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# VARIABLE

##  (to) eat + _able eatable In statistics:

= “dapat dimakan”  A VARIABLE :
 (to) drink + _able drinkable a concept; a noun
= “dapat diminum” that stands for
 (to) vary + _able variable variation “within
= “dpt dibuat macam2” a class of object “
A VARIABLE :
a concept; a noun that stands for variation
“within a class of object “

## What can vary in a class/group of

 persons? : height; weight; color of
clothes; intl_gence; prs_lity?
 flower? : shape; weight; color; price
 book in a self? : height; weight; price;
topics; title; color
TITLE OF A THESIS:
THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN
STUDENTS’ ATTITUDE, PARENTAL
SUPPORTS AND ACHIEVEMENT IN
LEARNING ENGLISH; A SURVEY IN THE
X CLASS OF SMA 46 JAK-SEL
2006/2007

## HOW MANY VARIABLES DO YOU FIND?

COULD WE FIND
(A) VARIABLE(S)
IN AN
INDIVIDUAL?
 The weight of the baby
in the five early months

##  The quantity of milk the

baby drinks in the latest
five weeks

##  The blood pressure

during the observation
Meaningful research make efforts
to relate two or more variables:
 Which is more improving, “verbal praise,
monetary rewards, or extra points” in the
mastery of English vocabulary at the six
al Birru, Cinere?

## WHAT VARIABLES ARE RELATED IN THIS RESEARCH?

The students of SIX GRADE are
grouped randomly:
• Taught with “verbal
Group 1 praise” (X1)
• Taught with monetary
Group 2 rewards (X2)

## • Taught with extra

Group 3 points (X3)
The enforcement = improveing acts
Variable (in 3 different kinds)

## The learning achievement

Variable (will be various in
different individuals within groups)
Based on the concept and data to describe:
QUALITATIVE (CATEGORICAL) v.s.
QUANTITATIVE (DIMENSION) VAR.

## Based on the relationship between variables:

INDEPENDENT VAR v.s.
DEPENDENT VAR.
QUALITATIVE (CATEGORICAL) VAR.
SM_THING THAT DOES NOT VARY IN DEGREE, AMOUNT
OR QUANTITY. THE DIFFERENCE S ARE IN CATEGORY
(GENDER, RELIGIOUS PREFERENCE, PROFESSION,
HOBBIES, RESIDENCE, PLACE OF BIRTH)

## QUANTITATIVE (DIMENSION) VAR.

VARIABLE THAT EXISTS IN SOME DEGREES or
AMOUNT ALONG A CONTINUUM. THEY ARE BE
ASSIGNED IN NUMBERS TO INDIVIDUALS/OBJECTS
BASED ON THE RELATIONSHIP OF
VARIABLES IN A RESEARCH
Independent variables Dependent variables
 What the researcher  The variable that is
chooses to study in presumably affected
order to asses its/their (by the independent
possible effect(s) on the var.)
other variable(s)

Independent Dependent
variables AFFECT variables
A (theoretical) prediction of the
possible outcomes of a research
RESEARCH PROBLEM:
WILL STUDENTS WHO ARE TAUGHT ENGLISH
BY A TEACHER OF THE SAME GENDER LIKE
THE SUBJECT MORE THAN THOSE TAUGHT BY
A TEACHER OF DIFFERENET GENDER?
HYPOTHESIS:
STUDENTS TAUGHT ENGLISH BY A TEACHER
OF THE SAME GENDER WILL LIKE THE
SUBJECT MORE THAN THOSE TAUGHT
BY A TEACHER OF DIFFERENET
GENDER.
KINDS OF VARIABLE
 DIRECTIONAL:
GIVE ANY SPECIFIC PREDICTION ABOUT WHAT
DIRECTION ABOUT THE OUTCOME OF THE
RESEARCH WILL TAKE
Problem:
WILL STUDENTS WHO ARE TAUGHT ENGLISH
BY A TEACHER OF THE SAME GENDER LIKE
THE SUBJECT MORE THAN THOSE TAUGHT
BY A TEACHER OF DIFFERENET GENDER?

HYPOTHESIS (non-directing):
STUDENTS TAUGHT ENGLISH BY A TEACHER OF
THE SAME GENDER WILL LIKE THE SUBJECT
DIFFERENTLY THAN THOSE TAUGHT BY A
TEACHER OF DIFFERENT GENDER.