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4.

CONSTRUCTION CATEGORIES
AND CLASSES BY IMPORTANCE
Construction facilities may classified in various
categories and classes according to different
criteria. The most significant one is by their
“importance”;
- Categories of importance – are based on global
criteria, describing the construction facility as a
whole, taking into account various aspects;
- Classes of importance – are based on narrow
(specific) describing the construction facility as a
whole or its sub-systems, taking into account
specific features (ex. Seismic behavior, Fire
resistance, etc.). 1
For a given facility, the category of importance should
be correlated with the classes of importance, by:

- Designer – in case of new construction facilities;


- Designer or Technical Expert – existing constr. facilities.

The ultimate goal is to determine an appropriate quality


system in order to satisfy the client and statutory/legal
requirements.

The higher the category of importance:


- The higher the classes of importance;
- The higher the requirements for quality systems
within the participant organizations on the
procurement chain.
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4.1 Categories of importance
Categories of importance for building facilities should
be established according to the provisions of:

- H.G.R. 766/1997 pentru aprobarea unor regulamente


privind calitatea în construcţii, Art.1, pct. c) -
Stabilirea categoriei de importanţă a construcţiilor;

- Ordinul 31/N din 1995 - Regulament privind stabilirea


categoriei de importanta a constructiilor. Metodologie
de stabilire a categoriei de importanta a constructiilor)

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The goal of classifying buildings by their
categories of importance should refer to:

• Obtain an appropriate quality level by fulfillment of the


stated requirements;

• Determine the specific duties and liabilities of


individuals and organizations with regard to the
following aspects:

• Risk degree induced by safety and health


requirements – reflects the building impact on
society and environment;
• Destination and use pattern of the building;
• Building Complexity and Financial efforts.

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Constructions are listed in one of the four following
categories of importance:

- Constructions of exceptional importance (A);


- Constructions of special importance (B);
- Constructions of normal importance (C);
- Constructions of low importance (D).

Every construction facility is established a particular


category of importance, that should be specified in various
documents describing that construction, such as: construction
permit, technical report, construction log book, etc.

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The Category of importance induces differentiation in
approaching quality meters, as follows :

- Differentiation of quality requirements related to the


project:
* correlation with construction classes of importance;
* correlation with quality system complexity of the
parties involved (designer, contractor);
* degree of awareness in assesing/verifying the design
documents according to essential requirements;
* degree of awareness in rewiewing the construction
performances when handing-over;
* degree of awareness in monitoring the construction
facility;
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Principles for establishing the
Category of importance

a) Construction is considered in a global approach,


tacking into consideration:
- its functions and characteristics;
- the complexity of works related to its design, execution
and operation;
b) Construction impact upon the social, economic,
cultural and landscape environment;
c) Risk prevention – by selecting a proper category of
importance which will lead to proper levels of quality
requirements for the project.
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Categories of importance are established for
new constructions and for existing one, as
well, on the basis of the same principles.
A particular care should be taken in case of
existing buildings, in terms of:

– The significance in Romanian history,


architecture, archaeology and culture;
– The way in which the initial local conditions
(soil, environment) have influenced the
construction behavior on time and the
extend of the works to be done to meet
actual quality and functional requirements;
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Determinant factors and associated criteria

In order to establish the Category of


importance for a construction should be considered:

- 6 determinant factors;
- 3 associated criteria for each determinant
factor;

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No Determinant factors Associated criteria

i) People directly affected in case of construction dysfunctions ;


1 VITAL IMPORTANCE ii) People indirectly affected in case of construction dysfunctions;
iii) Dangerous evolution of dysfunctions effects.

I) Dimension of community addressing the construction functions/services or its


SOCIAL, ECONOMIC values/goods hosted inside;
2 AND CULTURAL II) Degree in which construction functions influence community;
IMPORTANCE III) Type and degree of construction functions.

I) Degree in which the construction and operation of the facility influence the natural
and built environment;
ECOLOGIC
3 II) Degree of alteration of the natural and built environment;
IMPLICATION
iii) Degree of positive influence in protection and restoration of the natural and built
environment.
I) Intended use duration;
II) Degree in which the structural performances of the construction subsystems
EXTEND OF
depend on knowledge of future evolution of stresses affecting the construction
4 CONSTRUCTION LIFE
during operation stage;
SPAN
III) Degree in which functional performances depend on evolution of owners future
requirements.
I) Degree in which structural solutions depend on local conditions;
NECESSITY LOCAL II) Degree in which local conditions are expected to change over time;
CONDITIONS III) Degree in which local conditions determine special care in construction operation
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CONSIDERATION and maintenance.
(soil, environment, neighbors)

I) Labor and materials required in construction the facility;


RESOURCES II) Complexity of the activities required to maintain the construction performances over
6 the life span;
REQUIRED
III) Special requirements to operate the facility due to its particular functions. 10
Metodology to establish the
Category of importance
PREMISES:
• The Design of construction should ensure meeting the
minimum level of building performances stipulated by
codes and regulations, at the time of design,
regardless the construction category of importance;

• The extend and degree of Performance requirements,


considered by design, will depend on the Category of
importance of the facility and the Client expectations:
The higher the Category of importance and/or Client
requirements - The higher the degree of Performance
requirements;
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• The actual (in use) Performances (Actual
quality) should meet the initial (desired)
Requirements, as efficiently as possible.
STEPS:
1. Analyze the construction characteristics based
on the Determinant factors and their associated
criteria;
2. Establish the score for each associated criterion
and then calculate the final total score of each
Determinant factor;
3. Preliminary set of Category of Importance;
4. Final review and set of Category of importance.
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1. Analyze the construction characteristics :

a) Review the input data with refer to: functions; capacity; use
duration; technical solutions, materials and products to be used;
estimate resource, cost and construction duration, etc.
b) Estimate the possible consequences on the project due to local
conditions, and their evolution in time.
c) Estimate the possible consequences of the project (especially
industrial buildings) on the environment and neighbors, related to:
- special loads/effects induced by facility: vibrations, shocks;
temperature, noise, corrosive agents, etc.;

The above Estimation is based on:


- New constructions: Client requirements brief, contract clauses,
legal provisions, etc;
- Existing facilities: Construction log book, other related technical
studies.
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2. Establish the score for each associated criterion and then
calculate the final total score of each Determinant factor

The score for each Determinant factor is established using the formula bellow
(1.1.):
n

k i  pi
Pm  i 1
n

where:
m = Contor for determinant factors; m =1÷6;
Pm = Determinant factor “m” score;
ki = Criterion importance coefficient (reflects the unicity feature of the construction) .
Usually = 1, but may be increased up to maximum 2, in case of particular or listed or
unique constructions;
pi = Score of each associated criterion (i = 1 ÷ n = 3) - according to criterion influence
see Tabel 2);
n = Number of associated criteria for each determinant factor (n = 3);

Note: The determinant factor’ s score is rounded to the following natural number.
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Tabel 2: Associate criteria scoring
Estimated level of criterion influence Criterion score “pi”
Unexistent 0
Reduced 1
Medium 2
Consistent 4
Considerable 6________

Construction Total Score (PT) is determined using


formula (1.2)
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PT = P
m 1
m

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3. Preliminary set of Category of Importance

Preliminary set of the Construction Category of Importance is


undertaken tacking into consideration the standard scale of importance
scores provided by Table 3.

Table 3: Standard scale of importance scores

Category of importance Total score


Exceptional I. - (A) ≥ 30
Special I. - (B) 18 – 29
Normal I. - (C) 6 – 17
Low I. - (D) ≤5

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4. Final review and set of Category of importance

A final review is required in order to check whether the


category of importance established reflects the total
features of the facility.
If variations are considered, then the degree of
importance may be changed on the basis of a solid
motivation.

IMPORTANT: Once the Category of Importance has


been set, it will be mentioned/written in the design
documents (technical reports and drawings), in an
explicit way.

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4.2 Classes of importance
A construction may be classified in various “Classes of
importance” according specific consideration provided by
Construction Regulations, Codes and Standards such as:
Seismic Design Code P 100/1-2006, Fire Design Code
P118/1999, SR EN 1990/2004 – Basis of structural design,
etc.
For example, P 100/1-2006 classifies constructions in 4 classes of
importance according to their expected behavior in case of
seismic action (Table 4) by the use of an “Importance factor -
γI” that will influence the dimension of the Seismic force.

”gama I”, in calculul rezultantei incarcarilor seismice orizontale (forta


taietoare de baza)

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Class of
Description I
importance
Buildings having essential functions, whose integrity
during earthquake is vital for comunity:
- Fire stations, Police stations;
I - Hospitals, Resque headquarters; 1,4
- Buildings hosting institutions with major contribution in
management of desasters, national security, etc;
- Power stations and related facilities.
Buildings whose seismic behavior is important for
comunity and occupants:
- Public buildings, Block of flats with more than 400
people exposed;
- Hospitals and related facilities, other than those
mentioned in Class I, having more then 150 people
II exposed; 1,2
- Penitentiaries;
- Old people hostels, Nurseries;
- Schools, , having more then 200 people exposed;
- Conference halls, Concert halls, theatres, and others,
having more then 200 people exposed;
- Listed buildings, Museums, etc.
III Current buildings, other then those listed in Classes I, II, 1,0
and IV.

Low importance buildings for public safety,


having low occupancy degree/little economic
IV 0,8
importance, single family facilities, agricultural
buildings. 19
STUDIU DE CAZ PENTRU
STABILIREA CATEGORIEI DE IMPORTANŢĂ

Lucrarea: CONSOLIDARE ŞI REABILITARE CENTRU PENTRU ACŢIUNI DE


SALVARE ŞI PREVENIRE A DEZASTRELOR, CORP A ŞI B, (FOSTA
BIBLIOTECĂ JUDEȚEANĂ BACĂU) - Municipiul Bacău

1. GENERALITĂŢI
Soluţia de restaurare şi refuncţionalizare a clădirii s-a întocmit urmărind
refuncţionalizarea imobilului pentru a deservi Centrul pentru Acţiuni de Salvare
şi Prevenire a Dezastrelor Bacău.

Din analiza efectuată conform TEMEI DE PROIECTARE, soluţia propune


restaurarea şi reabilitarea celor două corpuri de clădiri existente.

Amplasamentul propus în temă se află în zona centrală a municipiului Bacău, învecinându-se de


asemenea cu un frumos parc de-a lungul căruia se află dispuse mai multe obiective administrative
ale municipiului .

Corpul A, are o vechime de peste 150 de ani, fiind modificat şi înfrumuseţat în 1890, iar al doilea
corp, adiacent primului a fost construit în 1896.
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STABILIREA CATEGORIEI DE IMPORTANTA

FACTORI DETERMINANŢI PUNCTAJ FACTOR CRITERII ASOCIATE


n

m=1-6 k i  pi
(p = 0/1/2/4/6)
Pm  i 1
n
k(i) P(m) p(i ) p(ii) p(iii)
1=Import. Vitala 1 4 2 4 6
2=Import. Soc – Ec si Cult 1 4 4 1 ??? 6
3=Import. Ecologică 1 3 1 ?? 1 ?? 6
4=Neces luarii in cons a Dur. 1 2 2 2 2
5=Adapt la cond locale 1 2 4 1 1
6=Volumul de resurse impl. 1 2 2 2 2

TOTAL PUNCTAJ : PT= 17 - Cat. Imp. = Normala (C ) = (6 – 17) ??


Daca macar p(2,ii) – “Degree in which construction functions influence community” ar fi fost
apreciata corect cu 4 sau 6 puncte, atunci P2 = 5, deci PT = 18 si Cat. Imp. = Speciala (B)
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