychrometric chart or equations.

Substituting the values of R , T, p and pa Tv in the equation for specific volume, we find the

value of specific volume to be 0.8274 m3/kg

∴ Heater wattage, W ≈ (Va /νa).cpm(Te−Ti)=(0.1/0.8274)x1021.6(55-15) = 4938.8 W (Ans.)

Prob.2. 0.2 kg/s of moist air at 45oC (DBT) and 10% RH is mixed with 0.3 kg/s of moist air at

25oC and a humidity ratio of 0.018 kgw/kgda in an adiabatic mixing chamber. After mixing, the

mixed air is heated to a final temperature of 40oC using a heater. Find the temperature and

relative humidity of air after mixing. Find the heat transfer rate in the heater and relative

humidity of air at the exit of heater. Assume the barometric pressure to be 1 atm.

Soln. Given: Stream 1: mass flow rate, ma,1 = 0.2 kg/s; T1 = 45oC and RH = 10%.

Using psychrometric equations or psychrometric chart, the humidity ratio and enthalpy of

stream 1 are found to be:

W1 = 0.006 kgw/kgda & h1 = 61.0 kJ/kgda

Stream 2: mass flow rate, ma,2 = 0.3 kg/s; T2 = 25oC and W2 = 0.018 kgw/kgda

Using psychrometric equations or psychrometric chart, enthalpy of stream 2 is found to be:

H2 = 71.0 kJ/kgda

For the adiabatic mixing process, from mass balance:

W3 = (ma,1.w1 + ma,2.w2)/( ma,1 + ma,2)=(0.2.0.006 + 0.3.0.018)/(o.2 + 0.3)= 0.0132

kgw /kgda

From energy balance (assuming the specific heat of moist air to remain constant):

T3 =(ma,1.T1 + ma,2.T2)/( ma,1 + ma,2)=(0.2.45 + 0.3,25)/(0.2+0.3) = 33oC

From T3 and W3 , the relative humidity of air after mixing is found to be(from chart):

RH = 41.8% (Ans.)

For the sensible heating process in the heater:

Qs = ma(he−hi) ≈ ma.cpm(Te−Ti) = 0.5x1.0216(40-33) = 3.5756 kW (Ans.)

The relative humidity at the exit of heater is obtained from the values of DBT (40oC) and

humidity ratio (0.0132 kgw/kgda) using psychrometric chart/equations. This is found to be:

RH at 40oC and 0.0132 kgw/kgda = 28.5 % (Ans.)

Prob.3. A cooling tower is used for cooling the condenser water of a refrigeration system

having a heat rejection rate of 100 kW. In the cooling tower air enters at 35oC (DBT) and 24oC

(WBT) and leaves the cooling tower at a DBT of 26oC relative humidity of 95%. What is the

required flow rate of air at the inlet to the cooling tower in m3/s. What is the amount of

make-up water to be supplied? The temperature of make-up water is at 30oC, at which its

enthalpy (hw) may be taken as 125.4 kJ/kg. Assume the barometric pressure to be 1 atm.

Solution: At the inlet to cooling tower: DBT = 35oC and WBT = 24oC

From psychrometric chart/equations the following values are obtained for the inlet:

Humidity ratio, Wi = 0.01426 kgw/kgda

Enthalpy, hi = 71.565 kJ/kgda

Sp. volume, νi = 0.89284 m3/kgda

At the outlet to cooling tower: DBT = 26oC and RH = 95%

From psychrometric chart/equations the following values are obtained for the outlet:

Humidity ratio, Wo = 0.02025 kgw/kgda

Enthalpy, ho = 77.588 kJ/kgda

From mass and energy balance across the cooling tower:

Qc = ma{(ho−hi) − (Wo−Wi)hw } = 100 kW

Substituting the values of enthalpy and humidity ratio at the inlet and outlet of cooling tower

and enthalpy of make-up water in the above expression, we obtain:

ma = 18.97 kg/s, hence, the volumetric flow rate, vi = ma x νi = 16.94 m3/s (Ans.)

Amount of make-up water required mw is obtained from mass balance as:

m = m (W - Wi) = 18.97(0.02025 − 0.01426) = 0.1136 kg/s = 113.6 gm/s (Ans.)

Prob.4. In an air conditioning system air at a flow rate of 2 kg/s enters the cooling coil at 25oC

and 50% RH and leaves the cooling coil at 11oC and 90% RH. The apparatus dew point of the

cooling coil is 7oC. Find a) The required cooling capacity of the coil, b) Sensible Heat Factor for

the process, and c) By-pass factor of the cooling coil. Assume the barometric pressure to be 1

atm. Assume the condensate water to leave the coil at ADP (hw = 29.26 kJ/kg)

Soln. At the inlet to the cooling coil; Ti = 25oC and RH = 50%

From psychrometric chart; Wi = 0.00988 kgw/kgda and hi = 50.155 kJ/kgda

At the outlet of the cooling coil; To = 11oC and RH = 90%

From psychrometric chart; Wo = 0.00734 kgw/kgda and ho = 29.496 kJ/kgda

a) From mass balance across the cooling coil, the condesate rate, mw is:

mw = ma(Wi − Wo) = 2.0(0.00988 − 0.00734) = 0.00508 kg/s

From energy balance across the cooling tower, the required capacity of the cooling coil, Qc is

given by:

Qc = ma (hi -ho) – mw.hw = 2.0(50.155 − 29.496) − 0.00508 x 29.26 = 41.17 kW (Ans.)

b) The sensible heat transfer rate, Qs is given by:

Q s = macpm(Ti – To) = 2.0 x 1.0216 x (25 − 11) = 28.605 kW

The latent heat transfer rate, Ql is given by:

Ql = mahfg(Wi – Wo) = 2.0 x 2501.0 x (0.00988 − 0.00734) = 12.705 kW

The Sensible Heat Factor (SHF) is given by:

SHF = Qs /(Qs + Ql ) = 28.605/(28.605 + 12.705) = 0.692 (Ans.)

c) From its definition, the by-pass factor of the coil, BPF is given by:

BPF = (To −T ADP)/(Ti − TADP) = (11 − 7)/(25 − 7) = 0.222 (Ans.)

The small difference between Qc and (Qs + Ql ) is due to the use of average

values for specific heat, cpm and latent heat of vaporization, hfg.

Prob.5. 40 cmm of a mixture of recirculated room air and outdoor air enter a cooling coli at

31oC DB and 18.5oC WB temperatures. The effective surface temperature of the coil is 4.5oC.

The surface of the coil is such as would give 12 kW of refrigeration with the given entering air

state. Determine the dry and wet bulb temperatures of the air leaving the coil and the coil

bypass factor.

Soln.

At the apparatus dew point,

w = 5.28 gm/kgda, h = 17.8 kJ/kgda

At the state of entering air,

w1 = 8.2 gm/kgda, v1 = 0.872 m3/kgda, h1 = 52.5 kJ/kgda

Mass flow rate of dry air, ma = Qv/v = 40/0.872 = 44.45 kgda/min

Cooling load per kg of dry air,

h1 – h2 = Q/ma = 12.60/44.45 = 16.57 kJ/kgda

Enthalpy of air leaving the coil, h2 = 52.5 – 16.57 = 35.93 kJ/kgda

Equation for the condition line, (h1 –h2)/(h1 –hs) = (w1 –w2)/ (w1 –ws)

w2 = 6.76 gmwv/kgda

For h2 and w2 from Chart we could get dry and wet bulb temperatures as

TD = 18.6oC and TW = 12.5oC Ans.

Coil bypass factor, BF = (h2 – hs)/( h1 – hs) = 0.51 Ans.

Prob.6. Moist air enters a chamber at 5oC DB and 2.5oC WB at a rate of 90 cmm. The

barometric pressure is 1.01325 bar. While passing through the chamber, the air absorbs

sensible heat at the rate of 40.7 kW and picks up 40 kg/hr of saturated steam at 110oC.

Determine the dry and wet bulb temperatures of the leaving air.

Soln.

This is the case of simple heating and humidification of air by the addition of steam.

At state 1, h1 = 13.82 kJ/kgda, v1 = 0.792 m3/kgda, w1 = 0.0036 kgwv/kgda

The air mass folw rate is ma = cmm.60/v1 = 90.60/0.792 = 6820 kgda/hr.

By moisture balance, ma ( w2 – w1) = 40

or, w2 = 0.0036 + 40/6820 = 0.00947 kgwv/kgda

Now by energy balance, ma ( h2 – h1) = 40.7x3600 +40.hsteam where hsteam = 2691.3 kJ/kg at

110oC

h2 = 51.1 kJ/kgda

For h2 and w2 from psychrometric chart, TD = 26.5oC and TW = 18oC. Ans.

Prob.7. The air handling unit of a air conditioning plant supplies a total of 4500 cmm of dry air

which comprises by weight 20% fresh air at 40C DB and 27C WB and 80% recirculated air at

25C DB and 50% RH. The air leaves the cooling coil at 13C saturated state. Calculate the total

cooling load, and room heat gain.

Soln.

Condition DB WB RH(%) w(gmwv/kgda) h(kJ/kgda)

Outside 40 27 17.2 85

Inside 25 50 10.0 50.8

ADP 13 100 9.4 37.0

Condition of air entering the cooling coil,

w1= 0.2(17.2) + 0.8(10.0) = 11.44 gmwv/kgda

h1= 0.2(85) + 0.8(50.8) = 57.64 kJ/kgda

T1= 0.2(40) + 0.8(25) = 28 C

v1 = 0.869 m3/kgda from above values

Mass flow rate of air entering the coil, ma = 4500/60x0.869 = 86.31 kgda/sec

Prob.8. An air conditioned space is maintained at 27C DB and 50% RH. The ambient conditions are

40C DB and 27C WB. The space has a sensible heat gain of 14 kW. Air is supplied to the space at 7C

saturated. Calculate (i) Mass of moist air supplied to the space in kg/hr, (ii) Latent heat gain of space

in kW, and (iii) Cooling load of the air the washer in kW if 30% of the air supplied to the space is

fresh and the remaining being recirculated.

Soln.

Condition DB WB RH(%) w(gmwv/kgda) h(kJ/kgda)

Outside 40 27 17.2 85

Inside 27 50 11.2 56.1

Supply 7 100 6.2 23.0

(i)Mass of dry air supplied to the space, ma=Qs/cp ΔT=14(3600)/1.0216(27–7) = 2467 kgda/hr

Ratio of moist air to dry air in supply air = ( 1+ w2) = 1.0062

Mass of moist air supplied to the space, m = ( 1+ w2).ma = 1.0062x2467 = 2482 kg/hr

(ii)Latent heat gain by space, QL = ma(w1 – w2).hfg = 2467(0.0112 – 0.0062)x2500/3600= 8.57 kW

(iii)For point 1, T1 = 0.7x27 + 0.3x40 = 30.9C

On the line joining o to i in the psychrometric chart locate point 1 at 30.9C, then from chart

h1 = 64.9 kJ/kgda

Therefore the cooling load of the air washer, Q = ma( h1 – h2 ) = 2467/3600(64.9 – 23.0)=28.72

Prob.9. A building has the calculated cooling loads such as RSH = 310kW and RLH = 100kW. The

space is maintained at 25C DB and 50% RH. Outdoor air is at 28C DB and 50% RH. And 10% by

mass of air supplied to the building is outdoor air. If the air supplied to the space is not to be at

a temperature lower than 18C, find (i) Minimum amount of air supplied to the space in

m3/sec, (ii) Volume flow rate of return air, exhaust air, and outdoor air, (iii) State and volume

flow rate of air entering the cooling coil, and (iv) Capacity, ADP, BPF and SHF of the cooling coil.

Soln.

Here room SHF = 310/410 = 0.756. Now draw a room SHF line on psychrometric chart. Its

intersection with T = 18C vertical gives supply air state point ‘s’ which is the same as coil

leaving air state point 2. From chart we have

hi = 50.5 kJ/kgda, ho = 92.0 kJ/kgda, h2=hs = 41.2 kJ/kgda, and vs = 0.836 m3/kgda

(i)Supply air quantity and volume flow rate(minimum), ma,s =RTH/(hi – hs )=410/(50.5-

41.2)=44.09 kg/sec

Qv,s = ma,s.vs = 44.09x0.836 = 36.86 m3/sec

(ii)Quantity and volume flow rate of outdoor/exhaust air

ma,o = 0.1xma,s = 0.1x44.09 = 4.41 kg/sec

Qv,o = ma,o.vo = 4.41x0.91 = 4.01 m3/sec

Quantity and volume flow rate of return air

ma,I = ma,s – ma,o = 44.09 – 4.41 = 39.68 kg/sec

Qv,I = ma,i.vi = 39.68x0.86 = 34.05 m3/sec where vo = 0.91 and vi = 0.86 m3/kgda

(iii)State of air entering cooling coil, T1 = 0.9xTi + 0.1xTo = 0.9x25 + 0.1x38 = 26.3C

T1/ = 19.2C at 26.3C DB on the line joining I to o.

v1 = 0.865 m3/kgda and h1 = 54.6 kJ/kgda

Volume flow rate of air entering the cooling coil, Qv,1= ma,s.v1 = 44.09x0.865 = 38.14

m3/sec

(iv)Refrigerating capacity of the coil, Qcoil = GTH= ma,s(h1 – h2) = 44.09(54.6 – 41.2) = 591 kW

Coil ADP is obtained by the intersection of the line joining 1 to 2 with the saturation curve.

Thus TADP=9C

BPF = (t2-TADP)/(T1-TADP) = (18-9)/(26.3-9) = 0.52

GSHF = TSHF/GTH = {ma,s.cp(T1 – T2)}/591 = 44.09x1.0216(25-18)/591 = 0.533 Ans.

Prob.10. Given for conditioned space:

RSH = 20 kW, RLH = 5kW, Inside conditions: 25C DB and 50% RH, Outside design conditionws:

43C DB and 27.5C WB, Bypass factor of the cooling coil = 0.1. The return air from the space is

mixed with the outside air before entering the cooling coil in the ratio of 4:1 by weight.

Determine (i) Apparatus dew point, (ii) condition of air leaving the cooling coil, (iii)

dehumidified air quantity, (iv) ventilation air mass and volume flow rates, and (v) Total

refrigeration load on the air conditioning plant.

Soln.

Condition DB WB RH(%) w(gmwv/kgda) h(kJ/kgda) Sp.

Vol(m3/kgda)

Outside 43 27.5 17.0 87.5

0.922

Inside 25 50 10.0 50.8

Supply 7 100 6.2 23.0

Condition of air entering the cooling coil, w1 = 0.8xwi + 0.2xwo = 0.8.10 + 0.2.17= 11.4

gmwv/kgda

h1 = 0.8x50.8 + 0.2x87.5 = 58.1 kJ/kgda

(i)and (ii). Both parts have to be worked out together. There are two methods. One method is to

draw the RSHF line and then draw a line from 1 to S on the saturation curve so that (S-2)/(1-2) are in

the ratio of 1:9. Another method is to do the same thing using calculations as given below.

RSH/RLH = 0.0204(25-T2)/50(0.01-w2) = 20/5……………………………………….(1)

BPF = (T2 – TADP)/(t1 – TADP)= (t2 – TADP)/(28.6 – TADP) = 0.1……………………..(2)

BPF = (w2 – wADP)/(0.0114 – wADP) = 0.1………………………………………………….(3)

Solving eqns.(1),(2), and (3) by iteration for TADP, T2, and w2, we obtain

TADP = 11.8C corresponding to wADP = 8.6 gmwv/kgda

T2 = 13.5C

w2 = 0.0089 kgwv/kgda

(iii)Dehumidified air quantity, (cmm)d = RSH/0.0204(Ti – T2)= 20/0.0204(25 – 13.5) = 85.25

(iv)Specific volume of supply air, v2 = 0.822 m3/kgda

Mass flow rate of supply air, ma,s = (cmm)d/60.v2= 85.25/60x0.822 = 1.729 kgda/sec

Mass flow rate of fresh air, ma,o = 0.2xma,s = 0.2x1.729 = 0.346 kgda/sec

Volume flow rate of fresh air, Qv,o = ma,o.vo.60 = 0.346x0.922x60 = 19.12 cmm

(v) Outside air total heat, OATH = ma,o(ho – hi)= 0.346(87.5 – 50.8) = 12.7 kW

Total refrigeration load on the air conditioning plant, GTH = RTH + OATH = (20+5) + 12.7= 37.7 kW

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