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CHAPTER 2. Normal Structure and

Function of Musculoskeletal Tissue
Bone as Structure
• Three functions
– To provide the rigid framework for the trunk and
extremities to withstand mechanical loads
– To serve as levers for the locomotor function of
skeletal muscles
– To afford protection for vulnerable viscera
Bone as an organ
• Serves 2 additional functions
– It contains hemopoetic tissue of the myeloid type
for the production of erythrocytes, granular
leukocytes, and platelets
– It is the organ of storage or reservoir for Ca, P, Mg,
and Na, helping to maintain the “milieu interieur”
of ionized mineral homeostasis
Embryonic Development of Bones
Bone Growth
• Growth in length
– Can increase only by the
process of interstitial growth
between cartilage.
– 2 possible sites for
cartilaginous growth in a long
bone, articular cartilage and
epiphyseal plate cartilage.
• Articular cartilage
– In long bone -> only growth plate for growth of its
– In short bone -> only growth plate for the whole
• Epiphyseal Plate Cartilage
– Provides growth in the length of metaphysis and
diaphysis of a long bone
Four Zones of the Epiphyseal Plate
Growth in Width
• Bone increases in width by means of
appositional growth from the osteoblasts in
the deep or inner (cambium), layer of the
periosteum, the process being one of
intramembranous ossification.
Remodeling of Bone
• Remodeling of bone continues since osteons continually
erode through cell death as well as through factors that
demand removal of calcium from bone.
• Deposition of bone must also continue to maintain bone
• During growing years -> bone deposition > Bone resorption
(Positive bone balance)
• In old age -> bone deposition canot keep pace with bone
resorption (Negative bone balance)
Bone Classification
• Long bones/tubular
• Short
• Flat bones
Blood Supply to Long Bones
• 3 distinct vascular system exist in long bones
– Afferent vascular system comprising nutrient and
metaphyseal arteries that supply the inners 2/3 of the
cortex and periosteal arteries supply the outer 1/3.
– Efferent vascular system -> conveys venous blood
– Intermediate vascular system of capillaries within the
• A junction between
2/more bones.
• Classification
– Syndesmosis
– Synchrondrosis
– Synostosis
– Symphysis
– Synovial joint
Synovial Joint
• Convex joint surface is always
larger than the opposing
concave joint surface (allows
gliding motion)
• Articular cartilage is
viscoelastic tissue that is a
mixture of an elastic solid
and a viscous liquid.
Synovial Fluid
• Dialysate of plasma, a type of tissue fluid to which
glycoprotein and lubricant hyaluronic acid have
been acid.
• Serves the dual function and lubricating the joint
• A normal joint contains relatively little synovial
fluid (normal adult knee contain <5 ml).
Skeletal Muscle
• Are the living motors that provide active movements of the
articulated skeleton as well as maintenance of its posture.
• Basic property:
– contractility of its protoplasm (sarcoplasm),
– provide movement (isotonic contraction),
– to resist lengthening without allowing movement (isometric
contraction), or
– allow lengthening while maintaining tension (eccentric
Tendon and Ligaments
• Composed of dense connective tissue
• Contains an abundance of
nonextensile collagen fibers, is known
as fibrous connective tissue.
• Tendon: bundles of parallel collagen
fibers are aligned in the direction of
• Ligaments: stretch from one bone to
another across a joint.