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VoLTE Radio Training

Part I
End to End VoLTE Analysis and Optimization workshop
10th January 2017 for LAM/NAM
Nilmini Lokuge
1 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
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Contents (day 1)

• VoLTE Introduction
• What is VoLTE?
• Network architecture
• Bearer combinations
• VoLTE Features Overview
• Features enabling VoLTE
• Features improving VoLTE performance
• Features handling VoLTE Mobility

2 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


Contents (day2)

• VoLTE Performance Analysis

• VoLTE Radio Optimization

3 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


VoLTE Introduction

4 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


CS: Circuit Switched
Introduction VoLTE: Voice over LTE
What is VoLTE?

• LTE network is packet switched only, i.e. it does not include the traditional 2G/3G voice
services (CS).
• VoLTE (Voice over LTE) is the solution to provide the Voice (VoIP) and SMS service
capability on LTE networks based on GSMA IR.92 specification:
- Real time traffic
- Quality of Service
- Interoperability to existing CS voice network
• The world's first commercial VoLTE networks were launched by LGU+ and SK Telecom
beginning of August 2012 in South Korea.

5 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


Introduction
IP Multimedia Subsystem Service Architecture
Applications/Services
• VoIP/VoLTE requires support from IP Plane
Application Application
Common OAM,
Provisioning,Bil
Servers Servers
Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) ling, etc.

- SIP (Session Initiation Protocol)


call control is used for creating, Core Network
Session Session Centralized
modifying, and terminating Control Plane Control Databases
sessions with one or more CSCF HSS

participants - SIP is transferred Access


using QCI5 bearer. Network

- IMS enables integrated voice, data


and multi-media services
interworking between different Access & Transport
access networks. Plane Other
Networks

6 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


Introduction
VoLTE Network Architecture
S6a IMS Core
HSS

Cx Sh ISC AS

Rx Mw
EPC Core PCRF P-CSCF I/S-CSCF ISC TAS
IMS

Gx Mg/Mj
MME
S1- Gm H.248
MME MAP MGCF
HLR
S11 MSS
ISUP
H.248
S-GW
S5 PGW RTP MRFP
LTE S1-U MGW

CS Core TDM

SGi PLMN/PSTN
Terminal Access Core Network Internet Application

7 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


VoLTE Bearer Combination

• VoLTE service has specific bearer combination requirements (TS 23.203).


- QCI1 dedicated bearer for the speech.
- QCI5 bearer for SIP signaling to the IMS.
- non-GBR bearer (QCI6-9) for data transfer (always-on).
QCI Guarantee Priority Delay Budget Loss Rate Application

1 GBR 2 100 ms 1e-2 VoIP


2 GBR 4 150 ms 1e-3 Video call
3 GBR 3 50 ms 1e-3 Real time gaming
4 GBR 5 300 ms 1e-6 Streaming
5 Non-GBR 1 100 ms 1e-6 IMS signalling
6 Non-GBR 6 300 ms 1e-6 Streaming, TCP
7 Non-GBR 7 100 ms 1e-3 Interactive gaming
8 Non-GBR 8 300 ms 1e-6 Streaming, TCP

8 ©9Nokia Solutions
Non-GBR 9
and Networks 2014 300 ms 1e-6
EPS default and dedicated bearers establishment for IMS APN
Access Evolved Packet Core Register IMS

MME 4. Dynamic PCC rule for


Dedicated bearer set up for IMS
1. Attach & default Voice media
bearer set up to IMS HSS
IMS servers
APN S6a (NVS)
1
S11 P-CSCF
Default bearer
SIP QCI=5 PCRF 4.
eNB S1-MME
4
S5
Gx
3. SIP signaling
2. VoIP media
SGi 5.

S-GW P- GW
Dedicated bearer S1-U 5. Voice Media
RTP QCI=1
2. IMS VOIP registration (SIP signalling) Transmission
3. Initiate IMS Voice call (SIP signalling)
9 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
VoLTE Terminal Support

• UE Capabilities:
- UE is considered as VoLTE capable if the following FGI bits are set to TRUE:
• bit 3 (5bit RLC UM SN, 7bit PDCP SN)
• bit 7 (RLC UM)
- Provided to the MME within RRC: UE Capability Information message.
• Note that there are several additional FGI bits which indicates support for other VoLTE
related functions e.g. TTI Bundling or SRVCC (bit 28)etc..

10 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


VoLTE Terminal Support

• UE Voice Preferences:
- UE indicates its voice domain preferences to the MME during initial attach or TAU procedure:
• IMS PS Voice preferred and CS Voice as secondary
• IMS PS Voice only
• CS Voice preferred and IMS PS Voice as secondary
• CS Voice only
- Signaled to the MME in the IE: Voice domain preference and UE's usage setting within Attach
Request or TAU Request message.
1. Attach Request / TAU IE: Voice domain preference and UE's usage setting

2. Attach Accept / TAU Accept IE: EPS network feature support

MME
11 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
Procedure for VoLTE Call

1. Turn the phone on


2. Attach Occur only once
• Primary Default Bearer attach (IMS APN) the phone is
• SIP REGISTER turned on
• Secondary Default Bearer attach (DATA APN)
3. Making call
• SIP INVITE
• Dedicated Bearer activation
Occur only when
• Start conversation making call
4. Call Release
• SIP BYE
• Dedicated Bearer deactivation

12 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


GS NPO CEUS / Santiparp Jamsai
VoLTE Features Overview

13 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


Mandatory Features Enhancement Features
Battery Advanced Data Improve Admission
VOLTE Saving Schedulers Reduction Coverage
Improve Mobility
Control

LTE10: EPS LTE7: Support LTE572: IMS LTE42: Delay based LTE11: Robust LTE907: TTI LTE873: SRVCC to WCDMA / LTE496: Support
bearer for of multiple EPS emergency DRX in RRC UL/DL Time header bundling LTE872: SRVCC to GSM of QCI 2, 3 , 4
conversational bearer (RL20) session (RL30) - connected mode domain scheduler compression (RL50) (RL40) (RL40)
voice (RL20) Optional (RL30) (part of LTE10, (RL20)
RL20) LTE511: intra- LTE3290: SRVCC trigger enhancement LTE534: ARP-
LTE473: LTE571: cell handover (FL17) based admission
Extendended DL and UL packet Controlled uplink (RL50) control for E-
DRX (RL30) aggregation packet LTE2112: Dedicated mobility RABs (RL40)
(Included in LTE10 segmentation LTE2098: thresholds for SRVCC (FL15A)
LTE585: Smart in RL20) (RL30) VoLTE uplink LTE497: Smart
DRX (RL50) coverage LTE64: Service based mobility admission
LTE1929: boosting thresholds (FL15A) control
LTE1406: TDD UL semi- (FL16) (RL40)
Extended VoLTE persistent LTE 1127: Service based mobility
talk time (RL70) scheduling trigger (RL70) LTE587: Multiple
(TL15A) GBR bearers
LTE1942: Dedicated VoLTE inter- per UE (RL40)
frequency target frequency list (FL15A)
LTE1321 E-RAB
LTE1617: RLF triggered handover Modification
(RL70) GBR (FL15A)

LTE1569: QCI1 specific RLF and re- LTE2832:


establishment control (FL16) SRVCC due
to admission
LTE2430:QCI1 Establishment triggered control rejection
protection timer (FL15A) (FL16A)

14 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014 LTE2572 RSRQ based B2 (FL17)


Features Enabling VoLTE:

LTE7: Support for Multiple EPS Bearer


LTE10: EPS Bearers for Conversational Voice
LTE572: IMS Emergency Call Handling

15 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE7: Support for Multiple EPS Bearers
Bearer Combinations
• Support of Multiple EPS Bearers is a prerequisite for voice support.
• Bearer Combination Control (BCC) checks if number and type of Data Radio Bearers is in
line with UE capabilities, e.g. Feature Group Indicators (FGI).
• Support of different radio bearer configurations per UE depends also on features, which
are activated in eNB.

Features #DRBAM #DRBUM Total #DRB #DRBGBR

LTE5 Radio bearer and S1 bearer establishment and release 1 0 1 0


LTE7 Support of multiple EPS bearers 4 0 4 0
LTE10 EPS bearers for conversational voice 4 1 5 1
LTE496 Support of QCI 2,3, and 4 4 1 5 1
LTE587 Multiple GBR bearers per UE 5 3 8 3
LTE520 8 EPS bearers per UE 8 0 8 0

16 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE10: EPS Bearers for Conversational Voice
With and without the feature
• There are no mechanisms to • Dedicated GBR bearer with
LTE10 ensure QoS for VoLTE users on LTE10
Not activated QCI1 is introduced for VoLTE Activated
the radio interface service
• VoLTE treated in the same • VoLTE packets are
way as any other traffic prioritized to fit into
• e2e QoS support not configured delay target
supported

LTE coverage area LTE coverage area

Voice requires two bearers: QCI 1 for user data, QCI 5 for IMS signaling
operator can offer high quality voice services over LTE based on IMS
17 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
LTE10: EPS Bearers for Conversational Voice
QCI1Tab1 Parameters

• The parameter actConvVoice enables the support for QCI 1 bearers and VoLTE
associated parameters within qciTab1 parameter structure in the LNBTS object.
• The PDCP profile index (pdcpProf101) provides a pointer towards a set of PDCP parameters.
• The RLC profile index (rlcProf101) provides a pointer towards a set of RLC parameters. The RLC
layer is configured to use Unacknowledged Mode (UM) because the delays associated with RLC
re-transmissions are too great for the voice service.
• The DRX profile index provides a pointer towards a set of DRX parameters. drxProfile2 is
applicable to UE which do not support short DRX cycles, while drxSmartProfile2 is applicable to
UE which do support short DRX cycles.
• The DSCP parameter is used for prioritisation and packet handling across the transport network.

18 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE10 : EPS Bearers for Conversational Voice
Admission Control

• QCI1 bearer is also subject to Admission Control procedure:


• When the QCI1 bearer is to be established the same thresholds are checked against the request
for new bearer i.e. number of active users (maxNumActUE) and number of DRBs
(maxNumActDrb) and additional thresholds which controls the number of QCI1 bearers in the cell
(maxNumQci1Drb).
• Smart Admission Control for GBR bearers:
• When Smart Admission Control is enabled the threshold for the number of QCI1 bearers is
replaced by a GBR resource block utilisation threshold (maxGbrTrafficLimit) and new threshold is
then applied to all GBR bearers.
• Resource block utilisation threshold is introduced by Smart Admission Control, which is part of the
feature bundle that consist of the following feature: ‘LTE496 Support of QCI2,3 and 4’, ‘LTE497
Smart Admission Control’ and ‘LTE534 ARP Admission Control

19 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE10 : EPS Bearers for Conversational Voice
Admission Control

• New GBR bearer can be admitted only if GBR-traffic with new bearer will not exceed the
configured threshold (e.g. maxGbrTrafficLimit = 75%).
• Also the requested GBR of the bearer is checked against eNB configured thresholds
(maxGbrDl and maxGbrUl)
• GBR limit of the EPS bearer are transferred via S1 interface (IE: GBR QoS Information)
• If GBR limit requested by MME is higher than GBR bitrate of QCI1 bearer the VoLTE call is
rejected.

20 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE10 : EPS Bearers for Conversational Voice
Setting the maxGbrDl/Ul
• Note that the QCI1 bearer maxGBRDL/UL limit should be set so that it is always bigger
than the GBR limit received from the MME (S1).
- If not set according to above admission control would reject the ERAB setup
- If too large then admission control would try to reserve too large amount of resources
for the UE hence AC could again reject the ERAB setup
- The ERAB modifications can modify the GBR limit given by the MME e.g. in case of
conference calls so the maxGbrDl/Ul limit should be set so that it covers the highest
used value:
• In case of 3 UEs are setting up the conference call then MME (IMS) temporarily modifies the GBR to 104kbps
(single call is 52kbps) for the duration of call on hold – once all A+B+C party are in conference call the MME
(IMS) modifies the GBR again back to 52kbps
• Similarly in case of 4 UEs in conference call the MME (IMS) modifies the GBR to 152kbps

21 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE1321: E-RAB Modification - GBR
GBR Bearer Modification
• From TL15A/FL15A onwards - LTE1321 allows additionally
modification of GBR and MBR for GBR Bearers. Bearer
Combination
• Modification of QoS parameters GBR and MBR for an Control
established GBR EPS Bearers is now possible and provides the
operators additional flexibility in bearer management:
Radio
- Modification of GBR rate for ongoing call in case of SRVCC from LTE to Admission Control
2G/3G/CDMA
- Modification of GBR when your call is forwarded to voicemail
• E-RAB modification is considered by every functional unit of AC Transport
separately Admission Control
- If at least one unit (BCC, RAC or TAC) rejects request, modification will
not be admitted
- If only bit rate decrease is requested, there is no need to trigger AC
mechanisms
22 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
LTE10 : EPS Bearers for Conversational Voice
Allocation and Retention Priority (ARP)

• Under high GBR load conditions, new GBR bearer can be admitted if following
conditions are fulfilled:
• new bearer has higher ARP priority than some of the already admitted bearers
• new bearer has preemption capability set to ‘yes’
• some of the ongoing GBR bearers has preemption vulnerability

23 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE10 : EPS bearers for conversational voice
Impact on Radio Resource Management

• Scheduler
‒ Dynamic scheduling is applied for EPS bearers with QCI1.
‒ The uplink and downlink scheduler use the GBR delay budget for its scheduling decisions. The
delay budget can be configured by the operator (delayTarget, scheduling BSD, scheduling
weights, etc..)
‒ Non-GBR data transmission might be reduced in order to achieve the GBR for voice users.
‒ Voice service (as based on GBR bearers) is not subjected to rate capping functions
• During silence periods, Silence Insertion Descriptor (SID) packets are transmitted for
user comfort (160ms intervals)

24 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE10 : EPS bearers for conversational voice

• Packet aggregation means several packets are grouped before transmitting across the
air-interface, e.g. the first packet can be delayed 20ms (in case of aggregation of 2
packets) while every second one is delivered at the correct time.
- More VoLTE users can be served due to reduced signaling load (PDCCH & PHICH).
- Packet delay is increased but the scheduler ensures the target delay budget.

1 2 3 4
20ms 20ms 20ms 20ms

Packet 2 Packet 4
2 on time 4 on time
Packet 1 Packet 3
1 1 20ms late 3 3 20ms late
20ms 20ms 20ms 20ms

25 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE10 : EPS bearers for conversational voice
Packet Aggregation

• Maximum order of packet aggregation in uplink is based on configured parameters:


- ulsMaxPacketAgg Controls max. number of aggregated VoIP packets in UL.
- delayTarget (part of the QCI1 Tab structure) determines the max. packet delay by the scheduler
and affects the maximum aggregation level, i.e. if target is set too small value (< 60ms) no
packet aggregation can be performed.
- Aggregation will be used only under high GBR load.
- Packet aggregation is not used for power limited UEs (cell edge) due to less number of PRBs
available in PUSCH
- Note :UL packet aggregation limits gains from DRX, i.e. scheduler delays UL grant until sufficient
number of VoIP packets is aggregated and thus, UE stays in DRX Active mode between first
Scheduling Request and UL Transmission.

26 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


OLTDC: Outer Loop Target
LTE10 : EPS bearers for conversational voice
Delay Control
Packet Aggregation – Downlink
• Maximum order of packet aggregation in downlink depends on load conditions,
experienced delays and OLTDC settings:
- DL packet aggregation can be switched on/off using actDlsVoicePacketAgg but maximum number
of aggregated packets cannot be configured by the parameter.
- Number of packets to be aggregated is controlled by OLTDC mechanism, i.e. aggregation level is
matched to channel conditions (HARQ ReTx, propagation delays)
- OLTDC evaluates the actual scheduling delay of voice packet and compares it with delay target:
• if packet exceeds delayTarget → UE priority is increased
• if packet send within delayTarget → UE priority is decreased

27 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE572: IMS emergency sessions
Emergency Calls

• IMS emergency sessions (LTE572) is a feature that provides special handling of


emergency calls (e.g. 112).
- Feature LTE572 can only be activated if the features LTE10 (Conversational Voice) and LTE007
(Multiple Bearers) are activated.
• Emergency calls are also handled by basic Admission Control.
- LTE eNB will admit all emergency sessions until operator configurable thresholds
(maxNumRrcEmergency) are reached.
- Emergency sessions are prioritized at bearer establishment over normal sessions.

28 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


Document ID / v. 0.1 / Life cycle status / Dept. / Author
Features Improving VoLTE
Performance:
LTE 11: Robust Header Compression
LTE 571: Controlled UL Packet Segmentation
LTE 907: TTI Bundling
LTE1929: TDD UL Semi-Persistent Scheduling
LTE 1406: Extended VoLTE Talk Time
LTE1617: RLF Triggered Handover
LTE2098: VoLTE Uplink Coverage Boosting
LTE2430: QCI1 Establishment Triggered Protection Timer
LTE1569 QCI1 specific RLF and re-establishment control
29 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
LTE11: Robust Header Compression (RoHC)

• Robust header compression compresses the header of IP/UDP/RTP packets for the
EPS bearer with QCI1 to avoid to transfer high overheads across the air-interface.
- IP/UDP/RTP headers size can be either 40 bytes for IPv4 or even 60 bytes for IPv6.
• PDCP layer is able to compress the RTP/UDP/IP headers
• RoHC improves uplink link budget due
to less bandwidth needed per user (i.e.
lower MCS can be used) which translates
to greater cell range.
• Throughput requirement is reduced and
thus, more VoLTE users can be
scheduled or better voice codecs can be
used.

30 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE11: Robust Header Compression (RoHC)
Overheads

> RTP/UDP/IP headers of 40 Bytes are VoLTE / VoLTE +


compressed to typically 3 Bytes with No RoHC RoHC
RoHC (Robust Header Compression)
> RoHC results in ~ 50% reduction of Bit rate 12.2 kbps 12.2 kbps
data volume at the air interface, i.e.
100% capacity improvement and/or Voice packet size 244 bit 244 bit
~3 dB gain in link budget @ NB-
AMR RTP/UDP/IP headers 320 bit 24 bit
VoIP overhead 57% 9%

VoLTE: RoHC is activated by default at QCI1 bearer establishment


RoHC usage is controlled by operator settings

31 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE11: Robust Header Compression (RoHC)
AMR Codecs & Bitrates with RoHC
• Single VoIP packet transports voice data from time period of 20ms.
• VoIP throughput is defined by the voice codec and overhead introduced by lower layers.
- Calculation assumes 40 bits for PDCP (1 byte) + RoHC (4 bytes) header size.

32 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


<Change information classification in footer>
LTE571: Packet Segmentation

• Packet Segmentation algorithm is used as an extension to the uplink link adaptation to improve the
UL cell edge performance.
- In worsening radio conditions scheduler performs packet segmentation on Layer 2 in order to use
more robust MCS and transmits the packet over multiple TTIs.
- Since RLC/MAC overhead is transmitted more than once, more resources are consumed to
transmit the same amount of user data.
- As number of transmitted packets increases, more resources on PDCCH are utilized and also on
PHICH due to transmission of ACKs/NACKs for HARQ purposes.

#Segments L2 SDU Headers All bytes Overhead


1 288 40 328 12%
2 288 80 368 22%
4 288 160 448 36%

33 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE571: Packet Segmentation
Controlled UL Packet Segmentation

• Controlled UL packet segmentation means that the extent of segmentation can be


configured with following parameters:
- ulsMinTbs defines the minimum amount of data a UE can send in a TTI. The lower this
setting is, the higher the number of segments a packet can be divided in. This will increase
user robustness by increasing the energy per packet, but more radio resources are consumed
due to increased RLC/MAC overhead.
- ulsMinRbPerUe defines the minimum number of PRBs that can be occupied by UE which is
power limited. It prevents the UE of being allocated a too low number of PRBs.

Packet segmentation is not an event-triggered mechanism, it is done automatically and


only for UEs with poor radio channel.

34 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE907: TTI Bundling
Feature Description
• TTI bundling is specified in 3GPP (TS 36.213, 36.321) to allow the improved uplink
performance for cell border UEs (which often hit the maximum transmission power) and
for reduced PDCCH load.
• TTI bundling allows for transmitting the same transport block in 4 consecutive UL
subframes (also known as bundle size), which leads to increased energy per transmitted
bit and therefore improved uplink link budget.
- When BLER increases and Link Adaptation has no TTIB
more options for MCS/PRB reduction while radio activation
conditions for handover are not fulfilled, TTI Bundling
can be triggered to sustain the voice call quality before
UE will either change the cell or RF conditions
becomes better.
- Note that TTI Bundling mode is also maintained during
the handover (if target cell supports TTI Bundling).
HO
conditions
35 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014 fulfilled
LTE907: TTI Bundling
Transmission Characteristic

• A single transport block is encoded and transmitted with different redundancy versions in
four (4) consecutive UL subframes, i.e. within a bundle.
- A single UL grant on PDCCH is used for each bundle.
- HARQ feedback is only received (and transmitted) for the last subframe of a bundle. HARQ process ID is same for
each of the bundled subframes.
- HARQ retransmission of a TTI bundle, which is also transmitted as a bundle, occurs 16 TTIs after previous
(re)transmission in order to be synchronized with normal (non-bundled) LTE HARQ retransmissions (8 TTIs)

TTI # 1 2 4 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

UL Grant on PDCCH
1st bundle Retransmission of 1st bundle
Tx on PUSCH 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 0 0 0 0

ACK/NACK on PHICH N A A A

HARQ RTT = 16 TTIs

36 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE907: TTI Bundling
UL Coverage Gain
• TTI Bundling feature improves UL Link Budget because it is
possible to increase the number of retransmissions within a
specific delay budget (i.e. time during which Transport Block
retransmissions can occur before it will be dropped)
- Maximum number of TB transmissions (within 50 ms delay budget)
in normal mode is equal to 7 while in TTI Bundling mode is equal to
12 which leads to 2.34 dB (=10xlog(7/12)) gain in uplink pathloss.
- Increasing delay budget up to 53ms, higher gains can be achieved,
i.e. up to 3.59 dB (=10xlog(7/16)), as one more bundle that consist
of 4 Transport Blocks can be transmitted.

transmission
8ms RTT

TTI Bundling
16ms RTT

37 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE907: TTI Bundling
Trigger Criterion to Enter TTI Bundling Mode

• The trigger condition to start TTI bundling of a UE shall be fulfilled if:


1. UE is transmitting with currentMCS <= eUlLaLowMcsThr (1), AND
2. MAX_NUM_PRB <= max (eUlLaLowPrbThr (1), ulsMinRbPerUe (3)) AND
3. ttiBundlingBlerThreshold (15%) threshold is reached.
• This trigger condition shall be checked with every UL transmission of the UEs and if the
trigger condition is fulfilled, the eNB shall inititate the process to start TTI bundling for the
UE.
• The switching between ‘normal mode’ and ‘TTI bundling mode’ is performed with the help
of the intra-cell handover procedure (feature LTE511 introduced in RL50 release)
- Intra-cell handover is required to synchronize eNB and UE in the new transmission mode i.e. TTI
bundling.

38 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE907: TTI Bundling
Trigger Criterion to Leave TTI Bundling Mode

• The trigger condition to stop TTI bundling of a UE shall be fulfilled if:


- the averaged UL SINR must be greater than, or equal to the last known SINR before the UE was
switched into TTI bundling mode, plus an offset value 0.1dB.
- Average UL SINR ≥ ttiBundlingSinrThreshold (1)
• The UL SINR to stop TTI bundling and start normal operation mode is measured on
PUSCH.
- In each UL TTI, one SINR sample shall be generated. This produces four SINR samples for each
complete TTI bundle.

39 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE907: TTI Bundling
Challenge to Trigger TTIB Current
Trigger

TTIB is not triggered due to high #PRBs

40 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE907: TTI Bundling
TTI Bundling Gain – Laboratory Test
• VoLTE coverage (above POLQA2.5) increased by 2.5dB (harqMaxTrUlTtiBundling=24):

41 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE907: TTI Bundling
TTI Bundling Impact

1. 0.95% improvement in customer VoLTE DCR after TTI Bundling activation


2. This improvement resulted from high % of UE in TTI bundling mode and high traffic of
VoLTE calls

42 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE1406: Extended VoLTE Talk Time –RL70/55TD
Feature Description

• One of the most important aspects for LTE users is a battery consumption:
- If UE does not check PDCCH continously (only during DRX ACTIVE state) energy savings can be
achieved.
- LTE42 DRX in RRC Connected Mode feature introduces several DRX profiles. One of them is DRX
Profile 2 which is optimized for VoIP traffic.
• Features gain from DRX are improved by LTE 1406 introducing:
- Alignment of the Scheduling Request (SR) timing with the DRX 'ON' timing
- Adjustment of SR Periodicity to DRX Long Cycle length
- Dedicated BLER target and number of HARQ retransmissions for VoLTE UEs
• LTE1406 can be applied only for the UEs with QCI1 bearer

43 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE1406: Extended VoLTE Talk Time

• Alignment of the Scheduling Request (SR) timing with the DRX 'ON' timing
- Scheduling Request is allocated 3 TTIs before periodic CQI (pCQI). As a result UL Grant on
PDCCH can be provided at earliest 1ms after pCQI (SR , 4ms) - UE is already in DRX Active state
when it sends pCQI then additional DRX Active state caused by sending Scheduling Request is
avoided
• Adjustment of Scheduling Request periodicity to Long DRX Cycle for the UEs with QCI1
bearer drxProfile2:drxLongCycle (40ms)

44 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE1406: Extended VoLTE Talk Time

• Lower number of HARQ Retransmissions increases gains from the DRX:


- According to the 3GPP, UE must be in DRX Active state when an uplink grant for a pending HARQ
retransmission can occur, i.e.UE will read PDCCH harqMaxTrUl -1 times after initial transmission.
- Maximum number of HARQ transmissions in UL and DL, for the UEs with eVTT profile, is
controlled by means of dedicated parameters qci1HarqMaxTrUl and qci1HarqMaxTrDl

UE must monitor PDCCH due to HARQ retransmissions

DRX Active
UL Data
Grant

ACK
UL

DRX Sleep

DRX Active
UL Data
Grant

ACK
UL

DRX Sleep

45 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE1406: Extended VoLTE Talk Time

• Dedicated BLER target for QCI 1


- To compensate reduction in number of HARQ retransmissions the lower UL (qci1UlTargetBler) and
DL (qci1DlTargetBler) Target BLER can be configured for the UEs with eVTT profile.
- With lower Target BLER, Link Adaptation in UL and DL adjusts MCS faster to changing radio
conditions, i.e. MCS can be downgraded or upgraded faster than with BLER=10%.
• Feature LTE1406 introduces also additional mechanisms that prevent ping-pong effect
and limits number of reconfiguration during single VoLTE call.
- Dedicated timer (qci1ReconfStop) which is used to prevent ping-pong effect in reconfiguration
between standard and QCI1-optimized modes.
- Number of possible transitions to/from dedicated QCI1 settings has been limited to 3

46 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE1406: Extended VoLTE Talk Time

Evaluation Item Result


Improved 1hour battery life time.
Battery consumption Before: 13.75h / After: 14:75h
improvement
Feature gain
tests Activation Rate: 99.8%
eVTT activation Rate To check how much VoLTE calls can enter eVTT
activation state.

Silence Time No changes after eVTT activation.


@highway
@Cell edge
Degradation
tests No changes after eVTT activation.
Multi-Call (VoLTE+HTTP) HTTP Success time
Before: 2.38sec / After: 2.32sec

47 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE1406: Extended VoLTE Talk Time - SmartLab

• The graph shows the current


consumption results for the
talk time, listen time, and
silent time for each
parameter scenario.
• The best configuration for
cDRX is the same
regardless of eVTT setting:
drxLongCycle = 40ms,
drxShortCycle = 40ms,
drxOnDuratT = 4.
• There is no relevant change in
MOS

48 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE1406: Extended VoLTE Talk Time - SmartLab

• The following test cases are


executed in bad RF
conditions (~-110 dBm):
- LTE1406 = off, Reference
- LTE1406 = on, HARQ = 5,
BLER = 10 (default settings)
- LTE1406 = on, HARQ = 3,
BLER = 2
- LTE1406 = on, HARQ = 4,
BLER = 5

49 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE1929: TDD UL Semi-Persistent Scheduling
Overview of SPS Scheduling

• With Semi-Persistent Scheduling eNB can allocate radio resources to UEs for a
sequence of TTIs that repeats with a certain periodicity via one PDCCH signal
• Due to periodic and predictable characteristics of VoLTE traffic, SPS can be used to
reduce PDCCH signaling needed for VoLTE
• SPS is applied only for EPS bearers with QCI=1 (VoLTE calls)
VoLTE call
Talkspurt Talkspurt
Silence
20ms
… 20ms 160ms …… 160ms 20ms … 20ms

VoIP packets SID packets are scheduled dynamically VoIP packets


SPS grant SPS grant
TTI
for talkspurt for talkspurt

50 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
LTE1929: TDD UL Semi-Persistent Scheduling
Benefits and Gain

• The principle of uplink Semi Persistent Scheduling is to schedule VoIP UEs without
usage of PDCCH on previously reserved PRBs. This solution creates following
benefits in case of large number of VoIP UEs in the network:
- Smaller PDCCH usage and therefore lower level of PDCCH blocking
- Higher number of UEs which can be scheduled in single TTI
- Lower delays of VoIP packets (packets sent quickly after arrival without aggregation)
- More opportunities to schedule lower priority non-GBR bearers which leads to higher cell
throughput

51 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE1617: RLF Triggered Handover
RRC Connection Re-establishment Procedure - Basic Information
UE eNB
• During cell selection process any LTE cell
may be selected by the UE as a target for
RLF, HO failure, mobility from E-UTRA re-establishment:
failure, integrity check failure, RRC • For no handover procedure ongoing
connection reconfiguration failure detected • serving cell
• neighbor cell of serving eNB
Cell selection process acc. to 36.304 • neighbor cell of other eNB
• For ongoing handover procedure
PRACH Random Access (Msg1)
Random • source cell
Access • target cell
PRACH Random Access Response (Msg2) procedure • neighbor cell of source eNB
• neighbor cell of target eNB
RRCConnectionReestablishmentRequest (Msg3) • neighbor cell of other eNB

RRCConnectionReestablishment (Msg4)
RRC connection • 3GPP states that connection re-
re-establishment establishment procedure may be successful
procedure from only if the selected cell is prepared cell so
RRCConnectionReestablishmentComplete (Msg5)
RRC protocol has valid UE Context available in this cell
point of view

52 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
LTE1617: RLF Triggered Handover

• LTE1617 RLF triggered handover available from RL70/RL55TD onwards allows for re-
establishment even towards the unprepared cell

UE UE served by cell A Re-establishment directed to an


with valid UE Context unprepared cell B
with no UE Context valid for the UE

UE initially served by cell A

RLF, HO failure, mobility from E-UTRA failure,


integrity check failure detected by the UE
triggers re-establishment procedure

Unprepared cell B is selected during cell selection process + successfully Random Access to this cell is done

RRCConnectionReestablishmentRequest

LTE1617 RLF triggered handover functionality allows for retrieving the UE Context from cell A to
unprepared cell B which becomes a prepared cell suitable for accept re-establishment request
RRCConnectionReestablishment

RRCConnectionReestablishmentComplete

53 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE1617: RLF Triggered Handover
RRC connection re-establishment procedure to other eNB
UE Serving Other Successful case (1/3)
eNB eNB

Cell A Cell B • RRC:RRCConnectionReestablishmentRequest


with valid UE Context sent by the UE to the cell B covers information
UE initially served by cell A
about PCI, C-RNTI, shortMAC-I used so far in
serving cell A
RLF, integrity check failure detected • Based on the received PCI value, Other eNB
recognizes that the so far serving cell A does not
Cell B selected during cell selection process acc. to 36.304
belong to Other eNB
• This is the trigger for sending of X2AP: RLF
PRACH Random Access (Msg1)
INDICATION by Other eNB
PRACH Random Access Response (Msg2) • The crucial information is that X2AP: RLF
RRCConnectionReestablishmentRequest (Msg3) INDICATION message is sent to all eNBs for
(PCI, C-RNTI, short MAC-I
which NR is identified by PCI signaled in
X2AP: RLF INDICATION RLF triggered
related to serving Cell) Inter-eNB RRC:RRCConnectionReestablishment (the
handover serving eNB is one of them); this may happen
because PCI values 0…503 are repeated in the
network

54 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE1617: RLF Triggered Handover
RRC connection re-establishment procedure to other eNB
Other neighbor
eNB, having the cell Successful case (2/3)
identified by the
UE same PCI as the
Serving Other
PCI of Cell A of
eNB eNB • Example: the database of Other eNB may cover
Serving eNB
two active NRs to cells identified by PCI=10
Cell C, PCI=10 Cell A, PCI=10 Cell B which are handled by Serving eNB (cell A
with valid UE Context
identified by PCI=10) and other neighbor eNB
(cell C identified by PCI=10)
RRCConnectionReestablishmentRequest (Msg3) • To both of these eNBs X2AP: RLF INDICATION
message is sent with PCI=10, C-RNTI,
(PCI=10, C-RNTI, shortMAC-I related to serving cell)
shortMAC-I
X2AP: RLF INDICATION
• Other neighbor eNB, handling cell C, has no
X2AP message ignored due valid UE Context for the considered UE; this is
(PCI=10, C-RNTI, shortMAC-I related to serving cell,
to lack of UE Context ECGI of unprepared cell of Other eNB)
the reason other neighbor eNB ignores
identified by C-RNTI incoming X2AP: RLF INDICATION message
X2AP: RLF INDICATION
X2AP message received by • C-RNTI sent in X2AP:RLF INDICATION
(PCI=10, C-RNTI, shortMAC-I related to serving cell,
message and received by Serving eNB
Serving eNB with valid UE ECGI of unprepared cell of Other eNB)
Context is a trigger for inter-eNB matches to an UE Context which is still valid in
HO, because received C-RNTI the Serving eNB; this check is a trigger for
and shortMAC-I match the values inter-eNB handover from Serving eNB to Other
of existing UE Context
eNB
55 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
LTE1617: RLF Triggered Handover
RRC connection re-establishment procedure to other eNB
UE Serving Other Successful case (3/3)
eNB eNB

Cell A Cell B • X2AP: HANDOVER REQUEST message is sent


with valid UE Context towards Other eNB; this way UE Context is
UE initially served by cell A
provided to Other eNB which handles Cell B,
selected by the UE as re-establishment target cell
RLF, integrity check failure detected • Assuming that Admission Control does not reject
Cell B selected during cell selection process acc. to 36.304 X2AP: HANDOVER REQUEST, initially
PRACH Random Access (Msg1) unprepared cell B becomes a prepared cell (UE
Context is provided to other eNB) and re-
PRACH Random Access Response (Msg2)
establishment procedure may be successfully
RRCConnectionReestablishmentRequest (Msg3)
completed
X2AP: RLF INDICATION •
RLF triggered X2AP: HANDOVER REQUEST is directed to
Inter-eNB Other eNB based on the content of IE:Re-
X2AP: HANDOVER REQUEST handover
establishment cell ECGI of the X2AP: RLF
Admission Control INDICATION message
X2AP: HANDOVER REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE
X2AP: UE CONTEXT RELEASE
RRCConnectionReestablishment (Msg4)

RRCConnectionReestablishmentComplete (Msg5)

56 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE1617: RLF Triggered Handover
RRC Connection Re-establishment Improvement
• The gain should come from the RRC establishment success rate improvement and
therefore reduced mute time, i.e. silence period due to the RLF and rrc connection re-
establishment.

RRC connection re-establishment time above does not include


the UE context fetching process, i.e. additional 50-100ms

57 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE1617: RLF Triggered Handover
RLF HO Performance at High Speed Train (Shinkansen) for VoLTE

2100M 900M
VoLTE DL 2.1G Round-trip Data VoLTE DL 900M Round-trip Data
w/o With w/o With
Result Result
RLF HO RLF HO RLF HO RLF HO
Silence Time 7.9sec Silence Time 5.8sec
32.9 25 21.3 15.5
[sec] decrease [sec] decrease
Re-Est Att Re-Est Att
38 24 14times less 10 12 2 times more
[#] [#]
Re-Est Re-Est
19 20 1time more 3 8 5 times more
SUCC Att[#] SUCC Att[#]
33.3% 36.7%
Re-Est SR[%] 50.0 83.3 Re-Est SR[%] 30.0 66.7
improvement improvement

58 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE1617 RLF Triggered Handover
Field Measurements

59 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE2098: VoLTE Uplink Coverage Boosting
Feature Description

• Feature LTE2098 introduced in FL16/TL16 release aims at improving UL coverage for


VoLTE UEs i.e. the ones with QCI1 bearer established

• The feature is activated on the LNCEL level by means of dedicated feature activation
flag namely actVoipCovBoost

• Feature LTE2098 provides better UL coverage for the UEs with QCI1 bearer
established by introduction of:
- Sensitivity based UL Resource Allocation (RA): Sensitivity based selection of #PRB and MCS if
UE enters power limitation (PHR<0)
- Reduction of aperiodic CQI reporting: Aperiodic CQI reports are requested only for initial
transmissions of 1st fragment of regular transmissions or 1st TTI of a TTI Bundling transmission
- Improved UL receiver: more robust Channel Estimation (CE), improved Noise Power
Estimation algorithm
60 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
Nokia Internal Use
LTE2098: VoLTE Uplink Coverage Boosting
Benefits and Gains
• VoLTE UL Coverage Boosting feature brings up to about 1.24 dB gain on cell edge over regular
deployment (without TTI Bundling activated) and up to about 2.5 dB gain in scenarios with TTI
Bundling activated
• UL VoLTE coverage can be enhanced up to even 5 dB when both TTI Bundling and VoLTE UL
Coverage Boosting are in use

General assumptions Link Budget calculation results (UL link only)


• Operating band: 2600 MHz VoLTE UL Cov. UL TTIB and
• Channel bandwidth: 10 MHz Boosting: 0.89 km VoLTE UL Cov.
• Antenna gain: (without TTI Bundling) Boosting: 1.1 km
• eNB: 22 dBi
• UE: 0 dBi
• eNB configuration:
• DL: 2Tx-2Rx
• UL: 1Tx-2Rx
• Service: AMR-NB 12.2
• Clutter type: Urban Baseline: 0.84 km TTI Bundling: 1.00 km
Nokia Internal Use
(without TTIB and LTE2098) (without LTE2098)
61 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
LTE2098: VoLTE Uplink Coverage Boosting
Field Trial Results

• VUCB improved +3 dB
at POLQA MOS = 3 in
cell edge situation.

• VUCB+TTIB improved
+5 dB at POLQA MOS
= 3 in cell edge
situation.

62 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


Nokia Internal Use
LTE2430: QCI1 Establishment Triggered Protection Timer
Introduction- 15A

• LTE2430 feature is intended to be used for VoLTE call setups where QCI1 bearer is
created in a very early phase of the setup procedure but there is no traffic on QCI1
bearer until B-party answers the call
LNCEL:inactivityTimer (U-plane: DL and UL)
No UE release due to ongoing
MAC inactivity timer
C-Plane inactivity timer and
LNCEL:qci1ProtectionTimer QCI1 timer
QCI1 protection timer UE release all
timers expired
Note: Simplified overview of UE specific timers controlled by eNB

• The feature prevents VoLTE UE from going to RRC_IDLE mode due to inactivity during
ringtone which may last longer compared to normal RRC inactivity timer – now eNB
supports the QCI1 protection timer to avoid that problem

63 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
LTE2430: QCI1 Establishment Triggered Protection Timer
Feature activation

Activation, deactivation and configuration of the feature LTE2430 QCI1 establishment


triggered protection timer:
• A new LNBTS level parameter actRrcConnNoActivity is introduced to activate and deactivate the
optional feature - The feature is deactivated by default
• A new LNCEL level parameter qci1ProtectionTimer is introduced to allow the operator to
configure the maximum time between QCI1 bearer establishment and the release of the UE to
RRC idle mode

Note: LTE735 RRC Connection Re-establishment (strictly internal information)


• In case of a re-establishment, the timer is removed and the re-established bearer is no longer
protected by QCI1 timer.

64 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
LTE2430: QCI1 Establishment Triggered Protection Timer
Benefits and Gains

• Feature LTE2430 QCI1 establishment triggered protection


timer prevents VoLTE UE from going to RRC_IDLE mode due
to inactivity during ringtone which may last longer compared to
normal RRC inactivity timer
- LTE2430 saves signaling capacity and improves VoLTE setup
success rate from End-User perspective and avoids a ringing UE
being idle balanced to a layer where QCI1 traffic is not desired

65 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
LTE1569 QCI1 specific RLF and re-establishment control
3GPP TS 36.331

• UE “normal operation” means that other operations


supervised by timers are not running: T310 stop
T310 start T311 start T311 stop
− UE not waiting for RRC Connection Setup/Reject
T310 T311
(T300* not running)
First Phase Second Phase
− UE not waiting for RRC Re-establishment
Radio
Establishment/Reject (T301* not running) normal
problem
no recovery during no recovery during
goes back to idle
operation T310 T311
− handover not ongoing (T304* not running) detection

− No RLF recovery ongoing (T311 not running) RRC_CONNECTED RRC_IDLE


• During RLF/Reestablishment procedure various
timers/counters are checked: Radio Link
Failure
− Counter N310 specifies consecutive number of out- N310
consecutive No or less than
of-sync indications out-of-sync N311 RRC connection Cell reselection
and Tracking Area
− Timer T310 supervises the recovery from physical indications consecutive in- re-establishment
sync indications attempted during Update if RRC Re-
layer problems. Started after N310 successive out-of- Establishment fails
during T310 T311
sync indications from physical layer
− Timer T311 supervises the RRC connection re-
establishment
• Radio Link Failure is triggered by UE after T310 expiry

66 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
LTE1569: QCI1 Specific RLF and Re-establishment Control
Motivation for LTE1569 – RLF detection by UE

RLF and re-establishment are controlled by parameters common for both: non-VoLTE and VoLTE users

In case of data bearers different than QCI1 it is


reasonable to set N310 and T310 to high values in order
to give a UE chance for go back from out-of-sync. N310 – Out-of-Sync N311 – In-of-Sync
indicators indicators

In case of VoLTE (QCI1) it is recommended to trigger RLF time


and re-establishment earlier and move the call to the start T310 stop T310
better cell. T310
Higher value of N310 and T310 impacts on the VoLTE
quality (real-time service -> degradation of end user End user experience degradation due to high
experience may be expected). BLER
From the VoLTE point of view it is beneficial to trigger
re-establishment procedure earlier than for other UEs.

67 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
LTE1569 QCI1 specific RLF and re-establishment control
Before & after LTE1569
Before
• The RLF and re-establishment procedure are controlled by parameters (N310 and T310) common
for all UEs
• no VoLTE (QCI1) UE specific parameters for detection of RLF, triggering of RRC Connection Re-
establishment procedure is common for all UEs
• Low value of N310 and T310 causes earlier RLF detection by all UEs -> earlier triggering of re-
establishment for all UEs (high C-plane load)
• From VoLTE point of view possible end user experience degradation and call drops

After
• N310 and T310 can be configured using VoLTE users specific values
• VoLTE dedicated T310 and N310 values allows VoLTE users to detect RLF at different conditions in
comparison to non-VoLTE users
• It allows the UE to perform re-establishment in poor RF conditions earlier for QCI1 calls, hence helping to
reduce probability of end user experience degradation and RF loss detection at the eNB

68 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
LTE1569 QCI1 specific RLF and re-establishment control
Benefits and Gains
Better end user experience and call drop optimization

Configuration of separate T310 and N310 values for VoLTE UEs vs. non-VoLTE
UEs allows the operator to set smaller values for VoLTE calls

It allows the UE to perform re-establishment in poor RF conditions earlier for QCI1


calls

• Better call quality and end user experience


• Reduction of probability of RF loss detection at the eNB (decreasing of call drop
rate is expected)

69 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
LTE1569: QCI1 Specific RLF and Re-establishment Control
Field Trial Results

• Set 1: Initial ERAB drop rate for QCI1 with feature not activated T310=2,000ms, N310=N10
=> 0.79%
• Set 2: by reduction of T310qci1 to 1,000ms and N310qci1=n8 improvement of ERAB DR QCI1
=> 0.61%

VoLTE capable Rel. 9 UEs during test: > 80% => Higher penetration would even improve result
70 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
Nokia Internal Use
Features Handling VoLTE
Mobility:
LTE 1127: Service based Mobility Trigger
LTE1942: Dedicated VoLTE inter-frequency target frequency list
LTE872: SRVCC to WCDMA
LTE873: SRVCC to GSM
LTE3290: SRVCC Trigger Enhancements
LTE2832: SRVCC due to Admission Control Rejection
LTE2112: Dedicated Mobility Thresholds for SRVCC
LTE64: Service based Mobility Thresholds

71 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE1127: Service Based Mobility Trigger
Feature Description RL70/55TD

• QCI1 traffic steering to VoLTE preferred frequency layers.


• By using specific frequency layer to VoLTE, average throughput of UEs served by non-
VoLTE preferred frequencies is improved.
• Service based handover procedures are similar to Load Balancing but separate timers
and thresholds are introduced.
• SBHO has higher priority than Load Based handover.
• Whenever IF/IRAT event is reported by UE, Service Based (SB) and Load Based (LB)
Handovers are not triggered.

72 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE1127: Service Based Mobility Trigger
SBHO Trigger

Service Based Handover (SBHO) can be triggered LTE F1- VoLTE preferred frequency
configured by Operator
when following conditions are fulfilled: LTE F2- “normal” LTE frequency

• LTE 1127 is active and VoLTE preferred frequencies are


configured
- VoLTE preferred frequencies are defined within mobility profiles*
- serving cell frequency is not configured as VoLTE preferred one
LTE F1
• there is at least one UE within the cell, which:
- has QCI1 bearer established LTE F2
- supports target frequencies, that are configured as VoLTE
preferred for Service Based HO
* if Operator does not use LTE490 Subscriber
- is able to perform A4 measurements and send measurement report profile based mobility feature, then VoLTE target
layer must be configured within Default Mobility
Profile (MODPR)- option available according to
CRL0494

73 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE1127 Service based mobility trigger
Benefits and Gain
• VoLTE preferred frequencies can be chosen based on different factors:
- Coverage: higher cell range for VoLTE services will decrease number of handovers
- Capacity: more UEs with QCI1 can be served by one layer, however limited coverage
will increase number of handovers
• Steering UEs with QCI1 bearers to dedicated VoLTE frequencies can improve average
throughput of UEs served by non-VoLTE preferred frequencies
- due to lower priority non-GBR traffic has much less scheduling
occasions, throughput generated by non-GBR UEs decreases
when more VoIP UEs are in the network

LTE F1

LTE F2

74 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE1942: Dedicated VoLTE inter-frequency target frequency list
Enhancement in VoLTE Mobility concept

• With FL15A/TL15A feature LTE1942 operator can configure dedicated frequencies as


VoLTE allowed targets for coverage/better cell and load based handovers
- Consequently UEs with established QCI1 bearer are moved towards allowed frequencies during
coverage based handover
- Non-VoLTE UEs can still use all inter-frequency targets for coverage HO purposes
• The target frequencies for VoLTE handover can be configured within Mobility Profiles
(both default and dedicated)

non-VoLTE UE QCI1 traffic steering to VoLTE


LTE frequency 1
LTE frequency 2
frequency layers
VoLTE UE

LTE frequency 3

75 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
LTE1942: Dedicated VoLTE inter-frequency target frequency list
Interaction with LTE1127 Service Based Mobility Trigger functionality

• With feature LTE1127 Service Based Mobility Trigger UEs with established QCI1 bearer
can be moved via service based handover (SBHO) to VoLTE preferred frequency
- This happens upon QCI1 bearer establishment and is not triggered by serving cell signal strength
- The SB HO is performed towards VoLTE preferred frequency layer (freqLayListServiceBasedHo)
however coverage based handover are still possible towards all LTE frequency layers
• With feature LTE1942 coverage handovers are performed towards VoLTE target
frequencies (freqLayListDedVoLteHo)
- Note that the list of VoLTE preferred frequencies (introduced with LTE1127) must be part of VoLTE
frequencies from LTE1942

76 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
LTE1942: Dedicated VoLTE inter-frequency target frequency list
Benefits and Gains

• Upon introduction of the feature higher flexibility in VoLTE traffic steering is possible
- VoLTE calls can be moved to a particular frequency layer not only via Service Based handover
upon QCI1 bearer establishment (as with LTE1127) but also during coverage/better cell handover
and Load Based handovers
- VoLTE target frequencies can be chosen based on different factors i.e.:
• Coverage: higher cell range for VoLTE
services will decrease number of handovers
Non-VoLTE frequency
• Capacity: more UEs with QCI1 can be served
by one layer, however limited coverage
VoLTE target frequency 1
will increase number of handovers VoLTE UE

VoLTE target frequency 2

77 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
LTE1942: Dedicated VoLTE inter-frequency target frequency list
Benefits and Gains

• Operator can ‘move’ VoLTE traffic to dedicated layers, keeping some frequencies to be
used by non-GBR users only
- Steering UEs with QCI1 bearers to dedicated VoLTE frequencies can improve average throughput
of UEs served by non-VoLTE allowed frequencies
- As non-GBR UE TP decreases with higher
number of VoIP users in the cell, upon feature
introduction average cell and non-GBR
throughput may increase on non-VoLTE layers
• VoIP UEs has higher priority in scheduling
thus with lower number of VoIP UEs in
cell non-GBR users are scheduled more
frequently
# of VoIP UEs 10 100 200 300 350 400
DL[kbps] 1505 1269 931 623 520 414
UL [kbps] 532 428 301 173 121 72

78 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
LTE872/873: SRVCC to WCDMA/SRVCC to GSM

• There are no means to handover VoIP • Two additional inter-working functionalities are
connections to another RAT introduced for the data connection in
• unless target RAT support PS RRC_CONNECTED state. With the help of these
Conversational QoS features handover of VoIP calls is possible:
• VoIP connections are dropped while leaving • to WCDMA via SRVCC to WCDMA feature
LTE coverage (LTE 872)
• to GSM via SRVCC to GSM feature (LTE 873)

LTE872/873 LTE872/873
Not activated Activated

LTE LTE
coverage coverage
area area
WCDMA GSM/WCDMA/LTE capable UE
coverage area WCDMA GSM/WCDMA/LTE capable UE
79 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014 coverage area
LTE872/873: SRVCC to WCDMA/SRVCC to GSM
Network Architecture
• Defined in 3GPP Rel. 8
• Seem-less voice continuity from E- MGW
IMS-MGW Mb
GERAN
UTRAN to GERAN/UTRAN
Leg before transfer
• E-UTRAN decides when Handover is UE Mn
needed MGCF Remote Leg
SRVCC
UTRAN
• SCC AS is used for SRVCC session S
Leg after transfer
anchoring R MSS Mg
V
• Useful in early LTE deployment phases C Sv CSCF
C Other
(not full LTE coverage) Network
• Introduces Sv interface between MSS & CFX-5000
MME ISC SCC-AS
MME S1-MME MRFC

• SRVCC functionality can be implemented Flexi NS


Gm
EUTRAN
UE Open TAS
in all or only dedicated MSS (Overlay) S11 Mp
S1-U S/P-GW
BGW

Mb
Flexi NG OBGW

80 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE872/873: SRVCC to WCDMA/SRVCC to GSM
SRVCC during Alerting Phase
• In 3GPP Rel10 support for SRVCC PS to CS transfer of
calls in alerting phase was added:
- For an originating call INVITE a 180 Ringing is received
- Before the remote user answers and a 200 OK is received, a
session transfer is initiated INVITE

- Network prepares and performs the PS to CS Handover


- Remote user answers the call and the 200 OK. for the original Call establishment
INVITE is received 180 Ringing
• It is necessary that UE, SRVCC MSS, IMS & SCC AS
support & indicate the alerting phase SRVCC aSRVCC

200 OK

81 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE872/873: SRVCC to WCDMA/SRVCC to GSM
SRVCC challenge
• Typically LTE coverage needs to be maximized in order to have as many UEs in LTE
network as long as possible -> reselection threshold from LTE is typically set very low e.g. -
120dBm
• On the other hand VoLTE performance needs to be good so SRVCC threshold is typically
set to e.g. -114dBm
• This creates a problem where terminal can access the network and initiate VoLTE call when
RSRP is below SRVCC threshold but above reselection threshold -> UE initiates VoLTE call
and triggers aSRVCC which can fail due terminal and/or IMS do not have proper support
- aSRVCC support are specified in 3GPP TS 24.237
SRVCC threshold -114dBm
• In case of failing aSRVCC UE cannot reselect to
reselction to 3G -
3G and remains in LTE but cannot VoLTE and PS available
make
PS only
any 120dBm

VoLTE call VoLTE VoLTE


LTE
SRVCC to WCDMA

82 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014 3G


AMR
LTE872/873: SRVCC to WCDMA/SRVCC to GSM
3GPP Mobility Management Events
High serving cell RSRP
Event Triggers
A1 Serving becomes better than threshold A2 measurements active

A2 Serving becomes worse than threshold

A3 Neighbour becomes offset better than serving Start of 3G


A2 event measurements
A4 Neighbour becomes better than threshold

A5 Serving becomes worse than threshold1 and B2 measurements


neighbour becomes better than threshold2 active for the provided
Inter RAT neighbour becomes better than measurement objects
B1
threshold
Start of handover
B2 Serving becomes worse than threshold1 and inter B2 event
RAT neighbour becomes better than threshold2
Low serving cell RSRP
* Measurement gaps scheduled if needed – depending on the UE capability, so acc. to IE interRAT-NeedForGaps stored in UE-EUTRA
Capability
83 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
LTE3290: SRVCC Trigger Enhancements
SRVCC Triggered during VoLTE Alerting or Pre-alerting Phase

LTE3290 not available/disabled LTE3290 enabled


CN/IMS with SRVCC Part B CN/IMS with SRVCC Part B
(& w/out aSRVCC* support) (w/out aSRVCC)
UE VoLTE UE UE
VoLTE UE Remote Remote
SRVCC capable
SRVCC capable network network
SRVCC in (pre)alerting phase LTE SRVCC during VoLTE call
LTE
WCDMA/GSM WCDMA/GSM

UE initiates VoLTE call (intra-RAT measurements started) UE initiates VoLTE call (inter-RAT measurements ongoing)

Bad LTE cell signal/quality detected. eNB Bad LTE cell signal/quality detected. eNB

delay timer
turns on WCDMA/GSM measurements turns on WCDMA/GSM measurements
CN/IMS call setup in progress (Part B altering started) CN/IMS call setup in progress (Part B altering started)

ringing
ringing

B2 measurement report B2 measurement report


Good enough WCDMA/GSM cell reported by UE Good enough WCDMA/GSM cells reported by UE
(inter-RAT SRVCC HO trigger detected by eNB) (meas. ignored by eNB while timer is running)


eNB initiates SRVCC towards the CN/MME
B2 measurement report Part B answers (VoLTE call setup finalized)
SRVCC attempt fails
Time

Time
eNB may re-attemptSRVCC B2 measurement report
Measurement not ignored & reports good WCDMA/GSM cell
HO starts but SRVCC in early call setup phase is not properly handled by CN/IM
 eNB initiates SRVCC during ongoing VoLTE call

* SRVCC in alerting phase (3GPP Rel10/11)


84 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
LTE3290: SRVCC Trigger Enhancements
Benefits and Gain
 W/out LTE3290 no aSRVCC
Reduced SRVCC preparation failures eNB CN/IMS

• LTE3290 postpone the initiation of SRVCC handovers to


GSM or WCDMA by ignoring SRVCC triggers incoming UE
from the UE in the first phase of VoLTE call setup. This SRVCC trigger SRVCC HO Req.
increase chances that voice call is answered by called calling Part B not
party and is already anchored in SCC AS (in IMS/TAS) (VoLTE) answered yet
when eNB resumes processing of incoming SRVCC
triggers from the UE.
 With LTE3290 no aSRVCC
eNB CN/IMS

Delay timer
• The actual LTE3290 impact depends on proper setting of
SRVCC delay timer. The improvement can be low if timer
is too short and calls are not answered during the time. SRVCC
Too long timer may increase drop rate since it postpone UE triggers
critical, coverage-based SRVCC handover while during call
calling answered
the time UE may change position and loss LTE coverage. (VoLTE)
SRVCC trigger SRVCC HO Req.

85 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE2832: SRVCC due to Admission Control Rejection (FL 16A)
Single Radio Voice Call Continuity to WCDMA

• Coverage triggered SRVCC to WCDMA


- In Nokia product the SRVCC to WCDMA, which moves the VoLTE users towards WCDMA is
supported by LTE872 from RL40/RL45TD onwards
• Admission Control rejection triggered SRVCC to WCDMA
- With LTE2832, SRVCC to WCDMA is triggered in case new requested voice call may not be
handled by LTE cell due to Admission Control rejection

RL40
FL16A
RL45T LTE872 LTE2832
TL16A
D
SRVCC to WCDMA due
to LTE coverage loss SRVCC to WCDMA due to
rejection by admission control
86 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
Nokia Internal Use
LTE2832: SRVCC due to Admission Control Rejection
Feature Description

• Modified Admission Control operation allows for temporary establishment of QCI1


bearer in LTE serving cell even if:
- GBR traffic has reached the limit defined by LNCEL:maxGbrTrafficLimit
- GBR traffic has reached the limit defined by LTAC:tacLimitGbrNormal
- Maximum number of DRBs has reached the limit
defined by LNCEL:maxNumActDrb
• The modified behavior of the Admission Control, LTE cell
applies only for establishment of QCI1 DRBs Congested or LTE/WCDMA
requested by S1AP: E-RAB SETUP REQUEST* number of DRBs collocated site
is exceeded SRVCC
• Prior to the actual SRVCC to WCDMA procedure B1
event based measurements are performed
WCDMA cell

* For other messages requesting bearer establishment (S1AP: INITIAL


CONTEX SETUP REQUEST, S1AP: HANDOVER REQUEST, X2AP: LTE/WCDMA
HANDOVER REQUEST), the AC logic remains unchanged capable UE

87 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


Nokia Internal Use
LTE2832: SRVCC due to Admission Control Rejection
Benefits and Gain

• With this feature UEs which earlier were


rejected by Admission Control and were not
able to establish voice call, now can establish
voice call and can be moved from congested
LTE cell towards CS domain of WCDMA LTE cell
- user experience is improved Congested or
LTE/WCDMA
number of
collocated
• It may be expected that Success Ratio for DRBs is
exceeded SRVCC site
QCI1 establishment will be improved (see:
KPI LTE_5204c) – this will be especially visible WCDMA cell
in highly loaded cells/network areas, where
congestion appears LTE/WCDMA
capable UE

88 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


Nokia Internal Use
LTE2112: Dedicated Mobility Thresholds for SRVCC
Introduction
• SRVCC is triggered by coverage conditions
• Event A2 is triggered as the UE moves into an area of weak coverage
• RSRP threshold
• Prior to RL70, SRVCC is triggered using the
same RSRP thresholds as PS data 4G coverage
connection inter-system handover 2G or 3G
coverage
• not possible to configure independent VoIP on LTE
thresholds for the 2 procedures (PS domain)

• often desirable to trigger SRVCC prior SRVCC triggered


to data ISHO to provide increased CS Voice on 3G (event A2)
reliability to voice connections

• LTE2112 provides dedicated triggering thresholds for SRVCC

89 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


LTE2112: Dedicated Mobility Thresholds for SRVCC
VoLTE dedicated thresholds for measurements of WCDMA and GERAN layers

• Independent trigger points for stating measurements of WCDMA and GERAN layers are
possible for VoLTE and non-VoLTE users

non-VoLTE users VoLTE users


threshold2Wcdma threshold2Wcdma Qci1
threshold2GERAN threshold2GERANQci1

• Any relation between thresholds threshold2WcdmaQci1, threshold2Wcdma,


b2Threshold1Utra is possible
• Any relation between thresholds threshold2GERANQci1, threshold2GERAN,
b2Threshold1GERAN is possible

90 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
LTE64: Service based Mobility Thresholds
Introduction
• RL70 introduced dedicated event
A2 thresholds for SRVCC to
WCDMA and GERAN (LTE2112)
• FDD-LTE15A introduces further
dedicated thresholds for
connections with QCI 1 bearers
• Applicable to
• inter-frequency handovers
• SRVCC
• This feature also allows RRC
Connection Release with
Redirection to be disabled for
VoLTE connections
91 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
LTE64: Service based Mobility Thresholds
RRC Connection Release with Redirection for VoLTE

• RRC Connection Release with Redirection is typically triggered at cell edge


• SRVCC should trigger prior to RRC Connection Release with Redirection
• if SRVCC does not complete then it’s possible that a VoLTE connection subsequently
triggers RRC Release with Redirection

SRVCC
• Preferred to keep the VoLTE connection on 4G and
triggered to not trigger RRC Release with Redirection
• RRC Release with Redirection is likely to cause a
dropped call from end-user perspective
• LTE64 allows RRC Release with Redirection to be
RRC Release disabled specifically for VoLTE using the
with Redirection a2RedirectQci1 parameter
triggered
92 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
LTE64: Service based Mobility Thresholds
VoLTE dedicated thresholds for LTE inter-frequency mobility procedures
• Independent LTE inter-frequency mobility strategy may be realized for VoLTE and non-
VoLTE users
non-VoLTE users VoLTE users
threshold2InterFreq threshold2InterFreqQci1
a3OffsetRsrpInterFreq a3OffsetRsrpInterFreQci1
threshold3InterFreq threshold3InterFreqQci1
threshold3aInterFreq threshold3aInterFreqQci1

• It is possible to trigger LTE inter-frequency measurements, better cell HOs or coverage


HOs at different conditions for VoLTE and non-VoLTE users (applicable for RSRP based
thresholds only)
• RSRQ triggered measurements as well RSRQ based better cell HOs are triggered at the
same conditions for VoLTE and non-VoLTE users

93 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


For internal use
LTE64: Service based Mobility Thresholds
VoLTE dedicated thresholds for mobility procedures towards WCDMA

• Independent mobility strategy towards WCDMA may be realized for VoLTE and non-
VoLTE users
non-VoLTE users VoLTE users
threshold2Wcdma threshold2WcdmaQci1 (LTE2112)
b2Threshold1Utra b2Threshold1UtraQci1
b2Threshold2UtraRscp b2Threshold2UtraRscpQci1
b2Threshold2UtraEcn0 b2Threshold2UtraEcn0Qci1

• It is possible to trigger WCDMA measurements at different conditions for VoLTE and non-
VoLTE users as well as SRVCC (for VoLTE users) and PS HO (for non-VoLTE users) at
different event B2 conditions (applicable for RSRP based thresholds evaluated on LTE
side)
• RSRQ triggered measurements are triggered at the same conditions for VoLTE and non-
VoLTE users
94 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
For internal use
LTE64: Service based Mobility Thresholds
VoLTE dedicated thresholds for mobility procedures towards GERAN

• Independent mobility strategy towards GERAN may be realized for VoLTE and non-
VoLTE users
non-VoLTE users VoLTE users
threshold2GERAN threshold2GERANQci1 (LTE64)
b2Threshold1GERAN b2Threshold1GERANQci1
b2Threshold2RssiGERAN b2Threshold2RssiGERANQci1

• It is possible to trigger GERAN measurements at different conditions for VoLTE and non-
VoLTE users as well as SRVCC (for VoLTE users) and eNACC (for non-VoLTE users) at
different event B2 conditions
• RSRQ triggered measurements are triggered at the same conditions for VoLTE and non-
VoLTE users
95 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014
For internal use
THANK YOU!

96 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014