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PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS


• Introduction:

• All goods in supermarket are well arranged to


ease customer.
• They are arranged in particular manner.
• So do with the elements around us such as
hydrogen, carbon and many more.
• They are systematically and orderly arranged in a
table called the Periodic Table of Elements.
Historical Development of the Periodic Table
Periodic Table of Elements
Arrangement of Elements in The Periodic Table
Basic principle of arrangement in Periodic
Table :

• Increasing order of proton number.


• Range : 1 to 113 proton number.
• Elements with similar chemical properties are placed in the
same vertical column called GROUP.
• There are 18 groups.
• 7 horizontal rows of elements called PERIOD.
• The number of valence electrons in an atom decides the
position of the group of an element in the Periodic Table.
• The position of the period of an element in the Periodic
Table is determined by the number of shells occupied with
electrons in the atom of that element.
For elements with 1 to 2 valence electron:
The group number = number of valence

For elements with 3 to 8 valence electron:


The group number = number of valence + 10

The period number = the number of shells occupied


with electrons
• Some element group have been given a special
names.

For examples,

• Group 1 : Alkali metal ,


• Group 17 : Halogen
• Group 18 : Noble gases
Example :
Do it Yourself
1. Element D has a proton number of 19. Where is
element D located in the Periodic Table?

2. An atom of element E has 10 neutron. The


nucleon number of element E is 19. in which
group and period is element E located in the
Periodic Table?

3. An atom of element G has 3 shells occupied with


electrons. It is placed in Group 17 of the
Periodic Table. What is the electron
arrangement of atom G?
Do it Yourself …answer
B. Group 18 Elements
Group 18 Elements
• Group 18 elements are known as
noble gases or inert gases.

• Group 18 elements consist of


helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon
and radon
Group 18 Elements

Element Proton number Electron arrangement


of atom
Helium, He 2
Neon, Ne 10
Argon, Ar 18
Krypton, Kr 36 2. 8. 18. 8
Xenon, Xe 54 2. 8. 18.18. 8

• The outermost occupied shell is full


Group 18 Elements - Physical properties
• Noble gases exist as monoatomic gases
(exist as single atom).

– They are colourless gases at room


temperature.
– They cannot dissolve in water.
– They cannot conduct electricity and heat.
Group 18 Elements - Physical properties
– They have
•very small atomic sizes.
– Atomic radius increase down the group
– The number of filled electron shell increase, the
valence electron is further from the nucleus

•low melting and boiling point.


– Attracted by very weak van der Waals’ forces of
attraction
– Increase down the group
– As the atomic size increase, the van der Waals’
force of attraction become stronger

• low melting and boiling point.


Group 18 Elements - Physical properties
The inert property of Group 18 elements
• The outermost occupied shell of the atom of each
element in Group 18 is full of electrons.
• Helium has 2 valence electron. This is called a
duplet electron arrangement.
• Neon, argon and other noble gases have 8
valence electrons. This is called octet electron
arrangement (2 .8, 2. 8. 8).
• These electron arrangements are very stable.
• Therefore, noble gases are chemically unreactive
or known as inert.
• They do not need to gain, lose or share electrons
with other elements.
Uses of Group 18 elements
•Helium gas is used to fill airships and
weather balloons.
• The diver’s oxygen tank consists of a mixture of
helium and oxygen.
• Liquid helium is used to cool metals into
superconductors.

•Neon gas is used in advertising lights and


television tubes.
Uses of Group 18 elements
•Argon gas is used to fill light bulbs.

•Krypton gas is used in laser to repair the


retina of the eye.
• It is also used to fill photographic flash lamps.
C. Group 1 Elements
Group 1 Elements
• The elements in Group 1 are

– Lithium
– Sodium
– Potassium
– Rubidium
– Caesium
– Fransium
• They are also known as alkali metals
which react with water to form
alkaline solutions.

• All Group 1 elements have one


valence electron in their outermost
occupied shells.
Group 1 Elements - Physical Properties
1. Group 1 elements are soft metals with low
densities and low melting points as compared
to other metals such as iron and copper.

2. They have silvery and shiny surfaces.

3. They are good conductor of heat and electricity.


• From Table 1, when going down the group,
atomic size and density increases.
– The number of filled electron shell increases down the
group, the distance between the outermost electron
shell and the nucleus inceases.

• When going down the group, melting points and


boiling points decrease
– The metallic bond between the atoms become weaker
Chemical Properties of Group 1 Elements
• Lithium, sodium and potassium have similar
chemical properties but differ in reactivity

1. Alkali metals react vigorously with water to


produce alkaline metal hydroxide solutions and
hydrogen gas.
Alkali metals react vigorously with water
Alkali metals react vigorously with water
Chemical Properties of Group 1 Elements
2. Alkali metals react rapidly with oxygen gas, to
produce white solid metal oxides.
Chemical Properties of Group 1 Elements
3. Alkali metals burn in chlorine gas to form white
solid metal chlorides
Chemical Properties of Group 1 Elements
4. Alkali metals burn in bromine gas to form metal
bromides
• Therefore, alkali metals have similar chemical
properties

• Do you know why ?


Alkali metals have one valence electron in their
outermost occupied shells. Each of them reacts
by donating one electron from its outermost
occupied shell to form an ion with a charge of +1,
thus achieving the stable electron arrangement
of the atom of noble gas.
• The reactivity of Group 1 elements increases
down the group.
• Do you know why ?
i. Going down Group 1, the atomic size increases.
ii. The single valence electron in the outermost
occupied shell becomes further away from the
nucleus
iii. Hence, the attraction between the nucleus and
the valence electron becomes weaker
iv. Therefore, it is easier for the atom to donate the
single valence electron to achieve the stable
electron arrangement.
D. Group 17 Elements
Group 17 Elements
1. The group 17 elements are:
• Flourine
• Chlorine
• Bromine
• Iodine
• Astatine
2. Group 17 elements are known as halogens

3. Halogens exist as diatomic molecules.

4. Halogens have 7 valence electrons.


Group 17 Elements - Physical Properties
1. All Group 17 elements are non-metals.
2. They are insulators of heat and electricity.
3. Halogen have low melting and boiling points
because their molecules are attracted to each
other by weak force.
4. When going down the group, the melting and
boiling points increases. This is because the
molecular size increases. The van der Waals’
forces of attraction between the molecules
become stronger.
5. The colour of the halogen becomes darker down
the group
Group 17 Elements - Physical Properties

Element Symbol Proton Electron Physical Colour Melting Boiling


Number Arrangement state at point point
room
temperature
Flourine F 9 2.7 Gas Pale yellow Increase Increase
Chlorine Cl 17 2.8.7 Gas Greenish-
yellow
Bromine Br 35 2.8.18.7 Liquid Reddish-
brown
Iodine I 53 2.8.18.18.7 Solid Purplish-
black
Group 17 Elements - Chemical Properties
a) Halogen react with water
• To form 2 acids

In general:
X2 + H2O  HX + HOX ; X is halogen

• HX and HOX solutions are acidic. HOX solution


exhibits bleaching properties

Example:
Cl2 + H2O  HCl + HOCl
Hydrochloric hypochlorous(I) acid
acid
Group 17 Elements - Chemical Properties
b) Halogens in gaseous state react with
hot iron
• To form a brown solid , iron (III) halides

In general:
2 Fe + 3X2  2FeX3 ; X is halogen

Example:
2 Fe + 3Br2  2FeBr3
Group 17 Elements - Chemical Properties
c) Halogens react with sodium hydroxide
solution , NaOH.
• To form sodium halide, sodium halate and water
• The halogens are decolourised during these reaction

In general:
X2 + NaOH  NaX + NaOX + H2O ; X is halogen

Example:
2NaOH + I2  NaI + NaOI + H2O
sodium iodide sodium iodate(I)
• Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine have similar
chemical properties but differ in reactivity. Why
they have the similar properties??

I. Halogens have 7 valence electrons.

II. When halogens take part in chemical reactions,


their atom always gain one electron to achieve
a stable octet electron arrangement.
• The Reactivity of Halogens decrease down the
group. WHY?

I. The atomic size increases down the group.


II. The distance of the outermost shell becomes
further from the nucleus.
III. The force of attraction of the nucleus on the
electrons of the outermost shell decrease.
IV. The tendency of an atom to receive one electron
to achieve an octet electron arrangement
decrease
Do It Yourself
Element X Y Z

Proton number 9 17 35

1. Elements X, Y and Z are same group in the periodic table.

a. What is the valence electron of the elements X,Y and Z?


b. Which group in the periodic table can you find the elements X,Y
and Z?
c. Element Y can react with water. What are the properties of the
solution produced?
d. Write an equation for the reaction between element Z and hot
iron.
Do It Yourself…answer
Element X Y Z

Proton number 9 17 35

1. Elements X, Y and Z are same group in the periodic table.

a. What is the valence electron of the elements X,Y and Z?


seven or 7
a. Which group in the periodic table can you find the elements X,Y
and Z?
group 17
a. Element Y can react with water. What are the properties of the
solution produced?
acidic and bleaching properties
a. Write an equation for the reaction between element Z and hot
iron.
2Fe + 3Z2 2FeZ3
E. Transition Elements
E. TRANSITION ELEMENTS
• Transition elements are elements from Group 3
to Group 12 in the Periodic Table of the
elements.
• Examples of transition elements are iron (Fe),
zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), silver (Ag), gold (Au) and
mercury.(Hg).
E. TRANSITION ELEMENTS
All transition elements are metals, thus, these
elements have the following properties :

1. solids with shiny surfaces.


2. ductile
3. malleable
4. high tensile strength
5. high melting and boiling points
6. high densities
7. good conductors of heat and electricity
E. TRANSITION ELEMENTS
• Special characteristics of transition elements

1. Different Oxidation Numbers


• Transition elements can form ions with different
oxidation numbers when forming compounds.
Transition Oxidation Ionic Example of
Name of ion
Element Numbers symbol compound
+2 Iron(II) ion Fe2+ FeCl2
Iron, Fe
+3 Iron (III) ion Fe3+ FeCl3

+1 Copper(I) ion Cu+ Cu2O


Copper, Cu Copper (II)
+2 Cu2+ CuO
ion
Nickel (II)
+2 Ni2+ NiSO4
sulphate
Nickel, Ni
Nickel (III)
+3 Ni3+ NiCl3
chloride
E. TRANSITION ELEMENTS
• Special characteristics of transition elements

2. Coloured Ions or Compounds


Name of ion of transition Formula of ion of Colour in aqueous
element transition element solution
Chromate ion CrO42- Yellow

Dichromate ion Cr2O72- Orange

Permanganate ion MnO4- Purple

Iron (II) ion Fe2+ Green

Iron (III) ion Fe3+ Brown

Copper (II) ion Cu2+ Blue

Cobalt (II) ion Co2+ Pink

Manganese (II) ion Mn2+ Pink

Chromium (III) ion Cr3+ Green

Nickel (II) ion Ni2+ Green


• Examples of some precious stones and the
transition elements present which give their
distinctive colours :

Precious stone Colour Transition element


present
Ruby Red Chromium

Sapphire Blue Iron and Titanium

Emerald Green Chromium

Amethyst Purple Manganese


E. TRANSITION ELEMENTS
• Special characteristics of transition elements

3. Act as catalysts
• Transition elements or compounds can act as
catalysts in certain reactions.
• Catalysts are chemicals which can increase the
rate of a chemical reaction
Transition element Process Product
Iron Haber Process Ammonia
Vanadium (V) oxide Contact Process Sulphuric acid
Platinum Ostwald Process Nitric acid
F. Elements in Period
1. Properties of Elements in Period 3

• Periods are horizontal row in the Periodic Table.

• The elements in Period 3 are Sodium (Na),


Magnesium (Mg), Aluminium (Al), Silicon (Si),
Phosporus (P), Sulphur (S), Chlorine (Cl), Argon (Ar).
1. Properties of Elements in Period 3
Element of
Period 3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar

Proton
Number 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Electron
arrangement 2.8.1 2.8.2 2.8.3 2.8.4 2.8.5 2.8.6 2.8.7 2.8.8

Atomic
Radius (pm) 186 160 143 118 110 104 100 94

Physical state
at room
temperature Solid Solid Solid Hjklh
Solid Solid Solid Gas Gas

Electronegati
vity 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.5 3.0 -

Based on the table above, we notice the trends of changes across Period 3,

i. The proton number increases by one unit from one element to the next
element.
ii. All the atoms of the elements have three shells occupied with electrons.
iii. The number of valence electrons in each atom increases from 1 to 8.
iv. All the elements exist as solid except chlorine and argon which are gases.
1. Properties of Elements in Period 3
Element of
Period 3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar

Proton
Number 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Electron
arrangement 2.8.1 2.8.2 2.8.3 2.8.4 2.8.5 2.8.6 2.8.7 2.8.8

Atomic
Radius (pm) 186 160 143 118 110 104 100 94

Physical state
at room
temperature Solid Solid Solid Hjklh
Solid Solid Solid Gas Gas

Electronegati
vity 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.5 3.0 -

Based on the table above, we notice the trends of changes across Period 3,

v. The atomic radius of elements decreases. This is due to the increasing nuclei
attraction on the valence electrons.
vi. The electronegativity of elements increases. This is also due to the increasing
nuclei attraction on the valence electrons and the decrease in atomic size.
Properties of oxides elements
• Elements of periods 3 can be classified into
metals or non-metals based on the basic or
acidic properties of their oxides.
• Metal form oxides with basic properties.
• Non- metal form oxides with acidic properties.
• Some metals show both acidic and basic
properties.
• These oxides are known as AMPHOTHERIC
OXIDES.
• Na and magnesium form basic metal oxides:
Na2O, MgO.
• Aluminium ,form amphoteric oxide: Al2O3.\
• Silicon, Phosporus, sulphur and chlorine form
acidic non-metal oxides.
• Refer figure 4.10(pg 74).
• The properties of the oxides of elements in P3
change frm basic properties the acidic properties
when going across the period.
2. Acid-base properties of oxides of elements in Period 3.

• Basic oxides reacts with acids to form salts and water.


Example : Na2O(s) + 2HNO3(aq)  2NaNO3(aq) + H2O(l)

• Acidic oxides reacts with alkali to form salts and water.


Example : SiO2(s) + 2NaOH(aq)  Na2SiO3(aq) + H2O(l)

• Amphoteric oxides can react with both acids and alkalis.


2. Acid-base properties of oxides of elements in Period 3.

• The elements change from metals to metalloid and


finally to non-metals across the period

• Therefore Na & Mg are metals, Al is metalloid,


Si, P, S & Cl are non-metals.
3. Uses of semi-metals in industry
•Semi-metals or metalloids are weak conductors
of electricity. Semi-metals such as silicon and
germanium are used as semiconductors.

•Semi conductors are used to make diodes and


transistors that widely used in the making of
microchips for the manufacture of electrical and
microelectronic equipments such as computers,
mobile phones, televisions and video recorders.