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Third Year Science

Acids and Bases


Acids
• Acid comes from a Latin word that means sour
• Taste sour and sharp
• Strong acids can be dangerous
– Described in chemistry as corrosive
• Safety precautions are needed with
laboratory acids
Examples of acids
• Lemon juice (citric acid)
• Vinegar (ethanoic acid)
• Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
• Sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
Bases
• The opposite of acids
• Used a lot in everyday life
• Can be as corrosive and dangerous as acids
• Safety precautions are needed with strong
bases
Examples of bases
• Toothpaste
• Bleach
• Indigestion tablets (antacids)
• Sodium hydroxide [NaOH]
• Ammonia [NH4]
• Limewater [Ca(OH)2]
Neutralisation
• Acid = chemical opposite of a base
• If we mixed them:
– They cancel each other out!

Neutralisation: Chemical reaction between


an acid and a base

Acid + Base Salt + Water


Neutralisation
• Everyday uses of neutralisation:
Indigestion
Antacids are bases that neutralise stomach acid

Bee sting
Baking soda: a base that neutralises the acidic
sting
Wasp sting
Vinegar: an acid that neutralises the basic sting
Neutralisation with carbonates
Carbonate: any chemical with a CO3 group at
the end
• Carbonates are bases
• When they react with acids, they also produce
carbon dioxide

Acid + Carbonate Salt + Water + carbon dioxide


Demonstrating a Neutralisation
Reaction
Titrations
What is a a very accurate method calculating
exactly how much acid is needed to
Titration?
neutralise a base
Equipment used:

Burette Pipette Pipette filler


OC38: Titrating HCl against NaOH and
preparing a sample of NaCl
• NaOH in
conical flask
with
universal
indicator
• HCl in
burette
• Add slowly
until colour
changes
OC38: Titrating HCl against NaOH and
preparing a sample of NaCl

Hydrochloric Sodium Sodium


acid + hydroxide chloride + Water

HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O


Reactions of Acids with Metals
• Many metals will react with acids
• This produces a salt and hydrogen gas
Hydrochloric Zinc
Zinc + acid chloride + Hydrogen

Zn + HCl ZnCl2 + H2
OC51: Investigating the reaction between
zinc and hydrochloric acid, and test for
hydrogen