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PDT176 COMPUTER-AIDED DRAFTING

CHAPTER 7A

FUNDAMENTAL OF THREE-
DIMENSIONAL DRAWING
Chapter Objectives
• An introduction to 3D drawing.
• The chapter presents and demonstrates the basic
techniques needed to create 3D drawings.
THE WORLD COORDINATE
SYSTEM
AutoCAD’s absolute coordinate system is
called the world coordinate system
(WCS). The default setting for the WCS
is a viewing position located so that you
are looking at the system 90° to its X,Y
plane
VIEWPOINTS
The orientation of the WCS may be changed by changing the
drawing’s viewpoint. There are two ways to change the viewpoint: use
the Views tool on the Views panel under the View tab, or type the
word view and access the View Manager.
To return to the original WCS
orientation
1. Access the Views panel under the View tab.
2. Click the Previous View tool.
* You can also return to the original WCS orientation by
selecting Top from the Views tool.
PERSPECTIVE AND PARALLEL
GRIDS
Perspective grid lines recede to a vanishing point or a series of
vanishing points. Parallel grid lines always remain parallel.
3D MODELING
AutoCAD has several drawing modes: including 2D Drafting & Annotation,
3D Modeling, 3D Basics, and AutoCAD Classic.
USER COORDINATE SYSTEM
(UCS)
User coordinate systems are coordinate systems that you define relative to
the WCS. Drawings often contain several UCSs. UCSs can be saved and
recalled.
Return to the WCS
Click the World tool
on the Coordinates
panel.
The origin will be
located on the
original WCS axis.
Define a UCS using the 3 Point tool
Use the 3 Point tool to define a UCS on the front right
surface of the box
EDITING A SOLID MODEL
Solid models may be edited; that is, their shapes can be changed
after they have been created.
CREATING UCSs ON A
PERSPECTIVE GRID
The procedures just defined for creating and saving UCSs
are exactly the same for objects created on a perspective grid.
Perspective grid
Realistic visual style
Change visual styles
ROTATING A UCS AXIS
WCS axis with its origin on the 0,0,0 point. It is displayed in the Conceptual visual style.
A new UCS can be created by rotating the coordinates about one of the major axes.
VISUAL ERRORS
When working in 3D, it is important to remember that you cannot rely on
visual inputs to locate shapes. What you see may be misleading.
To Change Views
VIEWS
Once a 3D object has
been created,
orthographic views may
be taken directly from the
object. The screen is first
split into four ports, each
showing the 3D object.
The viewpoint of three of
the ports will be changed
to create the front, top,
and right-side views of
the object.
Viewports
The screen is first
split into four
ports, each
showing the 3D
object.
Create orthographic views
Create orthographic views in
3 of the each viewport Leave one
Isometric view
LINE THICKNESS
The Thickness command is used to create 3D surfaces from 2D
drawing commands.
Setting LINE THICKNESS
The Thickness command is used to create 3D surfaces from 2D
drawing commands.
USING THE THICKNESS
COMMAND TO CREATE OBJECTS
The Thickness command can be used with different UCSs to create
simulated 3D objects. The objects will actually be open-ended plane
structures.
Create a new UCS
1. Click the 3 Point UC.S tool on the Coordinates
panel under the View tab.
Specify new origin point <0,0,0>:
2. Select the lower left corner of the box
PDT176 COMPUTER-AIDED DRAFTING

CHAPTER 7B

BASIC THREE-DIMENSIONAL SOLID


MODELLING
3D Basic Workspace
The solid modeling commands can be accessed using the 3D
Modeling workspace or the 3D Basics workspace.

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BOX
The Box tool on the Create panel has two options: Center and
Corner. Corner is the default option.
The Center tool is used to draw a box by first locating its center point. The
Corner tool is used to draw a box by first locating one of its corner points.

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To Change the Visual Style
The Visual Styles command is located on the Visual Styles panel under the View
tab.

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CYLINDER
There are two options associated with the Cylinder
command: circular and elliptical
The base elliptical shape is drawn using the same procedure as
was outlined for the Ellipse command

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CONE
There are two options associated with the Cone tool: circular and elliptical. This means
that cones can be drawn with either an elliptical or circular base plane. The base elliptical
shape is drawn using the same procedure as was outlined for the Ellipse command

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SPHERE
The Sphere tool is a flyout
from the Box tool on the
Modeling panel under the
Home tab.

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PYRAMID
• There are several different types of pyramids.
• A tetrahedron is a pyramid made from three triangles.
• Pyramids whose apexes are located directly over the
center point of their base
• polygons are called right pyramids.
• Pyramids whose apexes are not located directly over
the center point of their base
• polygons are called oblique pyramids.
• Pyramids with their top sections removed are called
truncated pyramids.
• Pyramids whose tops are edges and not point apexes
are called ridged pyramids.

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WEDGE
There are two options associated with the Wedge command:
center and corner.

A wedge drawn using


the Center option

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TORUS
A torus is a donut like shape

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EXTRUDE
The Extrude command is used to extend existing 2D shapes into 3D shapes.
The Extrude tool can be applied only to a polyline.

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LOFT

Note how the lofted shape passes


through multiple cross-sections

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REVOLVE
The Revolve tool on the Create panel is used to create a solid 3D
object by rotating a 2D shape around an axis of revolution.

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HELIX
The Helix shape is made from a clockwise or counterclockwise
revolution About an axis. The ȃcoil springȄ shape has a base
radius, a top radius and a number of turns.

8 turns

Base point

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POLYSOLID
Select the Polysolid
tool from the Create
panel.

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Examples

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Q5

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Q6

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PDT176 COMPUTER-AIDED DRAFTING

CHAPTER 7C

THREE-DIMENSIONAL SOLID EDITING


Chapter Objective and
Outline
• To teach students how to create 3D models.

• Chapter Outline
• 1. Union and Subtract
• 2. Intersections
• 3. Editing
• 4. Convert 3D to 2D

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3D Basic Workspace
The solid modeling commands can be accessed using the 3D
Modeling workspace or the 3D Basics workspace.

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SOLID MODELING AND UCSs
A new UCS is required
For each face to place
the holes

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INTERSECT
The Intersect command is used to define a volume common to
two or more existing solid objects.

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UNION AND SUBTRACT
Solid objects may be combined to form more complex objects. Objects can be
added together using the Union command and subtracted from each other using
the Subtract command. A volume common to two or more objects may be
defined using the Intersect command.

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Subtract object examples
The cylinder subtracted
from the box to produce
a hole.

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COMBINING SOLID OBJECTS
and SHAPES

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INTERSECTING SOLIDS
Creating a 3D drawing of a cone and a cylinder.

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The viewports for
the orthographic
views
Click the View tab in the 3D Modeling
workspace, access the Viewports
Configuration panel, and select the Four:
Equal option.

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The viewports for the orthographic
views
AutoCAD will automatically create three orthographic views of the object
plus an isometric view.

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Create a polyline from the basic shape
Because only polylines can be extruded, some of the lines in the basic shape
must be formed into a polyline. The large circle can be extruded, so it need
not be included as part of the polyline; however, the polyline must be a closed
area, and so it will need part of the circle.

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THREAD REPRESENTATIONS
IN SOLID MODELS
When drawing thread representations for solid models, the procedure
presented only represents a thread. It is not an actual detailed solid
drawing of a thread

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The List command
The List command is used to
display database information for
a drawn solid object.

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The
MASSPROP
command
The Massprop command is used to
display information about the
structural characteristics of an object.

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FACE AND EDGE EDITING
AutoCAD has the
capability to edit faces
and edges of existing
solids. The Solid Editing
commands are located
on the Solid Editing
panel under the Home
tab in the 3D Modeling
workspace.

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Extrude a face along a path

Resulting extrusion

Line (path).

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To move a face
Use the Move Faces tool from the Solid Editing panel.

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Copy a Face & Taper a face
Drag cursor to
a new location

Click second
point

Resulting
30° taper

Select face

Click Base point

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SolidEdit Command

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Solid Manipulation Commands

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Convert 3D to 2D

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Summary

Students should be able to perform 3D


drawing using the AutoCAD software and can
convert the 3D objects into orthographic
projection.

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