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VARIABLE

 (to) eat + _able eatable In statistics:


= “dapat dimakan”  A VARIABLE :
 (to) drink + _able drinkable a concept; a noun
= “dapat diminum” that stands for
 (to) vary + _able variable variation “within
= “dpt dibuat macam2” a class of object “
A VARIABLE :
a concept; a noun that stands for variation
“within a class of object “

What can vary in a class/group of


 persons? : height; weight; color of
clothes; intl_gence; prs_lity?
 flower? : shape; weight; color; price
 book in a self? : height; weight; price;
topics; title; color
TITLE OF A THESIS:
THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN
STUDENTS’ ATTITUDE, PARENTAL
SUPPORTS AND ACHIEVEMENT IN
LEARNING ENGLISH; A SURVEY IN THE
X CLASS OF SMA 46 JAK-SEL
2006/2007

HOW MANY VARIABLES DO YOU FIND?


COULD WE FIND
(A) VARIABLE(S)
IN AN
INDIVIDUAL?
 The weight of the baby
in the five early months

 The quantity of milk the


baby drinks in the latest
five weeks

 The blood pressure


during the observation
Meaningful research make efforts
to relate two or more variables:
 Which is more improving, “verbal praise,
monetary rewards, or extra points” in the
mastery of English vocabulary at the six
grade students of Elementary School
al Birru, Cinere?

WHAT VARIABLES ARE RELATED IN THIS RESEARCH?


The students of SIX GRADE are
grouped randomly:
• Taught with “verbal
Group 1 praise” (X1)
• Taught with monetary
Group 2 rewards (X2)

• Taught with extra


Group 3 points (X3)
The enforcement = improveing acts
Variable (in 3 different kinds)

The learning achievement


Variable (will be various in
different individuals within groups)
Based on the concept and data to describe:
QUALITATIVE (CATEGORICAL) v.s.
QUANTITATIVE (DIMENSION) VAR.

Based on the relationship between variables:


INDEPENDENT VAR v.s.
DEPENDENT VAR.
QUALITATIVE (CATEGORICAL) VAR.
SM_THING THAT DOES NOT VARY IN DEGREE, AMOUNT
OR QUANTITY. THE DIFFERENCE S ARE IN CATEGORY
(GENDER, RELIGIOUS PREFERENCE, PROFESSION,
HOBBIES, RESIDENCE, PLACE OF BIRTH)

QUANTITATIVE (DIMENSION) VAR.


VARIABLE THAT EXISTS IN SOME DEGREES or
AMOUNT ALONG A CONTINUUM. THEY ARE BE
ASSIGNED IN NUMBERS TO INDIVIDUALS/OBJECTS
BASED ON THE RELATIONSHIP OF
VARIABLES IN A RESEARCH
Independent variables Dependent variables
 What the researcher  The variable that is
chooses to study in presumably affected
order to asses its/their (by the independent
possible effect(s) on the var.)
other variable(s)

Independent Dependent
variables AFFECT variables
A (theoretical) prediction of the
possible outcomes of a research
RESEARCH PROBLEM:
WILL STUDENTS WHO ARE TAUGHT ENGLISH
BY A TEACHER OF THE SAME GENDER LIKE
THE SUBJECT MORE THAN THOSE TAUGHT BY
A TEACHER OF DIFFERENET GENDER?
HYPOTHESIS:
STUDENTS TAUGHT ENGLISH BY A TEACHER
OF THE SAME GENDER WILL LIKE THE
SUBJECT MORE THAN THOSE TAUGHT
BY A TEACHER OF DIFFERENET
GENDER.
KINDS OF VARIABLE
 DIRECTIONAL:
GIVE ANY SPECIFIC PREDICTION ABOUT WHAT
DIRECTION ABOUT THE OUTCOME OF THE
RESEARCH WILL TAKE
Problem:
WILL STUDENTS WHO ARE TAUGHT ENGLISH
BY A TEACHER OF THE SAME GENDER LIKE
THE SUBJECT MORE THAN THOSE TAUGHT
BY A TEACHER OF DIFFERENET GENDER?

HYPOTHESIS (non-directing):
STUDENTS TAUGHT ENGLISH BY A TEACHER OF
THE SAME GENDER WILL LIKE THE SUBJECT
DIFFERENTLY THAN THOSE TAUGHT BY A
TEACHER OF DIFFERENT GENDER.