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F/M Ratio

Presented by:

Group No- Name ID Md. Shafiul Alam Fahad 1512060032 Bishmoy Bhattacharjee 1512060034 Bijit Swarnakar 1512060036 Md.
Group No-
Name
ID
Md. Shafiul Alam Fahad
1512060032
Bishmoy Bhattacharjee
1512060034
Bijit Swarnakar
1512060036
Md. Safiur Rahman
Sumon Deb Nath
1512060040
1512060048

Introduction

The F/M ratio is a process control number that helps to determine the proper

number of microorganisms for the system. To do this calculation, we will need the following information:

Influent Flow into activated sludge system (Flow MGD) Influent CBOD (mg/l) concentration into aeration tank. Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids Concentration (mg/l) Volume (in gallons) of aeration system

The purpose of F/M ratio is to control the efficiency of activated sludge process.

For the activated sludge process to operate properly there must be a balance

between the food entering the bioreactor and the microorganisms in the

bioreactor.

When the F:M ratio is high, the bacteria are active and multiply rapidly but they are also more dispersed in suspended growth bioreactors. Because

of that dispersion, a high F:M ratio creates an environment where the

bacteria will not form a good, large, dense floc. For that reason, a high F:M ratio will often result in a poor settling sludge in the secondary clarifier and a turbid effluent.

A low F:M ratio means there are many microorganisms but there is a limited

amount of food. Only when the food supply is limited do bacteria begin to develop a thicker slime layer, lose their motility, and begin to clump together to form a dense floc that will settle well in the clarifier.

The graphic below shows how the bacterial population relates to the food supply.

As we can see, a very high F:M ratio, or a very low F:M ratio will result in dispersed floc that will not settle well in the secondary clarifier.

The graphic below shows how the bacterial population relates to the food supply. As we can

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Fundamentals of F/M Ratio

The term Food to Microorganism Ratio (F/M) is actually a measurement of the amount of incoming food ( lbs of Influent CBOD) divided by the lbs of Microorganisms in the system. Some calculations also include the volume of activated sludge in clarifiers, the one demonstrated here does not.

F or Incoming Food Calculation Process

  • 1. We have to know the CBOD of the influent into activated sludge

  • 2. We also need to know the flow(MGD)

  • 3. The equation is provided below: F= Influent Flow (MGD) X Influent CBOD Concentration (mg/l) X
    8.34

M or Volume of Microorganisms Calculation Process

  • 1. We need to know the volume of aeration system

  • 2. It will be required to know the concentration of Volatile Solids in the aeration system (MLVSS) or Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids.

  • 3. M= Aeration System Volume (in Millions of Gallons) X MLVSS X 8.34

One sample example for calculating the F/M ratio

To Calculate the Ratio: F/M

Suppose, Facility Flow = 1.2 MGD Influent CBOD= 230 mg/l.

  • 1.2 X 230 X 8.34 = 2301.84 Lbs Coming In

F= 2301

Aeration System Volume 250,000 gal / 1,000,000 = 0.25MG MLVSS = 2500mg/l 0.25 X 2500 X 8.34 = 5215 Lbs of Microorganisms under Aeration

M = 5212 2301/5212 = 0.44 F/M Ratio Which belongs to the standard F/M ratio of 0.25 to 0.50.

Thank You.