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Route Choice or Trip Assignment

Trip assignment is the forth step of the FOUR STEP process

It is used to determining how much traffic will use each link of the
transportation system

Norman W. Garrick

Route Choice or Trip Assignment in 4 Step Process

Example

Consider two zones
• Hartford CBD
• West Hartford Center

Four Steps
1. Trip Generation - Determines production from WH
Center
2. Trip Distribution - Gives QIJ - Trips from WH Center
attracted to Hartford CBD
3. Modal Split - Fraction of QIJ using different modes of
travel
4. Trip Assignment - What roads? What bus routes?

Norman W. Garrick

this can be a problem in places like in WH Center were the local road network is very dense and carry a significant portion of the traffic) Nodes .Characterizing Road Network for Trip Assignment In trip assignment the road network is represented by links and nodes Links . Garrick .major roads including arterials.typically intersections or interchanges but could be other points that are important to the network Each node is numbered Links are specified by the nodes at the end Each link is associated with an impedance (the impedance might not be the same in each direction Norman W. expressways and freeways (local roads are not usually included .

3. 5 12 are zone 13 14 centroids 5 Norman W. 4. Garrick . Example Road Network for Trip Assignment 1 2 5 5 6 3 7 8 11 9 4 10 1. 2.

Network B 2 (3) (2) (2) (4) (7) 1 5 (8) (4) (6) 4 (5) (4) 3 Norman W. Garrick .

Link Array Network B 2 (3) (2) (2) (7) (4) 1 (6) 5 (4) 4 (8) (4) (5) J I 1 2 3 4 5 3 1 2 3 4 5 Norman W. Garrick .

Garrick . Link Array Network B I=1 2 (3) (2) (2) (7) (4) 1 (6) 5 (4) 4 (8) (4) (5) J I 1 2 3 4 5 3 1 3 5 2 3 4 5 Norman W.

Garrick . Link Array Network B I=2 2 (3) (2) (2) (7) (4) 1 (6) 5 (4) 4 (8) (4) (5) J I 1 2 3 4 5 3 1 3 5 2 4 2 3 4 5 Norman W.

Garrick . Link Table Network B 2 i j wij (3) (2) 1 2 3 (2) (7) (4) 1 (6) 5 (4) 4 (8) (4) (5) 3 Norman W.

Garrick . Link Table Network B 2 i j wij (3) (2) 1 2 3 (2) (7) (4) 1 3 5 1 (6) 5 (4) 4 2 1 4 (8) (4) (5) 2 4 2 3 Norman W.

Link Table Network B 2 i j wij (3) (2) 1 2 3 (2) (7) (4) 1 3 5 1 (6) 5 (4) 4 2 1 4 (8) (4) (5) 2 4 2 3 1 4 3 3 4 6 4 2 2 4 3 4 4 5 7 5 4 8 Norman W. Garrick .

Garrick .that is the cost for all users of the system. not just his or her own cost Route assignment based on user equilibrium require that we determine the ‘minimum path’ between any two zones or the ‘minimum tree’ which is a diagram showing the minimum path from one zone to all other zones Norman W. User Equilibrium 2. System Equilibrium User Equilibrium Based on the assumption that users try to minimize their individual time of travel by going along the shortest path from origin to destination System Equilibrium Based on the assumption that users try to minimize the TOTAL system cost . Route Choice Behavior Trip assignment is based on one of two assumptions about traveler's behavior 1.

Network B Minimum Tree from Node 1 2 (3) (2) (2) (4) (7) 1 5 (8) (4) (6) 4 (5) (4) 3 Norman W. Garrick .

Network B Minimum Tree from Node 4 2 (3) (2) (2) (4) (7) 1 5 (8) (4) (6) 4 (5) (4) 3 There is an algorithm for finding the minimum tree We will not cover the algorithm in this class Norman W. Garrick .

Network B Tree Table from Node 4 2 (3) (2) (4) (2) (7) 1 5 (6) 4 (8) Node ( j ) Total Node (4) Impedance Preceding j to Node j 3 1 2 3 4 5 Norman W. Garrick .

Garrick . Network B Tree Table from Node 4 2 (3) (2) (4) (2) (7) 1 5 (6) 4 (8) Node ( j ) Total Node (4) Impedance Preceding j to Node j 3 1 6 2 2 3 4 5 Norman W.

Network B Tree Table from Node 4 2 (3) (2) (4) (2) (7) 1 5 (6) 4 (8) Node ( j ) Total Node (4) Impedance Preceding j to Node j 3 1 6 2 2 2 4 3 4 4 4 0 - 5 7 4 Norman W. Garrick .

Allocating Traffic to Individual Routes Once the MINIMUM PATH is determined between different zones then traffic can be allocated to the various links between the zones One common approach is the FREE FLOW/ALL-OR-NOTHING TRAFFIC ASSIGNMENT Technique As the name implies. Garrick . Other traffic assignment techniques have been developed which tries to correct for the two big problems with Free Flow/All-or-Nothing Traffic Assignment Norman W. the technique assumes that all traffic between any two zones will use the minimum path between those two zones. it is assumed that the minimum path calculations will not be affected by the amount of traffic using that path. In other ways. This is obviously this an unreasonable assumption. The other big assumption is that the minimum path is calculated based on FREE FLOW conditions.

Allocating Traffic to Individual Routes (continued) FREE Flow/Multipath Traffic Technique Does not assume that all traffic will use the minimum path . the path with the minimum impedance will get the most traffic followed by paths with increasing impedance This method is still limited by the fact that the impedance is based on free flow assumptions and the impedance value is not changed to reflex the level of traffic loading. So for example. As you can imagine this is a complex and computer intensive process. the impedance also increases. it is based on an interactive traffic assignment process that re-calculate the impedance to account for the level of traffic assigned to each link.instead traffic is assigned to the various paths between the two zones based on their relative impedance. Capacity-Restrained Traffic Assignment Techniques Accounts for the fact that as the traffic on a link increases. Therefore. Garrick . Norman W.

Using Free Flow/All-or-Nothing Assignment .Example Trip Exchange 1 2 J 1 2 3 2 2 2 3 Q1j 200 400 800 10 4 5 Q2j 150 200 100 6 Q3j 300 600 350 2 4 4 3 3 3 6 2 Norman W. Garrick .

Minimum Tree – Zone 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 10 4 5 6 2 3 3 3 6 2 Norman W. Garrick .

Garrick . Free Flow/All-or-Nothing Assignment – Zone 1 Trip Exchange 1 1200 2 J 1 2 3 400 800 400 Q1j 200 400 800 4 5 Q2j 150 200 100 400 Q3j 300 600 350 800 3 6 800 Norman W.

Minimum Tree – Zone 2 1 2 2 2 2 3 4 5 2 4 4 3 3 3 6 2 Norman W. Garrick .

Minimum Tree – Zone 3 1 2 2 2 2 3 4 5 2 4 4 3 3 3 6 2 Norman W. Garrick .