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Shruti Agarwal
• History
• How can computers be connected to human brains
• Survey of devices that are currently in use
• Who makes such devices
• What costs such devices
• What are the possible uses of this technology
• What are the economic and commercial aspects of this
• Video
• Bibliography
• Thought Controlled Devices is being brought up for the
physically handicapped people which helps them to control its
movements with their thoughts a breakthrough device that could
be a huge help for paralyzed

• Thought Controlled Devices is the starting point of Brain

Computer Interface(BCI)

• For Example: Weight Loss- a person cannot reduce the weight

only by thinking so for that they need to do yoga, exercise etc.
just like that for physically handicapped people to achieve
thought controlled device they need to have brain computer
interface which helps to communicate with the external device
• So thought controlled device can be achieved by brain computer

• 1924- Started by Hans Berger's discovers the EEG

Studies the link of EEG and brain diseases

• 1970- Research on the BCIs started at the University of

California, Los Angeles under a grant from the National Science
Foundation, followed by a contract from DARPA
Different process were used to control the brain movements

• 1977- Project by Jacques Vidal

• 1988- Report was given about the (medical test) noninvasive EEG
control of a robot

• 1998- First brain implant produces high quality signals

• 1999- 22 research groups first meeting on BCI

• 2002- Monkeys were trained to control a computer cursor

• 2005- Monkey brain controls a robotic arm

• 2014- Over the internet due to transmitting EEG signals direct brain-
to-brain communication was achieved

• 2015- International board of BCI experts managed non-profit

organization from different sectors. Officially BCI society was
How can computers be connected to
human brains
• Machine/device which can control directly with the brain

• A device which can convert persons thoughts into reality

• This can be done through Brain Computer Interface(BCI)

Working of our brain:

• Brain works through many nerve cells that combines with each
other and forms neuron
• Every nerve cells or neuron is being connected to each other by
the help of dendrite or axons

• When a person is thinking, feeling, moving or trying to

remember something neuron works at that time

• Neuron works with the help of electrical signal or electrical


Link between the computer and brain:

• Scientists can detect electrical signal, interpret what they mean

• For example: A person is unable to speak so a audio synthesizer

through BCI technology can be connected with the brain. When
he/she thinks that they want to speak then by directly to the
audio synthesizer he/she will be able to speak or it will be
shown in the computer screen
• This is called BCI

Challenge is that how to connect BCI with brain and how to

make interface:

• For this a technology has been used name EEG

(ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY) is being attached with the
skull of the brain

• Scientists developed a technology through which we can get the

high-resolution signals for this Gray Matter is to be directly
connected with EEG electrode under the brain or below the

• By these signals can be recept and can place these electrode

How it works:

• The potential difference between the nerve cells or neuron

electrical impulses is being captured by the EEG or electrode
which is being attached under the brain

• Then it amplifies the signal

• Then these signals are being filtered out by the computer


Applications for physically handicapped people:

• Directly connect wheelchair with the BCI with the persons brain
• People who don’t have their hand and leg for BCI a robotic
braces directly linked with their brain

• This will be a evolution in the medical field

Problems with BCI:

• Not able to understand the brain properly

• But by the help of MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) helps in

understanding the brain properly this is the very important
aspect to placement of EEG

• Its very bulky
Survey of devices that are currently in
• Emotiv EPOC+: Is a EEG Headset.
1. This is the device which is bet set on the head and connected
with computer wireless

2. Reads and understand brain waves

3. It understands the people’s thoughts, feelings and expressions

by a set of 14+2 alluding(references)

4. It is helpful to paralyzed people

Example: Thought Controlled Wheelchair and Create 3 D object
also helps in making video games realistic
• MUSE: This is also a headband which is being set on the head.
1. Helps in understanding brain activity

2. It has sensors behind the head and ears

3. It is being connected with the wireless computer

4. Helps to control peoples mobile devices with their thumb and

voice who are fit also very helpful to the people who suffers
from spinal cord injuries
• DARPA’s Prosthetic Arm: Allows people who have lost their
arms to control their arms by a robotic replacement arm
1. They can move their robotic arm only with their thoughts

2. It is a communication with the brain and the external device

3. With the help of robotic arms people who have lost their arms
they can work as they could have worked when they were
having their natural arms

4. Arm is not attached to the persons body in fact there is a

metal which is being surgically inserted at the end of the
bicep and then the robotic arm is being attached with the
metal part
• Orbit Helicopter: It is being set on the head with the help of
EEG headset over Bluetooth
1. It is being connected with the wireless computer

2. It protects from clashing with the objects like walls and

Who makes such devices
• Emotiv EPOC+: It was acquired in 2005 by a founder Tan Le a
Vietnamese-Australian telecommunications entrepreneur and
Nam Do with a company name called Emotiv Systems

• After that in 2010 Tan Le left the partnership with Nam DO, so
that she can start a partnership with Geoffrey Mackellar

• They both together established a US company named Emotiv

Life sciences Inc.

• Than in later 2013 they changed the name of the company to

Emotiv Inc.
• Emotiv EPOC+ was made by the company Emotiv Inc. that
takes data from the brain and then the data is being directly
transferred through the wireless Bluetooth

• MUSE: Is a device Interaxon Company which was being

brought up in 2007

• This company is having its branch in 3 places that is Canada,

Toronto, Ontario

• By the founders Ariel Garten, Chris Aimone, Trevor Coleman

• The release date of this device in public was on 2014

• This device is being put on the ears and then the data is
transferred to the connected wireless device via Bluetooth

• Meditation is only not the feature but it is also be used for the
understanding of brain activity of the students for the
educational purpose

• DARPA’s Prosthetic Arm: DARPA is the US Defense

Advanced Research Project Agency

• This device was created by inventor Dean Kamen (engineer,

inventor and businessman) and his team at DEKA Research and
Development Corp., in Manchester, N.H. which is the part of
DARPA Prosthetic Arm Program
• Orbit Helicopter: This device is being manufactured in the
Puzzlebox company in San Francisco

• This device is being made by the Steve Castellotti

Cost of such devices
• EEG Headset: Lower Price Range ($99-$1000) and in Indian
Rupee its price range is (6,615.23-66,820.50)

• Medium Range Price ($1000-$25000) and in Indian Rupee its

price range is (66,820.50-16,70,512.50)

• High Range Price ($25000+) and in Indian Rupee its price is


• Emotiv EPOC+: Cost of this device is ($799) and in Indian

Rupee is (53,389.58)
• MUSE: Cost of this device is ($299) and in Indian Rupee is

• DARPA’s Prosthetic Arm: Cost of this device is higher

($1,00,000) and in Indian Rupee is (66,82,050)

• Orbit Helicopter: Cost of this device is ($89) and in Indian

Rupee is (5,947.02)
Uses of this technology
• Restore brain-controlled walking

• People controls over prosthetic limbs

• Reading human brains

• To communicate to the real world

• Allows blind people to see but they are actually not seeing

• Allows a mute person to speak

• Entertainment and gaming

• Helps in controlling the wheelchair device

• Develop relaxation devices

• Helps ALS patients to do movements like chewing, talking

and walking
Economic and Commercial Aspects
• From the period of 2014-2020 the expected CAGR 11.5%

• In 2017 its market was valued at US$0.696 billion

• In 2023 it is expected to reach US$1.840 with a CAGR 17.59%

• In the field of neuroscience there will be a increase in demand

• The main focus of BCI is in neuroprosthetics application

• Huge investments and funds are being raised

• High economic growth will accelerate the market exponentially

• Due to lack of skilled manpower, misuse of private and
important data, and ethical issues related to BCI will restrain the
market growth

• It is highly competitive

• There will be a demand for BCI technology which is being

predicted for the period of 2014-2020

• Government is funding for the BCI system in the developing

economies like India and China
• Connection between man and machine video link:

Thank You