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Naval Weapons Systems

Energy Fundamentals
Energy Fundamentals
 RAdio Detection And Ranging
 Radar is an electromagnetic wave that acts like any
other electromagnetic wave (i.e. - radio, light, etc.)
 Characteristics of a radio wave assuming a
frequency of 2 Hertz:
Cycle

Amplitude

1 second
Traveling Wave
Characteristics
 Frequency
 Period
 Wavelength
 Velocity
 Amplitude
 ...examples....
Maxwell’s Theory

 An accelerating electric field will


generate a time-varying magnetic field.
 A time-varying magnetic field will
generate a time-varying electric field.
 ...and so on...and so on...and so on...
Formation of Electric and
Magnetic Fields around an
Antenna
E-line

Mag field
e- e- e-

Electric field | Magnetic Field | Direction of Propagation.


Electromagnetic Spectrum
Propagation Paths of E-M Waves

Reflection
Refraction
Diffraction
...Reflection...
Phase shift = 180 degrees.
Angle of incidence = Angle of reflected
wave.

Reflected Wave
Incident Wave
...Refraction...

-Incident wave passes through two


transparent media in which the velocity
of light differs...
-Incident wave divides into a reflected
wave and a refracted wave.
The result is that the energy ray will
bend toward the area of higher
density.
Snell’s Law
n1*Sin θ1=n2*Sin θ2
θ1

Medium 1

Medium 2

θ2
...Diffraction...

...plane waves traveling in a straight


path bend around a boundary or
obstruction.
detected

island
not
detected
Wave Propagation –
Distance and Frequency

Ground Waves
Sky Waves
Space Waves
Ground Wave...

 E-M energy travels along earth’s surface


 Very low frequencies, 5-10Khz
 Extremely wavelengths
 Shore communications stations (HF-DF)
Sky Wave...

 E-M energy refracts toward earth’s


surface in upper ionosphere layer
 E-M energy then reflects back toward
upper layer again
 Frequencies to 550 KHz effectively
 Fairly long wavelengths
 Ship and Aircraft Communications
Space Wave...

 E-M energy refracts back toward earth’s


surface in outer space (i.e. stratosphere)
 Above 30 MHz, ionosphere will not
refract E-M waves back toward earth.
Transmission Range Factors

 Antenna Height
 Target Height
 Ducting
 Losses
– Spreading
– Absorption
– Constructive Interference
– Destructive Interference
Communication Systems
Basic Comms Path
Transmitter

 Transducers – Changes energy form


– Acoustic waves to EM waves
 Boosts power of signal to increase distance.
Transmission Channel

 Air
 Water
 Wire
 Co-axial
 Fiber Optics
 Beer
Transmit/Receive Capability

 Simplex – one or the other


– i.e. – car radio
 Half-Duplex – both, but not at same time.
– i.e. – “walkie-talkie”
 Full-Duplex – both and at the same time
– i.e. – shipboard telecommunications systems
Receiver

 Tuner – allows particular frequency reception


Modulation

 The process of encoding “Carrier Wave”


 “Carrier Wave” has 3 independent parameters
– Amplitude
– Frequency
– Phase
Noise

 Noiseis bad on a communications circuit.


 Two types:
– Broadband Noise – “White Noise”
– Narrowband Noise – “Interference”
Signal-to-Noise Ratio

 Expressed as a ratio of:


– Signal power / Noise power
 Unit of measure in Decibels
– The more positive the number, clearer the signal.
– Unless you want to hide it!!!
Questions?