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Ritom Gupta

The information contained in this presentation is intended solely for your personal reference. Such
information is subject to change without notice, its accuracy is not 100 % guaranteed and it may not
contain all material information concerning Non-metallic coatings and/or powder coating and
electroless coating. The authors make no representation regarding, and assumes no responsibility or
liability for, the accuracy or completeness of, or any errors or omissions in, any information
contained herein. Marvel and all related logos and products are copyrights of Marvel Inc., and have
been merely included to make the subject of this presentation interesting.

This version contains additional spoken information added to the original presentation.
Chemical Conversion

Phosphate coatings

Chromate coatings

Oxide coatings
o Anodic oxidation in an acid bath, to build up oxide layer.

o Such coatings produced on Al, Mg, and alloys by electrolysis in acid (H2SO4, H2CrO4, H3PO4) at
mod. temp. and current densities

o Initially the layer formed is thin, grows in thickness as oxdn proceeds

o Surface layers(coatings) are porous, used as adherent layer for paints

o Minute pores sealed by exposing coat to boiling water, or sealed with oils, waxes, chromates,
o Electrolytic passivation technique (making metal passive, less affected)

o Part to be treated forms the anode

o Changes microscopic texture and crystal structure

o Less likely to crack & peel from aging & wear, more susceptible to cracking from thermal
stresses (as low thermal conductivity)

o Regular & uniform coating formed, but microscopic fissures can lead to corrosion, also
susceptible to chemical dissolution in high and low pH environments

𝐴𝑡 𝑐𝑎𝑡ℎ𝑜𝑑𝑒: 2𝐻 + + 2𝑒 − → 𝐻2 𝐴𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑑𝑒: 𝐴𝑙 → 𝐴𝑙 3+ + 3𝑒 −
Decomposition of
sulphuric acid 2𝐴𝑙 3+ + 3𝑂2− → 𝐴𝑙2𝑂3
2𝐴𝑙 3+ + 3𝑂𝐻 − → 𝐴𝑙2𝑂3 + 3𝐻+
𝑂𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛: 2𝐴𝑙 + 3𝐻20 → 𝐴𝑙2𝑂3 +6𝐻 + +6𝑒 −
Anodized Gear
Anodised Gear
Renault Kwid
Kwid –– MARVEL
MARVEL Avengers
Avengers SUPER
Chemical Conversion

Phosphate coatings

Chromate coatings

Oxide coatings
Phosphate Coatings /
o Process of producing phosphate coatings on a base metal by a reaction between aqueous soln of
phosphate and phosphoric acid with the base metal

o Eg: Automobile bodies, provides good base for paints, protect unfinished metal parts from

o Applied on Fe, Steel, Zn, using phosphates of Fe, Mn, Zn and various accelerators.

o Coatings produced by spraying, brushing, or by immersion.

developed by

Phosphatizing / Parkerizing
Parker family in
the U.S

o Protecting steel surface from corrosion, increase wear resistance, by phosphate conversion

o Not used on non-ferrous, Al, Brass, Cu, nor steel with Ni, or even stainless steel

𝑂𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑅𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛: 2𝐹𝑒 + 𝐹𝑒 3+ + 3𝐻2𝑃𝑂4− → 3𝐹𝑒𝑃𝑂4 + 3𝐻2

aq. aq. (s) (g)
Chemical Conversion

Phosphate coatings

Chromate coatings

Oxide coatings
Chromate Coatings
o Applied by immersion of base metal into solution of hexavalent Cr ions and mineral acid

o Used for protection of Zn, Al, Mg

o More corrosion resistance than phosphate coatings

o Applied in various colours and shades

Chromate Coatings
o To passivate steel, Al, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ag, Mg & Sn alloys

o Used as corrosion inhibitor, primer, decorative finishing, and to retain electrical conductivity

o Involves Cr+6 in H2CrO4 (chromic acid)

o If done on Aluminium substrate: Bonderite (Alodine-UK), useful

In aircraft industry

o Done on Zn to make it durable

Chromate Layer Formation (probable)
Chemical Conversion

Phosphate coatings

Chromate coatings

Oxide coatings
Oxide Coatings
o Treating base metal with alkaline oxidizing solution

o Increases thickness of original oxide film

o Less protective value

o Mostly used for decorative purpose


Standard material
is magnetite, which
is mechanically
stable, and has
good corrosion
Remaining Coatings
Powder Coating

Electroless Coating
Powder Coating
o Process of applying free flowing powder on substrate to avoid its corrosion.

o Type of dry coating as no solvent involved

o Powder coating for corrosion resistance generally applied on metals, household appliances,
aluminium materials, automobiles, and bicycle parts

o Powder: generally thermosetting/thermoplastic polymer

o No chemical environmental pollution o P.C of thin metal sheets is difficult
o Thick coating of metal possible o Even smaller objects cannot be coated
o Recycling of excess powder possible o The coated object cannot be used at
o Low Cost high temperatures
Powder Coating
o Does not require a solvent to hold the binder while coating, thus thicker and uniform

o Technique of forming a thin coat of a thermoplastic material along with some additives on the
surface of the base metal

o Thickness: 75 µm – 250 µm

o Components: thermosoftening resins, pigment, filler

o No solvent involved like paint or enamel

o Simpler – higher hardness

o Better chemical resistance - stronger

Powder Coating

Electrostatic Spraying Plasma Spraying

o Constituents are crushed and milled to about 40-90 µm. o Denser coatings; less porous, strongly adherent
Mixture is sieved to separate higher sized particles
o Mixture is converted to plasma by the arc, having
o Coating particles are dispersed in an air stream and passed temperature of 1500 ˚C
through a high voltage gun where they pick up a negative
charge o Directed on surface of metal to produce thin coating 250-
450 µm
o Get deposited on the base metal due to force of attraction

o Metal is baked where the powder metals melt to form uniform

strong coating
EXAMPLES – Epoxy resins hardened by anhydride, nylons,
polyester, PVC

APPLICATIONS – Corrosion resistance to military equipment

- Dry film lubrication like graphite
- Decoration of heaters, AC, computers, car accessories
Electroless Coating/Plating
o Autocatalytic chemical process of application of Ni-P or Ni-B on metal or plastic

o Takes place in presence of strong reducing agent (NaPO2H2·H2O). It reacts with metal surface
ions for deposition

o Depending on % P during coating, classified as:

• Low P
• Medium P (3-9%)
• High P coating (9-13%)

o Doesn’t use electrical power o Life span of chemical is limited
o Coating done evenly, highly compact & adherent o Generation of waste chemicals possible
o Insulators can also be plated (plastics, PCB,
o Thickness & volume of coating can be controlled,
thus complex shapes also coated
o Bright coatings obtained
Electroless Coating/Plating
o Deposition of metal from its salt solution using a reducing agent without electricity

o Base surface is prepared by washing, drying, and heating

o Non-conducting surface like plastics, ceramics, PCBs, treated with SnCl2 & PdCl2 thin layer of

Cu Plating
2𝐶𝑢2+ + 𝐻𝐶𝐻𝑂 + 3𝑂𝐻− −−−→ 2𝐶𝑢+ + 𝐻𝐶𝑂𝑂− + 2𝐻2𝑂 → 𝐶𝑢+ + 𝐶𝑢2+
Sodium succinate or Na K tartrate is used to avoid loose & fast

Ni Plating
o Sodium hypophosphate NaH3PO2 liberates e- which
converts Ni2+ to Ni, forming Nickel deposit.

o pH 4-5, acetate buffer & complexing agent like Na

succinate for avoiding fast & loose coating
Basic illustration of the apparatus used in electroless
coating experiments.