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# Naval Weapons Systems

Energy Fundamentals
Energy Fundamentals
 Radar is an electromagnetic wave that acts like any
other electromagnetic wave (i.e. - radio, light, etc.)
 Characteristics of a radio wave assuming a
frequency of 2 Hertz:
Cycle

Amplitude

1 second
Traveling Wave
Characteristics
 Frequency
 Period
 Wavelength
 Velocity
 Amplitude
 ...examples....
Maxwell’s Theory

##  An accelerating electric field will

generate a time-varying magnetic field.
 A time-varying magnetic field will
generate a time-varying electric field.
 ...and so on...and so on...and so on...
Formation of Electric and
Magnetic Fields around an
Antenna
E-line

Mag field
e- e- e-

## Electric field | Magnetic Field | Direction of Propagation.

Electromagnetic Spectrum
Propagation Paths of E-M Waves

Reflection
Refraction
Diffraction
...Reflection...
Phase shift = 180 degrees.
Angle of incidence = Angle of reflected
wave.

Reflected Wave
Incident Wave
...Refraction...

## -Incident wave passes through two

transparent media in which the velocity
of light differs...
-Incident wave divides into a reflected
wave and a refracted wave.
The result is that the energy ray will
bend toward the area of higher
density.
Snell’s Law
n1*Sin θ1=n2*Sin θ2
θ1

Medium 1

Medium 2

θ2
...Diffraction...

## ...plane waves traveling in a straight

path bend around a boundary or
obstruction.
detected

island
not
detected
Wave Propagation –
Distance and Frequency

Ground Waves
Sky Waves
Space Waves
Ground Wave...

##  E-M energy travels along earth’s surface

 Very low frequencies, 5-10Khz
 Extremely wavelengths
 Shore communications stations (HF-DF)
Sky Wave...

##  E-M energy refracts toward earth’s

surface in upper ionosphere layer
 E-M energy then reflects back toward
upper layer again
 Frequencies to 550 KHz effectively
 Fairly long wavelengths
 Ship and Aircraft Communications
Space Wave...

##  E-M energy refracts back toward earth’s

surface in outer space (i.e. stratosphere)
 Above 30 MHz, ionosphere will not
refract E-M waves back toward earth.
Transmission Range Factors

 Antenna Height
 Target Height
 Ducting
 Losses
– Absorption
– Constructive Interference
– Destructive Interference
Communication Systems
Basic Comms Path
Transmitter

##  Transducers – Changes energy form

– Acoustic waves to EM waves
 Boosts power of signal to increase distance.
Transmission Channel

 Air
 Water
 Wire
 Co-axial
 Fiber Optics
 Beer

##  Simplex – one or the other

 Half-Duplex – both, but not at same time.
– i.e. – “walkie-talkie”
 Full-Duplex – both and at the same time
– i.e. – shipboard telecommunications systems

Modulation

##  The process of encoding “Carrier Wave”

 “Carrier Wave” has 3 independent parameters
– Amplitude
– Frequency
– Phase
Noise

##  Noiseis bad on a communications circuit.

 Two types:
– Broadband Noise – “White Noise”
– Narrowband Noise – “Interference”
Signal-to-Noise Ratio

##  Expressed as a ratio of:

– Signal power / Noise power
 Unit of measure in Decibels
– The more positive the number, clearer the signal.
– Unless you want to hide it!!!
Questions?