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Earthquake Engineering

What is an Earthquake?

 Perceptible shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the

sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic
 It is used to describe any seismic event — whether natural or
caused by humans — that generates seismic waves.
 Earthquakes are caused mostly by rupture of geological faults, but
also by other events such as volcanic activity, landslides, mine
blasts, and nuclear tests. An earthquake's point of initial rupture is
called its focus or hypocenter. The epicenter is the point at ground
level directly above the hypocenter.
What is a Fault?

 It is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there

has been significant displacement as a result of rock mass movement.
 Large faults within the Earth's crust result from the action of plate
tectonic forces, with the largest forming the boundaries between the
plates, such as subduction zones or transform faults.
 Energy release associated with rapid movement on active faults is the
cause of most earthquakes.
Different types of Faults
Strike-Slip Fault

 These are vertical (or nearly vertical) fractures where the blocks have
mostly moved horizontally. If the block opposite an observer looking across
the fault moves to the right, the slip style is termed right lateral; if the block
moves to the left, the motion is termed left lateral.
Dip-slip Fault

 These are inclined fractures where the blocks have mostly shifted vertically.
If the rock mass above an inclined fault moves down, the fault is
termed normal, whereas if the rock above the fault moves up, the fault is
termed reverse. A Thrust fault is a reverse fault with a dip of 45 degrees or
Oblique-Slip Fault

 A fault which has a component of dip-slip and a component of strike-slip is

termed an oblique-slip fault. Nearly all faults will have some component of
both dip-slip and strike-slip, so defining a fault as oblique requires both dip
and strike components to be measurable and significant.
Major Earthquakes in the World
Valdivia, Chile

 When it comes to the earthquake’s magnitude, the 1960 Valdivia

earthquake takes the cake at 9.5, which was equivalent to a massive 178-
Gigatons of power. This can be comparable to 1,000 atomic bombs going
off at the same time. The earthquake was not only felt in Valdivia but also
reached Hawaii, at a distance of 435 miles. While only 6,000 people died in
the catastrophe, it incurred more than $1 billion worth of damages.
Sumatra, Indonesia

 This earthquake hit the sea bed of the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004
with a magnitude of 9.1 to 9.3 or over 32-Gigatons, and caused the Boxing
Day Tsunami. This was the second highest seismic activity recorded with the
longest duration of tremors. The after-effects even reached Maldives and
Thailand, with more than 5 tsunamis hitting the coastlines of the Indian Sea.
It had a death toll of 100,100 to 225,000 with over $7 billion worth of rescue
and damage costs during the first 8.3 to 10 minutes alone.
Tangshan, China

 This tragedy happened on July 28, 1976 in Tangshan, Hebei and killed
255,000 people though the Chinese government first recorded its death toll
at 655,000. The 8.2 magnitude or 2.2-Gigaton quake only lasted for 10
seconds, but brought a lot of devastation to the area. In addition,
Tangshan is a region with a very low-risk for earthquakes, so the buildings
were not earthquake-proof. The quake was 4 miles long and 5 miles wide,
which left a total damage of 10 billion Yuan or $1.3 billion.
Haiyuan County, China

 Also called ‘the 1920 Gansu Earthquake,’ this disaster happened in Haiyuan
County, Ningxia. Though there were conflicting reports on its magnitude
and death toll, as both the Chinese government and the United States
Geological Survey (USGS) published different reports, it still brought
catastrophic effects that were felt for over 125 miles and aftershocks that
lasted over 3 years. The December 16, 1920 quake has conflicting
magnitudes of 7.8 and 8.5 and death tolls of 200,000 or 240,000.
Port-au-Prince, Haiti

 The Haiti earthquake was a magnitude 7.0 on the Richter scale, with an
epicenter near Leogane, 25 km west of its capital, Port-au-Prince. It struck
on January 12, 2010 where at least 52 aftershocks measuring 4.5 or greater
could still be felt even 12 days later. The earthquake left a devastating
wake of 316,000 deaths, 300,000 injured and 1,000,000 people homeless. It
was estimated that 250,000 houses and 30,000 commercial buildings had
collapsed or were severely destroyed.
Xining, China

 Xining, which lies on the Huangshui River on the eastern part of Quinghai
Province, experienced a magnitude 7.9 seismic activity on May 22, 1927. It
killed 40,900 people though there were other reports that the death toll
could be as high as 200,000. The earthquake was not only deadly but it also
brought large fractures, damages to over 500 schools and office buildings
causing many people to lose their occupations. This was also linked to the
Great Gansu Earthquake.
Damghan, Iran

 The earliest record-breaking earthquake as it happened on December 22,

856, this earthquake struck Damghan, the capital of Iran at that time with a
magnitude of 8.0 or 1-Gigaton power. It killed 200,000 people, with tremors
that could be felt throughout the surrounding areas of Damghan causing
these areas to be totally destroyed as well, though Damghan itself was not
severely damaged. A great example was Bustam, a nearby town, which
was completely leveled by the quake.
Tohoku, Japan

 On March 11, 2011, the east coast of Tohoku in Japan was struck by a 9.03
magnitude earthquake, which was the strongest to ever hit Japan. Considered one
of the top five largest earthquakes in the world, it caused destruction that claimed
15,878 lives, left 6,126 injured and 2,173 people missing across 20 prefectures. It also
caused the collapsed of 129,225 buildings, while the tsunami brought about by the
quake also caused severe structural damages, fires in many areas, and damages in
roads and railways. This was the most difficult crisis Japan had ever faced after World
War II as it did not only inflict damages to lives and properties, but also caused
significant damages to four major nuclear power stations. Debris from the tsunami
reached as far as Canada and Hawaii.
Kanto, Japan

 The Great Kanto earthquake was a magnitude 7.9 disaster that hit the Kanto plain, a
main island of Honshu in Japan on September 1, 1923. This was once considered the
deadliest earthquake in the history of Japan as it caused ‘the Great Tokyo Fire’
though the duration of the quake was only between 4 and 10 minutes. However, its
record was surpassed by the 2011 Tohuku earthquake at a magnitude of 9.0. The fire
alone claimed the lives of 140,000 people and destroyed 447,000 houses. This does
not include those who died from landslides, tsunamis, and 57 aftershocks, which had
estimated deaths of 93,000 people and 43,500 missing.
Ashgabat, Soviet Union

 This earthquake occurred on October 6, 1948 near Ashgabat, USSR with a

magnitude of 7.3. Due to censorship, this was not reported in the media so
there were no reports regarding its casualties or damages. Due to the
secrecy, it was purported that the earthquake was the result of Soviet
Union’s first atomic bomb test. Media sources also vary on the number of
casualties from 10,000 to 176,000 though a correct death toll was reported
in December 9, 1988 as 110,000. The earthquake also caused the collapsed
of brick buildings, concrete structures and freight trains.
Messina, Italy

 This was a 7.1-magnitude earthquake and tsunami that claimed the lives of
some 100,000 to 200,000 lives in Messina and Reggio in Sicily and Calabria in
southern Italy. The earthquake, which took place on December 28, 1908,
caused the ground to shake for 30 to 40 seconds and was felt in a 186-mile
radius. A 12-meter tsunami also hit the nearby coasts causing more
destruction including the death of 70,000 residents with 91% of the
structures in Messina destroyed.
Sichuan, China

 The Great Sichuan Earthquake occurred on May 8, 2008 with a magnitude that
measured 8.0 and 7.9. It was so great that it was felt in nearby countries and as far
away as Beijing and Shanghai where buildings swayed with tremors. Official figures
for the damages include 69,197 deaths with 68,636 in Sichuan province, 374,176
injured and 18,222 missing. This was considered as the deadliest earthquake to hit
China after the 1976 Tangshan earthquake, as it left 4.8 million to 15 million people
homeless. The Chinese government is appropriating 1 trillion Yuan or $146.5 billion to
rebuild areas ravaged by the great quake.
Lisbon, Portugal

 Known as the ‘Great Lisbon Earthquake,’ this event occurred on November

1, 1755 in the Kingdom of Portugal. Seismologists today estimate the Lisbon
earthquake in the range of 8.5 to 9.0 on the moment magnitude scale that
has a deadly combination of subsequent fires and a tsunami. It totally
destroyed Lisbon and its surrounding areas with an estimated death toll of
between 10,000 and 100,000 people. Because of its devastating effects
over large areas, this event resulted in the scientific studies of modern
seismology and earthquake engineering.
Yungay, Peru

 This Great Peruvian Earthquake was an undersea earthquake that affected the
regions of Ancash and La Libertad. It occurred in May 31, 1970 ad was recorded as
the worst catastrophic natural disaster that hit Peru, which affected over 3 million
people. It has a magnitude of 7.9 to 8.0 on the Richter scale with an intensity of VIII
on the Mercalli scale, which lasted for 45 seconds. This caused the rock, ice, and
snow avalanche on the northern wall of Mount Huascaran burying the towns of
Yungay and Ranrahirca, which led to the death of 20,000 people in Yungay alone.
The damages incurred tallied to 74,194 deaths, 25,600 missing, 143,331 injured, and
more than a million homeless. The estimated economic loss was more than half a
billion USD with the entire communication system and basic facilities destroyed.
Sicily, Italy

 On January 11, 1693, a powerful earthquake with a magnitude of 7.4 and

maximum intensity of XI or ‘extreme’ had struck the parts of Sicily, Calabria,
and Matta in southern Italy. Considered the most powerful in Italian history,
it destroyed at least 70 towns and cities causing the death of 60,000
people. It was also followed by a tsunami that hit the Ionian Sea and the
Straits of Messina, wiping out two-thirds of the entire population of Catania.
Rudbar, Iran

 This disastrous event happened on June 21, 1990 and caused widespread
damage within 100 kilometers of the epicenter’s radius near the city of
Rashi, and about 200 kilometer northwest of Tehran. It destroyed 700
villages across the cities of Rudbar, Manjiil, and Lushan and cost
$200,000,000 in damages, including 40,000 fatalities, 60,000 injured and
500,000 people homeless.
Izmit, Turkey

 This was a 7.9-magnitude earthquake that struck northern Turkey on August

17, 1990, which lasted for only 3.7 seconds. The city of Izmit was very badly
damaged and had a death toll of 17,127 and 43, 959 injured though other
sources suggested that the actual figure for fatalities may be closer to
45,000 with a similar number of injured. Another report from September 1999
showed that the earthquake had destroyed 120,000 poorly-engineered
houses, heavily damaged 50,000 houses; caused 2,000 buildings to collapse
while 4,000 other buildings left severely damaged, and made more than
300,000 people homeless.
Nankaido, Japan

 This 8.6 magnitude earthquake that occurred on September 20, 1498, off
the coast of Nankia, Japan triggered a large tsunami, which cost the lives
of between 26,000 and 31,000 people. It caused severe shaking that
reached the Boso Peninsula and also caused a tsunami in the Suruga Bay,
which destroyed the building that housed the statue of the Great Buddha
at Kotuku-in.
Nepal Earthquake (between Kathmandu
and the city of Pokhara)

 A 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal in an area between the capital,

Kathmandu, and the city of Pokhara on Saturday April 25, 2015 with what
has been described as a force equaling that of 20 thermonuclear
weapons. The devastation claimed the lives of at least 5,000 people while
injuring 10,000 more with authorities warning that casualty numbers could
rise. The devastating quake also destroyed major monuments such as the
Dharahara tower, temples and world heritage sites near Kathmandu.
Major Earthquakes in the
Magnitude 8.0 earthquake in
Mindanao (August 17, 1976)
 A magnitude 8.0 earthquake took place near Mindanao and Sulu a little
past midnight of August 17, 1976 that was felt as far as Visayas. It was then
followed by a massive 4 to 5 meters high tsunami covering 700 kilometers of
coastline bordering the island. Because it was dark, the people were
caught by the raging water which claimed 8,000 lives, injuring 10,000, and
leaving 90,000 more, homeless.
Magnitude 7.8 earthquake in Northern
and Central Luzon (July 16, 1990)
 A total of 2,412 people died and at least ₱10-billion worth of damages to
public and private properties was reported after a magnitude 7.8
earthquake struck Northern and Central Luzon at around 4:00 p.m. of July
16, 1990.
 Hyatt Terraces Plaza, Nevada Hotel, Baguio Hilltop Hotel, Baguio Park Hotel,
and FRB Hotel, all in Baguio collapsed trapping and burying people alive.
 Although the epicenter was recorded in Nueva Ecija, it caused more
damage in the City of Pines. And the quake that just lasted for about a
minute was one of the tragedies in the country that would never be
Magnitude 7.5 earthquake in Luzon
(November 30, 1645)
 The magnitude 7.5 earthquake that crushed Luzon on November 30, 1645
at about 8:00 pm was called the “most terrible earthquake” in Philippines
history. The Epicenter of the said quake was in Nueva Ecija caused by the
San Manuel and Gabaldon Faults.
 The extent of the tremor was felt as far as Cagayan Valley. It has caused
many landslides which buried many people alive and destroyed many
buildings and churches including Manila Cathedral.
 That time, only Spanish are counted so the recorded number of casualties
was only 600 while the injured was 3,000
Magnitude 7.3 earthquake in
Casiguran (August 2, 1968)
 Most of the people in Casiguran, Aurora was still fast asleep when a
magnitude 7.3 earthquake struck at 4:19 a.m. of August 2, 1968.
 It was another deadly and shocking seismic activity in the country. And the
City of Manila got the most severe damage. Many buildings were either
damaged or destroyed totally.
 The said event was also called the Ruby Tower earthquake after the said
six-story building located in Binondo collapsed, and caused the death of
260 people. A total of 268 people died that day and 261 more were
Magnitude 7.2 earthquake in Bohol
(October 15, 2013)
 It was around 8:12 a.m. when a strong earthquake was felt in Tacloban
City. Only to find out after the lights came back that what we have
experienced was nothing compared to the damage it caused in Bohol
which was the epicenter of the magnitude 7.2 earthquake.
 The quake affected most of Central Visayas, particularly Bohol and Cebu. It
was felt in the whole area of Visayas and reached as far as Masbate Island
in the north and Cotabato in Southern Mindanao.
 According to the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management
Council (NDRRMC), a total of 222 people died, 8 went missing and 976
others were injured. An estimated 73,000 structures were damaged wherein
more than 14,500 of which were destroyed totally.
Magnitude 7.1 earthquake in Mindoro
(November 15, 1994)
 November 15, 1994, at around 3:15 a.m., a magnitude 7.1 earthquake
rocked Mindoro. A gigantic 8.5 meters (28 ft) tsunami then followed which
devastated the islands of Baco and Calapan, Mindoro.
 A total of 7,566 houses were washed out and some 78 people died
because of that tragedy.
Magnitude 6.9 earthquake in Central
Visayas (February 6, 2012)
 A total of 51 people died, 62 still missing and 112 were injured when a 6.9
earthquake Central Visayas, particularly Negros and parts of Mindanao on
February 6, 2012.
 It caused a landslide which buried a barangay, damaged 15,483 houses,
and a total damage of ₱383-million on infrastructures and buildings was
Magnitude 7.6 earthquake happened near
Guiuan, Eastern Samar (August 31, 2012)

 A very strong earthquake with a magnitude of 7.6 happened near Guiuan,

Eastern Samar on August 31, 2012 that was felt as far as Mindanao.
 The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) issued a
tsunami warning Level 3, but it was lifted 5 hours later.
 The quake caused damage on homes, bridges, and other infrastructures.
There were also power interruptions in the affected areas. But despite the
intensity only one person was reported dead and one injured because of
the landslide in Cagayan de Oro City.
Pacific Ring of Fire
Pacific Ring of Fire

 The "Ring of Fire", also called the Circum-Pacific belt, is the zone of
earthquakes surrounding the Pacific Ocean- about 90% of the world's
earthquakes occur there. The next most seismic region (5-6% of
earthquakes) is the Alpide belt (extends from Mediterranean region,
eastward through Turkey, Iran, and northern India.
Pacific Ring of Fire

 About 90% of the world's earthquakes and 81% of the world's largest
earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire. The next most seismically active
region (5-6% of earthquakes and 17% of the world's largest earthquakes) is
the Alpide belt, which extends from Java to the northern Atlantic Ocean
via the Himalayas and southern Europe.
 All but three of the world's 25 largest volcanic eruptions of the last 11,700
years occurred at volcanoes in the Ring of Fire.
 The Ring of Fire is a direct result of plate tectonics: the movement and
collisions of lithospheric plates. The eastern section of the ring is the result of
the Nazca Plate and the Cocos Plate being subducted beneath the
westward-moving South American Plate.
Plate Tectonics
Plate Tectonics

 Plate Tectonics is the theory supported by a wide range of evidence that

considers the earth's crust and upper mantle to be composed of several
large, thin, relatively rigid plates that move relative to one another. Slip on
faults that define the plate boundaries commonly results in earthquakes.
Several styles of faults bound the plates, including thrust faults along which
plate material is subducted or consumed in the mantle, oceanic spreading
ridges along which new crustal material is produced, and transform faults
that accommodate horizontal slip (strike slip) between adjoining plates.
ABCs of Earthquake