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Department of Garment Engineering

Introduction to
“Research Methodology”

• The word research is composed of two syllables,
“Re” and “search”.
• “Re” is a prefix meaning again, a new or over
• “search” is a verb meaning to examine closely
and carefully, to test and try, or to
Together they form a Noun describing a careful,
systematic, patient study and investigation in
some field of knowledge, undertaken to establish
facts or principles.
Research Meaning
• Research is a structured enquiry that utilizes
acceptable scientific methodology to solve
problems and create new knowledge that is
generally applicable
The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current
English lays down the meaning of research as
“A careful investigation or inquiry specially
through search for new facts in any branch of
Objectives Of Research
• The purpose of research is to discover answers
to questions through the application of
scientific procedures.
• The main aim of research is to find out the
truth which is hidden and which has not been
discovered as yet.
 Desire to get a research degree along with its
consequential benefits;
 Desire to face the challenge in solving the
unsolved problems, i.e., concern over practical
problems initiates research;
 Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some
creative work;
 Desire to be of service to society;
 Desire to get respectability.
• Research is a process of collecting, analyzing and
interpreting information to answer questions.
• But to qualify as research, the process must have
certain characteristics: it must, as far as possible,
be controlled, rigorous (Exact or
precise) , systematic, valid and
verifiable, empirical and critical.
1. Controlled
• The concept of control implies that, in exploring
causality in relation to two variables (factors), you
set up your study in a way that minimizes the
effects of other factors affecting the relationship
2. Rigorous-you must be sensing in ensuring that the
procedures followed to find answers to questions
are relevant, appropriate and justified. Again, the
degree of rigor varies markedly between the
physical and social sciences and within the social
3. Systematic-this implies that the procedure adopted
to undertake an investigation follow a certain logical
sequence. The different steps cannot be taken in a
haphazard way. Some procedures must follow
4. Valid and verifiable-this concept implies that
whatever you conclude on the basis of your findings
is correct and can be verified by you and others.
5. Empirical (Experimentable)-this means that any
conclusion drawn are based upon hard evidence
gathered from information collected from real life
experiences or observations.
6. Critical-critical examining of the procedures used
and the methods employed is crucial to a research
enquiry. The process of investigation must be
foolproof and free from drawbacks. The process
adopted and the procedures used must be able to
withstand critical scrutiny.

• For a process to be called research, it is imperative

(Necessary, Essential) that it has the above
• 1. It gathers new knowledge or data from
primary or first-hand sources.
• 2. It places emphasis upon the discovery of
general principles.
• 3. It is an exact systematic and accurate
• 4. It uses certain valid data gathering devices.
• 5. It is logical and objective.
• 6. The researcher resists the temptation to
seek only the data that support his

• 7. The researcher eliminates personal feelings and

• 8. It endeavors to organize data in quantitative terms.
• 9. Research is patient and unhurried activity.
• 10. The researcher is willing to follow his procedures to
the conclusions that may be unpopular and bring social
• 11. Research is carefully recorded and reported.
• 12. Conclusions and generalizations are arrived at
carefully and cautiously.
The following are the main characteristics of
• 1. A sound philosophy of social studies as the
basis of research
• 2. Research is based on insight and imagination
• 3. Research requires an inter-disciplinary
• 4. Research usually employs deductive reasoning
• 5. Research should come out of a desire to do
things better
• 6. Research is not as exact as research in physical
• 7. Research is not the field of the specialist only
• 8. Research generally requires inexpensive material
• 9. Research is based on the subjectivity and
intangibility of social
• 10. Research is perhaps incapable of being dealt
through empirical
• 11. Research is based on inter dependence of causes
and effect
• 12. Research cannot be a mechanical process
• The refinement of existing knowledge or the acquisition of
new knowledge is essentially an intermediate step toward
the improvement of the social studies process. The social
studies al improvement is associated with various aspects
of Social Studies:
(a) The function of research is to aid to making a decision
concerning the refinement or extension of knowledge in
this particular area.
(b) The function of research is to improve the students
learning and classroom problem with which teacher is
encountering with problems. The more effective techniques
for teaching can be developed.
(c) Another function of research is to aid social studies
administrators to improve the Social Studies systems.
Characteristics of an Investigator
1. He should know the functions and activities of his job.
2. He should have the reflective thinking about various
3. He should be sensitive towards his job, creative and
4. He should have the knowledge and training of action
research. .
5. He should have insightful into his area.
6. He should have the scientific attitude for studying and
Characteristics of an Investigator…..

7. There should be an objectivity in his thinking.

8. His behavior should be democratic.
9. He should be patience and pursuant of the
10. knowledge and skill of measuring instruments and
11. He should be open mind to discuss his problems with
experts .
12. He should be economical in designing the project
from time, energy and money point of view.

• 1. Statistical Techniques
• 2. Operational research models
1. Statistical Techniques
a) Methods to find measures of central tendency
b) Methods to find measures of dispersion
c) Forecasting methods
d) Factorial design
e) Sampling methods
f) Tests of hypotheses
g) Factor analysis
h) Discriminate analysis
i) Conjoint analysis
Operations Research Models In
garment industry
• Linear programming • Replacement analysis
• Integer programming • Game theory
• Distance related • Goal programming
network techniques • Simulation
• Project management • Production scheduling
• Inventory control • Non linear
• Dynamic programming programming.
• Queuing theory
Research problems in management
Research problems can be identified in the
following areas of Management.
a) Marketing
b) Production
c) Finance
d) Personnel
Research problems in Marketing
• Product identification • Pricing
• Demand estimation • Marketing strategy
• Demand-supply analysis formulation
• Product development • Product differentiation
• Market segmentation and product positioning
• Media mix • Packaging
• Sales promotion program • Design of advertisements
• Product launching • Planning sales force
• Design of distribution • Buying behavior.
Research Problems in Production
• Fore casting • Materials requirements
• Capacity planning planning
• Plant Location • Single machine scheduling
• Plant layout • Flow shop scheduling
• Line balancing • Job-shop scheduling
• Line of balance • Project Management
• Inventory control • Maintenance management
• Aggregate planning • Quality control
• Master production • Work design
scheduling • Modern production system:
Research problems in Financial
• Models for break even • Primary market study
analysis of multiproduct • Secondary market study
• Economic evaluation of • Balance of payment
alternatives • Inflation(Price
• Study of financial increases)
parameters • Deflation(Devaluation)
• Capital budgeting • Economic growth
• Ratio analysis models
• Portfolio management
Research problems in Personnel
• Man power planning
• Performance appraisal system
• Conflict management
• Study of organizational climate
• Design of incentive plans
• Leadership styles
• Training methods
• Change management
• Negotiation and wage settlement
• Labor welfare study.
Types of Research
1. Descriptive vs. Analytical:
2. Applied vs. Fundamental
3. Quantitative vs. Qualitative
4. Conceptual vs. Empirical
5. Some Other Types of Research
1.Descriptive vs. Analytical:

• Descriptive research includes surveys and

fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. The
major purpose of descriptive research is
description of the state of affairs as it exists at
present. EX: Survey -Social, Business etc.
• Analytical research, on the other hand, the
researcher has to use facts or information
already available, and analyse these to make a
critical evaluation of the material
2.Applied vs. Fundamental

• Applied Research: Applied research aims at

finding a solution for an immediate problem
facing a society or an industrial/business
• Fundamental Research mainly concerned with
generalisations and with the formulation of a
theory. “Gathering knowledge for knowledge’s
sake is termed ‘pure’ or ‘basic’ research.
Ex: Physics, chemistry etc
3.Quantitative vs. Qualitative

• Quantitative research is based on the

measurement of quantity or amount. It is
applicable to phenomena that can be
expressed in terms of quantity.
• Qualitative Research is concerned with
qualitative phenomenon, i.e. phenomena
relating to or involving quality or kind.
Ex: Investigating the reasons for human
4.Conceptual vs. Empirical

• Conceptual research is that related to some

abstract idea(s) or theory. It is generally used by
philosophers and thinkers to develop new
concepts or to reinterpret existing ones.
• Empirical research relies on experience or
observation alone, often without due regard for
system and theory. It is data-based research,
coming up with conclusions which are capable of
being verified by observation or experiment.
5.Other types of Research
 One-time research:
Ex: Develop a product for a particular purpose.
 Field-setting research:
Ex: sector research
 Laboratory research:
Ex: Experimental
 Simulation research:
Ex: Design of an new equipment.
 Clinical or diagnostic research:
Ex: Medical research
 Historical research:
Ex: paleontological research
Errors in Research process
There are two types of Errors.
1. Sampling Error
2. Non Sampling Error

1.Sampling Errors: Errors are occurred in the

process of Sampling.
Sampling error is the difference between sample
value and corresponding population value.
Non Sampling Error:
(Errors in the different stages of Research)

 Defective problem  Experimental errors

design  Poor Questionnaire
 Defective population design
definition  Interview bias
 Frame set errors  Data processing errors
 Surrogate information  Data analysis errors
error  Interpretation errors
 Non response errors
 Measurement errors
• Thank you